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*  Fungus - wikidoc
The major fungal clades have initially been delineated based on the morphology of their sexual structures and spores; for ... initiated by anastomosis between hyphae and plasmogamy of fungal cells. The frequency and relative importance of parasexual ... 6] Hyphae can be septate, i.e., divided into hyphal compartments separated by a septum, each compartment containing one or more ... a fungal spike, originally thought to be an extraordinary abundance of fungal spores in sediments formed shortly after this ...
  http://wikidoc.org/index.php?title=Fungus&oldid=444094
*  Evolution of fungi - Wikipedia
... these multicellular benthic organisms had filamentous structures capable of anastomosis, in which hyphal branches recombine. ... However, the relative proportion of fungal spores relative to spores formed by algal species is difficult to assess, the spike ... Fossilized hyphae and spores recovered from the Ordovician of Wisconsin (460 Ma) resemble modern-day Glomerales, and existed at ... Factors that likely contribute to the under-representation of fungal species among fossils include the nature of fungal ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evolution_of_fungi
*  Anastomosis - Wikipedia
In mycology, anastomosis is the fusion between branches of the same or different hyphae. Hence the bifurcating fungal hyphae ... The fungal network might begin from several origins; several spores (i.e. by means of conidial anastomosis tubes), several ... An anastomosis is the connection of two normally divergent structures. It refers to connections between blood vessels or ... Kendrick, Bryce (2001), The Fifth Kingdom, Mycologue Publications Glass L.; Rasmussen C.; Roca M.G.; Read N. (2004). "Hyphal ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anastomosis
*  Ascomycota - Wikipedia
When the spores reach a suitable substrate, they germinate, form new hyphae, which restarts the fungal life cycle. The form of ... The sexual part of the life cycle commences when two hyphal structures mate. In the case of homothallic species, mating is ... by a process called anastomosis, followed by a series of events resulting in genetically different cell nuclei in the mycelium ... As all of these asexual structures are not single hyphae. In some groups, the conidiophores (the structures that bear the ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ascomycota
*  Fungi - faba bean | Guidelines for the safe transer of faba bean germplasm | Safe transfer of faba bean germplasm | Safe...
The spores are splashed or blown about within fields. The spores germinate and the resulting hyphae penetrate the host. The ... Small, pinhead sized fungal structures (microsclerotia) form on the infected plant tissue. They may be seen with the unaided ... In recent years, the recognition of different anastomosis groups has helped to elucidate the complexity of this large fungal ... Those fungi with hyphal characteristics similar to Rhizoctonia solani, but with only 2 nuclei per cell, are called binucleate ...
  https://www.genebanks.org/resources/general-genebank-management/stog/faba-bean116/guidelines117/fungi-for-faba-bean/
*  Fungus - Wikipedia
The major fungal groupings have initially been delineated based on the morphology of their sexual structures and spores; for ... Coenocytic hyphae are in essence multinucleate supercells. Many species have developed specialized hyphal structures for ... initiated by anastomosis between hyphae and plasmogamy of fungal cells. The frequency and relative importance of parasexual ... However, the relative proportion of fungal spores relative to spores formed by algal species is difficult to assess, the spike ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fungus
*  Fungus / Fungi - Biocyclopedia.com
Fungal hyphae may have several nuclei within each hyphal compartment, and many budding yeasts are diploid. Diversity. Fungi ... The major fungal clades have initially been delineated based on the morphology of their sexual structures and spores; for ... initiated by anastomosis between hyphae and plasmogamy of fungal cells. The frequency and relative importance of parasexual ... However, the relative proportion of fungal spores relative to spores formed by algal species is difficult to assess, the spike ...
  http://www.biocyclopedia.com/index/fungus.php
*  Fungus - Wikipedia
... initiated by anastomosis between hyphae and plasmogamy of fungal cells.. It is known to play a role in intraspecific ... such as the size and shape of spores or fruiting structures, has traditionally dominated fungal taxonomy. The biological ... In ascomycetes, dikaryotic hyphae of the hymenium the spore-bearing tissue layer form a characteristic hook at the hyphal ... Hyphae grow at their tips apices ; new hyphae are typically formed by emergence of new tips along existing hyphae by a process ...
  http://centipede.tk/nidi/dating-lichens-fen.php
*  Ascomycota - Wikipedia
Formation of sexual spores[edit]. The sexual part of the life cycle commences when two hyphal structures mate. In the case of ... When the spores reach a suitable substrate, they germinate, form new hyphae, which restarts the fungal life cycle. ... by a process called anastomosis, followed by a series of events resulting in genetically different cell nuclei in the mycelium. ... mating is enabled between hyphae of the same fungal clone, whereas in heterothallic species, the two hyphae must originate from ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ascomycete
*  Differences in the composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities promoted by different propagule forms from a...
