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*  Cytochrome c - Wikipedia
Upon release of cytochrome c to the cytoplasm, the protein binds apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (Apaf-1).[5] ... This release of cytochrome c in turn activates caspase 9, a cysteine protease. Caspase 9 can then go on to activate caspase 3 ... The release of cytochrome-c from mitochondria to the cytosol, where it activates the caspase family of proteases is believed to ... It belongs to the cytochrome c family of proteins. Cytochrome c is highly water-soluble, unlike other cytochromes, and is an ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytochrome_C
*  Apaf1 - Apoptotic protease-activating factor 1 - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Apaf1 gene & protein
Apaf-3), leading to the activation of caspase-3 and apoptosis. This activation requires ATP. ... Oligomeric Apaf-1 mediates the cytochrome c-dependent autocatalytic activation of pro-caspase-9 ( ... Oligomerizes upon binding of cytochrome c and dATP.UniRule annotation. ,p>Information which has been generated by the UniProtKB ... Apoptotic protease-activating factor 1UniRule annotation. ,p>Information which has been generated by the UniProtKB automatic ...
  http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/G3XA09
*  Apoptosis
... "apoptotic protease activating factor-1"). *Using the energy provided by ATP, *these complexes aggregate to form apoptosomes. * ... cytochrome c to leak out. *The released cytochrome c binds to the protein Apaf-1 (" ... The apoptosomes bind to and activate caspase-9. *Caspase-9 is one of a family of over a dozen caspases. They are all proteases ... growth factors for neurons *Interleukin-2 (IL-2), an essential factor for the mitosis of lymphocytes Receipt of negative ...
  http://biology-pages.info/A/Apoptosis.html
*  Ceramides in Alzheimer's Disease: Key Mediators of Neuronal Apoptosis Induced by Oxidative Stress and Aβ Accumulation
Following release, cytochrome c binds to the apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (APAF-1) and activates the caspase cascade ... P. Li, D. Nijhawan, I. Budihardjo et al., "Cytochrome c and dATP-dependent formation of Apaf-1/caspase-9 complex initiates an ... and release of cytochrome c, may represent an additional mechanism mediating apoptotic cytochrome c release from the ... In cortical neurons exposed to Aβ, activated JNK is required for the phosphorylation and activation of the transcription factor ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2015/346783/
*  Caspase 9: The Suicidal Cell Whisperer | Antibody News: Novus Biologicals
... by the cell death receptor family and their ligands which signal through downstream adaptor molecules and the caspase protease ... Their data indicates that the association between apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (Apaf-1) and cytochrome C directly ... The Caspase 9 antibody was used by Krajewski's group to characterize caspase 9 mitochondrial release during cytochrome c- ... Activated caspase 9 primary signaling occurs through caspase 3, which it cleaves and activates. ...
  https://www.novusbio.com/antibody-news/antibodies/caspase-9-the-suicidal-cell-whisperer
*  Reactive oxygen species - Wikipedia
... or apoptotic protease activating factor-1, which is free-floating in the cell's cytoplasm. Using energy from the ATPs in the ... causing cytochrome C to leak out. This cytochrome C binds to Apaf-1, ... ROS then activate various transcription factors such as nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB ... In the intrinsic pathway, ROS function to facilitate cytochrome c release by activating pore-stabilizing proteins (Bcl-2 and ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reactive_oxygen_species
*  Differential Regulation and ATP Requirement for Caspase-8 and Caspase-3 Activation during CD95- and Anticancer Drug-induced...
... cytochrome c interacts with apoptotic protease-activating factor 1 (Apaf-1), the mammalian homologue of the Caenorhabditis ... 1997) Cytochrome c and dATP-dependent formation of Apaf-1/Caspase-9 complex initiates an apoptotic protease cascade. Cell 91: ... c from mitochondria and the subsequent ATP-dependent activation of the death regulator apoptotic protease-activating factor 1 ( ... A redistribution of cytochrome c into the cytosol is observed in a variety of apoptotic conditions, such as CD95 ligation, or ...
  http://jem.rupress.org/content/188/5/979
*  Plus it
In the cytochrome c/apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (Apaf-1)/caspase-9 pathway, Smac released from the mitochondria ... Smac promotes caspase-9 activation in the cytochrome c/Apaf-1/caspase-9 pathway by binding to the IAP and removing their ... A, JNK is activated (phosphorylated) in a time-dependent manner by Aβ. Neuron cultures were treated with 25 μm Aβ25-35 for the ... Carson JP, Behnam M, Sutton JN, Du C, Wang X, Hunt DF, Weber MJ, Kulik G (2002) Smac is required for cytochrome c-induced ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/25/5/1149
*  beta]-Sitosterol activates Fas signaling in human breast cancer cells. - Free Online Library
Sitosterol activates Fas signaling in human breast cancer cells. by 'Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy & ... internal damage to the cell is sensed by the mitochondria and causes the release of apoptotic protease-activating factor-1 ( ... cytochrome c, and other pro-apoptotic factors from the intermitochondrial membrane space (Bunz, 2001; Zornig et al., 2001; ... Apaf-1), ... These factors ultimately activate the effector protease, ...
