*  Sleep and breathing - Wikipedia
Significant physiologic changes in breathing take place during normal sleep related to alterations in respiratory drive and musculature. Set point of ventilation is different in wakefulness and sleep. pCO2 is higher and ventilation is lower in sleep. Sleep onset in normal subjects is not immediate, but oscillates between arousal, stage I and II sleep before steady NREM sleep is obtained. So falling asleep results in decreased ventilation and a higher pCO2, above the wakefulness set point. On wakefulness, this constitutes an error signal which provokes hyperventilation until the wakefulness set point is reached. When the subject falls asleep, ventilation decreases and pCO2 rises, resulting in hypoventilation or even apnea. These oscillations continue until steady state sleep is obtained. The medulla oblongata controls our respiration. Breathing is remarkably regular, both in amplitude and frequency in steady NREM sleep. Steady NREM sleep has ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sleep_and_breathing
*  Sustained mental workload does not affect subsequent sleep intensity - De Bruin - 2002 - Journal of Sleep Research - Wiley...
Our experiments aimed to investigate whether different degrees of mental activity have a distinct effect on recovery processes during subsequent sleep. Sleep EEGs of 13 subjects, experiencing different degrees of mental activity, were scored visually. Also, the amount of SWA in the sleep EEG was calculated. The results indicate that light and heavy mental activity do not differentially affect sleep stages except for wakefulness after sleep onset. Subjects were less often awake shortly after sleep onset following heavy workload than after light mental activity. However, SWA, an indicator of sleep depth, did not reveal any difference between the light (A) and heavy condition (B). Neither the total amount of SWA expressed during the night, nor the amount of SWA in the first 120 min of NREM sleep, when recovery processes supposedly peak, showed a difference between the conditions. Even when the time course of SWA during sleep was studied in detail, the nights following light and ...
  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1365-2869.2002.00290.x/full
*  Gospel Wakefulness & Worship - Steve K. McCoy
Gospel wakefulness means treasuring Christ more greatly and savoring his power more sweetly. Treasuring Christ more greatly and savoring his power more sweetly is simply the the long way of writing worship. Worship is the ascribing of the worth to something or someone. In this case, of course, the recipient of this worship is God, the only one worthy of our worship. What happens in gospel wakefulness is that in our brokenness, our sense of self-worth and sufficiency in things other than God gets destroyed, and as the good news of Christ's finished work is applied to us, our affections become reformed, renewed, and revitalized.. Jared Wilson in Gospel Wakefulness, p 77 (bold emphasis mine).. ...
  http://www.stevekmccoy.com/blog/2011/11/gospel-wakefulness-worship
*  The effect of nocturnal blue light exposure from light-emitting diodes on wakefulness and energy metabolism the following...
The control of sleep/wakefulness is associated with the regulation of energy metabolism. The present experiment was designed to assess the effect of nocturnal blue light exposure on the control of sle
  https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12199-014-0402-x
*  Wakefulness Makes Lucidity More Likely
Morning naps provide us highly favorable circumstances for inducing lucid dreams. Two important factors are at work here: timing and wakefulness during sleep. (The term "nap" indicates that the target sleep period is immediately preceded by a period of wakefulness; "morning" indicates the relevant time-of-day.) A series of NightLight experiments exploring the relationships between napping, length of sleep, continuity of sleep, biological rhythms, and lucid dreaming, have repeatedly demonstrated a strong relationship between taking morning naps and increased likelihood of lucid dreaming. (1, 2, 3, 4) Working from the premise that lucid dreaming is associated with increased REM propensity and REM intensity, both of which are typically at or near their peak late in the morning, the first of our nap studies, "The Best Time for Lucid Dreaming," (1) compared the following sleep schedules: a. Taking a two-hour nap two hours after getting up two hours early (i.e., taking a nap at ...
  http://www.lucidity.com/NL63.RU.Naps.html
*  The role of the hypcretinergic system in the integration of networks that dictate the states of arousal - Surrey Research...