... colonization can be initiated from the following three types of fungal propagules: spores, extraradical mycelium (ERM), and ... Chagnon PL (2014) Ecological and evolutionary implications of hyphal anastomosis in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. FEMS ... spores, extraradical mycelium (ERM), and mycorrhizal root fragments harboring intraradical fungal structures. It has been shown ... Transport of 15N from a soil compartment separated by a polytetrafluoroethylene membrane to plant roots via the hyphae of ...
  https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00572-016-0687-2
*  Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Fungal individuals are also able to cooperate by fusing together (anastomosis) with relatives into one shared hyphal network [ ... One question is whether (and if yes, why) high-resource hyphae allow sharing via fusion. For example, germinating spores (with ... 2003 Fungal lipid accumulation and development of mycelial structures by two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Appl. Environ. ... Like spores, hyphal networks contain genetically distinct nuclei. Adaptation within a hyphal network to local conditions is ...
  http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/369/1642/20130367.short
*  Abstracts and PDFs of Publications
... the fungal hyphae lost their integrity, and normal vegetative incompatibility mechanisms were overcome, allowing the hyphae to ... The timing and appearance of the fungal structures in the host appeared to be identical to that of the wild type. GFP ... tulipae produced larger spores on PDA but smaller leaf lesions and fewer spores on tulip leaves and PDA, again indicating that ... The perfect state of Rhizoctonia oryzae and R. zeae and the anastomosis groups of Waitea circinata. Transactions of the ...
  http://www.uoguelph.ca/~thsiang/pubs/pubs.htm
*  Identifying and Distinguishing Seedling and Root Rot Diseases of Sugar Beets
... tips of the hyphae arranged in a single row. They collect as spherical, encysted spores (usually 7 to 10 m in diameter) at the ... 6. Morphologically distinctive, coenocytic hyphal growth of A. cochlioides.. Fig. 7. Characteristic macroscopic growth of A. ... Prevalence and pathogenicity of anastomosis groups of Rhizoctonia solani from wheat and sugar beet in Texas. Plant Dis. 78:349- ... However, the formation of other reproductive structures needed for identification of both Pythium species (sporangia, oogonia, ...
  http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/pub/php/diagnosticguide/2006/beets/
*  Detection of Fungal Pathogens in Plants | SpringerLink
... fungus-like and fungal pathogens have well developed thallus consisting of hyphae, asexual and sexual reproductive structures. ... asexual and sexual reproductive structures. The morphological characteristics of these structures and various kinds of spores ... Ogoshi A, Oniki M, Araki T, Ui T (1983) Anastomosis groups of binucleate Rhizoctonia spp. in Japan and North America and their ... ß-glucuronidase activity to detect infection and measure hyphal biomass in infected plant tissues. Molec Plant-Microbe Interact ...
  https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-90-481-9735-4_2
*  ASMscience | Thigmo Responses: The Fungal Sense of Touch
Contact sensing, or thigmo-based responses, include thigmo differentiation, such as the induction of invasion structures by ... where the direction of hyphal growth is guided by physical features in the environment. Like plants and some bacteria, fungi ... The fungal sense of touch is therefore critical for fungi in the interpretation of their environment and often signals the ... Despite the well-demonstrated importance of thigmo responses in numerous stages of fungal growth and development, it is not ...
  http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1128/microbiolspec.FUNK-0040-2016
*  Frontiers | The Protein Disulfide Isomerase of Botrytis cinerea: An ER Protein Involved in Protein Folding and Redox...
... conidial anastomosis tubes (CATs) and infection cushions (IC´s) and is needed for full virulence. Moreover, expression analyses ... conidial anastomosis tubes (CATs) and infection cushions (IC´s) and is needed for full virulence. Moreover, expression analyses ... The mutant Δbcpdi1-C-M2 was still able to form the hyphal structures, but produced markedly less CATs than the wild type ( ... spores were inoculated on onion epidermal layers and fungal material was stained with lactophenol blue after 16 h, allowing ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2017.00960/full
*  Recombination in Glomus intraradices, a supposed ancient asexual arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus | BMC Evolutionary Biology |...
Root-free fungal compartments of all plates were pooled per single spore line for extraction of hyphae and spores. Freshly ... Growth of AMF is thought to be entirely clonal by producing asexual spores and no sexual reproductive structures have been ... St.-Arnaud M, Hamel C, Vimard B, Caron M, Fortin JA: Enhanced hyphal growth and spore production of the arbuscular mycorrhizal ... Giovannetti M, Azzolini D, Citernesi AS: Anastomosis formation and nuclear and protoplasmic exchange in arbuscular mycorrhizal ...
  https://0-bmcevolbiol-biomedcentral-com.brum.beds.ac.uk/articles/10.1186/1471-2148-9-13
*  Cell Communication and Fungal Virulence: A Review | Open Access Journals
Fungal microbes utilise multifaceted signal transduction systems to perceive and respond to.. ... hyphal fusion (anastomosis) and subsequent nuclear fusion (karyogamy) between partners [14]. The biochemical processes that ... Kleemann J. Sequential delivery of host-induced virulence effectors by appressoria and intracellular hyphae of the ... packaged into spores for dispersal so that restitution of the diploid state can always be made possible within the same cell. ...
  http://www.rroij.com/open-access/cell-communication-and-fungal-virulence-a-review-.php?aid=85677
*  David A. Stevens | Stanford Medicine Profiles
Monocytes alone inhibited hyphal growth by only 5%. Hyphae produced in the presence of micafungin (0.01 microg/ml) and ... The brain fungal burden was determined by quantitative culture, and fungal DNA was detected by quantitative PCR. Plating for A ... Those group A and B isolates unable to form viable spores may be diploid hybrids between Saccharomyces species. The group B ... This apparently new form of invasive disease is initially limited to the anastomosis site and large airways. Ulceration, ...
  https://med.stanford.edu/profiles/david-stevens