  https://www.thefreelibrary.com/%5Bbeta%5D-Sitosterol+activates+Fas+signaling+in+human+breast+cancer+cells-a0172176719
*  Xiaodong Wang (biochemist) - Wikipedia
This allowed the biochemical purification of a complex of Cytochrome c, Caspase-9 and the Apoptotic Protease Activating factor- ... APAF1). These components are essential for forming a ternary complex called the apoptosome that activates Caspase-3 downstream ... Zou, H.; Henzel, W. J.; Liu, X.; Lutschg, A.; Wang, X. (1997-08-08). "Apaf-1, a human protein homologous to C. elegans CED-4, ... participates in cytochrome c-dependent activation of caspase-3". Cell. 90 (3): 405-413. doi:10.1016/s0092-8674(00)80501-2. ISSN ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xiaodong_Wang_(biochemist)
*  Plus it
... cytochrome c binds the docking molecule apo-ptotic protease activating factor 1 (Apaf-1), which then acquires the ability to ... In the case of fludarabine, for example, phosphorylated metabolites were shown to directly activate the cytochrome c/Apaf-1/ ... drug-induced apoptosis is markedly inhibited by targeted deletion of genes encoding apoptotic protease activating factor 1 ( ... factors that regulate activation of the apoptotic machinery might play a more important role than variations in the apoptotic ...
  http://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/10/20/6807
*  Investigating the Molecular Basis of Cytochrome c Functions
During apoptosis, cytochrome c is released from mitochondria and binds to the apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (Apaf-1) ... Seven cytochrome c-Apaf-1 complexes form the apoptosome that acts as a caspase activating platform to facilitate cell death. ... The cytochrome c mediated apoptotic pathway has been implicated in platelet formation. However, controversy exists on whether ... This thesis aimed to investigate the role of G41S cytochrome c in the apoptotic pathway by addressing two broad aims. Firstly ...
  https://ourarchive.otago.ac.nz/handle/10523/2501
*  The Proapoptotic Effect of Traditional and Novel Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs in Mammalian and Yeast Cells
Furthermore, deletion of apoptotic protease-activating factor-1 (APAF-1), a cytosolic molecule which mediates caspase 9 ... Truncated Bid (tBid) can translocate to the mitochondria to trigger cytochrome c release [94, 95] and can also activate Bax [96 ... Implications for tumor necrosis factorapoptotic signaling," Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 276, no. 15, pp. 12035- ... These observations indicate that cytochrome c release is a critical mediatory mechanism of apoptotic cell death induced by ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2013/504230/
*  Mitofusin 2 Triggers Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Apoptosis via Mitochondrial Death Pathway | Circulation Research
... and it involves sequentially the release of cytochrome c, the recruitment of apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (Apaf-1), ... Overexpression of rMfn-2 Activates Mitochondrial Apoptotic Pathway. To discriminate which apoptotic pathway was responsible for ... There are 2 major apoptotic signaling cascades: the first is the death receptor (Fas or tumor necrosis factor receptor)- ... A representative Western blot with a cytochrome c antibody to assay cytochrome c content in the cytosol and mitochondria from ...
  http://circres.ahajournals.org/content/101/11/1113
*  Growth Factor Signaling in Cell Survival: Implications for Cancer Treatment | Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental...
Once in the cytoplasm, cytochrome c binds to apoptotic protease-activating factor-1, which binds and activates caspase-9 ... 1997) Apaf-1, a human protein homologous to C. elegans CED-4, participates in cytochrome c-dependent activation of caspase-3. ... apoptotic protease-activating factor 1; PKA, cAMP-dependent protein kinase; ANT, adenine nucleotide transporter. ... nerve growth factor), brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and growth factors (insulin-like growth factor-1, platelet-derived ...
  http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/298/3/873
*  Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Overview | Thermo Fisher Scientific - AU
On the other hand, TNFR2 is primarily expressed in immune cells and is activated by both TNFα and TNFβ1. ... Induction of cellular responses to Tumor Necrosis Factor occurs through two receptors, TNFR1 (TNF Receptor-1 or CD120a) and ... superfamily of cytokines represents a multifunctional group proinflammatory cytokines which activate signaling pathways for ... TNFR2 (TNF Receptor-2 or CD120b). TNFR1 is activated in most human tissues by the binding of TNFα. ...
  https://www.thermofisher.com/au/en/home/life-science/cell-analysis/signaling-pathways/tumor-necrosis-factor-tnf/tumor-necrosis-factor-tnf-overview.html
*  A preparation of murine liver fragments for in vitro studies: liver preparation for toxicological studies | BMC Research Notes ...