Recent studies have led to the discovery of a neuropeptide system that regulates arousal states, The hypocretins (hcrt1 and hcrt2, also called the orexins) are neuropeptides of related sequence derived from the same precursor whose expression is restricted to a few thousand neurons of the lateral hypothalamus. Two G-protein-coupled receptors for the hypocretins have been identified, and these have different distributions within the central nervous system and differential affinities for the two hypocretins. Hypocretin fibers project throughout the brain, including several areas implicated in cardiovascular function and regulation of the sleep-wake cycle. Central administration of synthetic hypocretin-1 affects blood pressure, hormone secretion and locomotor activity, and increases wakefulness while suppressing rapid eye movement sleep. Most human patients with narcolepsy have greatly reduced levels of hypocretin peptides in their cerebral spinal fluid and no or barely detectable hypocretin ...
  http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/821406/
*  Plus it
The firing frequency of DR neurons was then compared between wild-type littermates and orexin/Halo transgenic mice during wakefulness, SWS, and REM sleep. DR neurons that were likely to be serotonergic were identified according to previously reported electrophysiological criteria (Takahashi et al., 2005)-a longer duration action potential, a shoulder on the falling phase, and/or a deflection in the negative component of action potentials (Fig. 7B)-and will be referred to here as "presumably serotonergic." We found that the firing frequency of presumably serotonergic DR neurons was not significantly different between wild-type littermates and orexin/Halo transgenic mice in any sleep/wakefulness stage (Fig. 7D). The firing frequencies of DR neurons during wakefulness, SWS, and REM sleep in wild-type mice were 2.9 ± 0.5 Hz (n = 13), 1.2 ± 0.2 Hz (n = 22), and 0.03 ± 0.02 Hz (n = 9), respectively, and those in orexin/Halo transgenic mice were 3.3 ± 0.5 Hz (n = ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/31/29/10529
*  Pharmacogenetic modulation of orexin neurons alters sleep/wakefulness states in mice. | Sigma-Aldrich
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Koh Sasaki, Mika Suzuki, Michihiro Mieda, Natsuko Tsujino, Bryan Roth, Takeshi Sakurai].
  https://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/21647372
*  Maintenance of Wakefulness Test - Everything2.com
A 20-minute assessment of sleep latency, administered 4 times a day at 2-hour intervals, beginning 2 hours after nocturnal polysomnography, measured tim...
  https://everything2.com/title/Maintenance+of+Wakefulness+Test
*  Recent Articles | Sleep/wake Cycle And Cell & Molecular Biology | The Scientist Magazine®
From guiding branching neurons in the developing brain to maintaining a healthy heartbeat, there seems to be no job that the immune cells can't tackle.. 0 Comments. ...
  http://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.list/categoryNo/2625/category/The-Scientist/tagNo/3330,4/tags/sleep-wake-cycle,cell--amp--molecular-biology/
*  Recent Articles | Sleep/wake Cycle And Cell & Molecular Biology | The Scientist Magazine®| Page 2
Advances in single-cell technologies have revealed vast differences between cells once thought to be in the same category, calling into question how we define cell type in the first place ...
  https://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.list/tagNo/3330,4/tags/sleep-wake-cycle,cell--amp--molecular-biology/pageNo/2/
*  Recent Articles | Sleep/wake Cycle, Culture And Neuroscience | The Scientist Magazine®
In chapter 3, "The Sense of Sensibility," author Wendy Jones uses scenes from one of Jane Austen's most celebrated novels to illustrate the functioning of the body's stress response system.. 0 Comments. ...
  https://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.list/categoryNo/2625/category/The-Scientist/tagNo/3330,3,11/tags/sleep-wake-cycle,culture,neuroscience/
*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 00190560 - Effect of sleep-wake cycle reversal on luteinizing hormone secretory pattern in...
An investigation of the effects of an acute 180 degree reversal of the sleep/wake cycle on luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion was studied in three pubertal boys and the data collected was combined with that from the study of a fourth boy. Two 24 hour periods of blood sampling every 20 minutes were carried out in each of the boys, aged 14 to 15 years. The first study was conducted during a normal s
  https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/00190560.html
*  PLOS Biology: Long-Lasting Novelty-Induced Neuronal Reverberation during Slow-Wave Sleep in Multiple Forebrain Areas
Rats exposed to novel objects during periods of wakefulness generate neural activity that is correlated with patterns observed in subsequent sleep episodes.
  http://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article/authors?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.0020024
*  Unscramble alertnesses | Words unscrambled from letters alertnesses | Scrabble Word alertnesses | Words Made with the Letters...