The values of k c (mean ± SD) for 0≤ t ≤6 h were 0.15 ± 0.02 μM O2 min-1 mg-1 (n = 18, coefficient of variation, CV = 13%), ATP ... 1≤ t ≤6 h, n = 16, CV = 53%), synthesized urea 0.134 ± 0.017 mg/dL mg-1 in 50 min (0≤ t ≤6 h, n = 14, CV = 13%), and AMC peak ... μM O2 min-1 mg-1). Cellular ATP was measured using the luciferin/luciferase system. The caspase-3 substrate N-acetyl-asp-glu- ... 1≤ t ≤6 h, n = 3, CV = 42%). Hepatocyte morphology and organelles were reasonably persevered. The described liver tissue ...
  https://bmcresnotes.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1756-0500-6-70
*  Rapid extracellular release of cytochrome c is specific for apoptosis and marks cell death in vivo | Blood Journal
Once released, cytochrome c cooperates with apoptotic protease-activating factor-1 and deoxyadenosine triphosphate in caspase-9 ... 5 6 Released cytochrome c then activates the apoptosome-dependent death machinery by binding to Apaf-1, resulting in the ... cytochrome c together with deoxyadenosine triphosphate binds to apoptotic protease-activating factor-1 (Apaf-1), leading to an ... whereas the release of cytochrome c characterizes apoptotic events.. So far, it has only been described that cytochrome c is ...
  http://www.bloodjournal.org/content/98/5/1542?sso-checked=1
*  Curcumin: A review of anti-cancer properties and therapeutic activity in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma | Molecular...
... curcumin affects a variety of growth factor receptors and cell adhesion molecules involved in tumor growth, angiogenesis and ... Curcumin has shown anti-proliferative effect in multiple cancers, and is an inhibitor of the transcription factor NF-κB and ... apoptotic protease activating factor-1) to form an apoptosome complex, which inititates the caspase cascade via activation of ... allowing cytochrome c to leak into the cytosol. Cytochrome c binds to Apaf-1 ( ...
  https://molecular-cancer.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1476-4598-10-12
*  Apoptosis - Wikipedia
Once cytochrome c is released it binds with Apoptotic protease activating factor - 1 (Apaf-1) and ATP, which then bind to pro- ... Apaf-1 is the protein that turns on caspase 9 by cleavage to begin the caspase cascade that leads to apoptosis. Since a -/- ... Some apoptotic factors are vital during mitochondrial respiration e.g. cytochrome C. Pathological inactivation of apoptosis in ... which are proteases, or enzymes that degrade proteins. The two pathways both activate initiator caspases, which then activate ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apoptosis
*  ProbesOnline™ July 2013-Add-and-image fluorescent antibody formulations, a kit for glucose quantitation, cytotoxicity assays |...
... becomes pro-apoptotic. Bcl-2 also inhibits apoptosis by binding to the apoptotic protease-activating factor (APAF-1). ... During apoptosis, this motif is cleaved by caspases, causing the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol, which then further ... Multiplex staining of apoptotic cells. CellEvent® Caspase-3/7 Green Detection Reagent can be used in a simple no-wash protocol ... Annexin V staining-identify an intermediate apoptotic stage. *DNA fragmentation and morphology probes-characterize changes in ...
  http://www.thermofisher.com/ar/es/home/references/newsletters-and-journals/probesonline/probesonline-issues-2013/probesonline-jul-2013.html
*  UNO (?? ) ??????. UNO-???
... apoptotic protease activating factor-1) with cytochrome c molecules assembled to the tips of each spoke. "Gee, how did it ... Apaf1) and cyt c participate in mitochondria- associated apartment death. Into the bargain, it was accomplishable to complete ... cytochrome c facilitates the self-assembly of the apoptosome, the abhorrent position of extirpation which comprises seven ... while caspases 3 and 9 together with apoptosis protease-activated ingredient 1 ( ...
  http://play-uno.ru/index/comments/?page=1995
*  Trump Just Launched 50+ Missiles at Syria | Uniting For Trump
... apoptotic protease activating factor-1) with cytochrome c molecules assembled to the tips of each spoke. Diomede, L, Albani, D ... In exceptional, cytochrome c facilitates the self-assembly of the apoptosome, the execrable whither of death which comprises ... seven spokes' contain- ing the protein Apaf-1 ( ... MAPK pathways are activated either as a upshot of a series of ... The latter exchange activates calcium-dependent endonucleases, proteases and phospholipases that originate digest- ing crucial ...
  http://unitingfortrump.com/comment/3856
*  Edelstar, ?????????
... apoptotic protease activating factor-1) with cytochrome c molecules assembled to the tips of each spoke. This is not common, ... Predictive factors 16. In exceptional, cytochrome c facilitates the self-assembly of the apoptosome, the abhorrent wheel of ... termination which comprises seven spokes' contain- ing the protein Apaf-1 ( ... Varied factors are involved in the advancement of hematologic disorders, ranging from genetic causes to disorders resulting ...
  http://edelstar-shop.ru/?showpage=3096
*  Edelstar, ?????????
... apoptotic protease activating factor-1) with cytochrome c molecules assembled to the tips of each spoke. The amount of clearing ... In particular, cytochrome c facilitates the self-assembly of the apoptosome, the bad wheel of expiry which comprises seven ... spokes' contain- ing the protein Apaf-1 ( ... ther of these factors participate a post in ovarian cancer 3]. ... and IL-10 whose drop is increased in vitro after phagocytosis of apoptotic bodies (Jack et al. A fourth phase of clinical ...
  http://edelstar-shop.ru/?showpage=1508