Unscramble alertnesses, Unscramble letters alertnesses, Point value for alertnesses, Word Decoder for alertnesses, Word generator using the letters alertnesses, Word Solver alertnesses, Possible Scrabble words with alertnesses, Anagram of alertnesses
  http://www.allscrabblewords.com/word-description/alertnesses
*  Top 5 Supplements for Energy - Powder City
AKA: (RS)-2- benzhydrylsulfinylethanehydroxamic acid. This powerful supplement is perfect for staying alert during sleep deprivation. Adrafinil is a prodrug to modafinil. Modafinil is a drug prescribed to people who work swing shifts as well as people suffering from narcolepsy. [1] Adrafinil and Modafinil have nearly identical pharmacological effects. [1] Mental clarity and general wakefulness can become apparent within 45-60 minutes of consumption. [1] The half-life of Modafinil is 15 hours. [2] Effects tend to become more pronounced after taking Adrafinil for several days due to its long half-life.. Adrafinil can cause wakefulness and alertness without the jitters. [2] Adrafinil works by increasing overall brain activity. [2] The overall increase in brain activity is likely the result of Adrafinil augmenting Alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, suppressing GABA (an anxiolytic neurotransmitter), and increasing dopamine and glutamate (stimulatory neurotransmitters). [3]. Adrafinil ...
  https://www.powdercity.com/pages/top-5-supplements-for-energy
*  What are the effects of computer learning on sleep patterns? | Reference.com
Studies show that light promotes wakefulness and that computer screens and small electronic devices can miscue the brain and promote wakefulness. Photoreceptors in the retina signal our brain about...
  https://www.reference.com/science/effects-computer-learning-sleep-patterns-aa7354246b0d35bf
*  KAKEN - Research Projects | Roles of prostaglandins D 2 and E 2 in the site of action for their sleep-wake regulation (KAKENHI...
Principal Investigator:MATSUMURA Hitoshi, Project Period (FY):1994 - 1995, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (B), Research Field:Neuroscience in general
  https://kaken.nii.ac.jp/grant/KAKENHI-PROJECT-06454709/
*  PSYCHOTROPIC EFFECTS OF CAFFEINE IN MAN. II. ALERTNESS, PSYCHOMOTOR COORDINATION, AND MOOD | Journal of Pharmacology and...
Experiments were conducted with 20 subjects on 9 evenings to study the effects of caffeine (150 mg and 300 mg) as compared with placebo upon objective tests of alertness and psychomotor coordination. Simultaneously, mood was assessed by means of a self-rating inventory. The same 20 subjects had also participated in an earlier study on the effects of caffeine upon sleep.. Caffeine had no demonstrable effect upon either objectively measured performance although at the same time it made the subjects feel more alert and physically active.. In some subjects caffeine caused a feeling of nervousness rather than of alertness.. There was a strong positive association between a subject's sensitivity to a mood-elevating effect of caffeine in this experiment and his sensitivity to the wakefulness caused by the drug in earlier experiments on sleep.. ...
  http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/150/1/146.short
*  Restful wakefulness. | WordReference Forums
Hi everybody, I'm translating a text about stages of sleep into Spanish but I'm having trouble with this sentence: 'the EEG (electroencephalogram)...
  https://forum.wordreference.com/threads/restful-wakefulness.2526537/
*  Medical Xpress - wakefulness :(... continued page 3)
Medical Xpress is a web-based medical and health news service that features the most comprehensive coverage in the fields of neuroscience, cardiology, cancer, HIV/AIDS, psychology, psychiatry, dentistry, genetics, diseases and conditions, medications and more.
  https://medicalxpress.com/tags/wakefulness+%3A/page3.html
*  crooked arm: wakefulness and such
unless it's otherwise credited or completely obvious, i made all the images, text and artwork on this blog and i would appreciate that if you repost anything that you give me a little credit or link folks back to here. oh, and please don't use anything on here for a commercial purpose or put it on a t-shirt that i find at some chain store someday ...
  http://crookedarm.blogspot.com/2009/02/wakefulness-and-such.html
*  KAKEN - Research Projects | Artificial regulation of the sleep-wake state of an experimental animal (rat). (KAKENHI-PROJECT...
Principal Investigator:MATUSMURA Hitoshi, Project Period (FY):1991 - 1993, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Developmental Scientific Research (B), Research Field:General medical chemistry
  https://kaken.nii.ac.jp/grant/KAKENHI-PROJECT-03557015/
*  Is Napping Right For You? | HubPages
Napping can help restore a sense of wakefulness during your work day, but is it right for you? Find out whether or not napping is the right tool to help you feel rested.
  https://hubpages.com/health/Is-Napping-Right-For-You
*  more than words can describe: May 2009
We have had Calvin for one month now. He hasn't learned too much yet besides how to efficiently eat, excrete, and make everyone melt because of his cuteness. He seems to be very close to smiling at people, but right now the only time he smiles is right after he eats, when he is tipsy with milk. He has had many visitors in the past month and is now lonely with just Tyler and me. We try to keep him busy with tummy time, swing time, wake time, etc. We hope you enjoy these pictures of highlights in the past month ...
  http://mitchandmickey.blogspot.ca/2009/05/