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*  Stationary Allele Frequency Distributions
Forces that determine the allele frequencies in natural populations include genetic drift, natural selection, migration and ... including the k alleles symmetrical mutation model and the Wright island model of migration). In addition, the sampling ... mutation. A balance of opposing forces can, in some cases, cause allele frequencies to approach a stationary distribution over ... Buzbas EO and Joyce P (2009) Maximum likelihood estimates under K‐allele models can be numerically unstable. Annals of Applied ...
  http://www.els.net/WileyCDA/ElsArticle/refId-a0005465.html
*  Floral asymmetry involves an interplay between TCP and MYB transcription factors in Antirrhinum | PNAS
The double mutant between rad-609 and a putative null div allele, div-35 [div-35 carries a frame-shift mutation (8)], had ... 3 c-e ). The petals in lateral and ventral positions were bilaterally symmetrical (as in rad-609) but resembled the ventral ... The rad-609 and rad-654 alleles arose from the wild-type line JI-stock 75 (11), and the rad-689 allele arose from a ... RAD, like CYC and DICH, promotes dorsal identity, with recessive rad alleles giving very similar phenotypes to cyc alleles. ...
  http://www.pnas.org/content/102/14/5068
*  Limits to Adaptation in Partially Selfing Species | Genetics
arising when mutation is at a given frequency p, averaged over the whole possible origin times (or allele frequencies p) of the ... this result is not symmetrical since dominant mutations exhibit only slightly less interference than additive mutations. As far ... However, contrary to emergence, the replacement of mutation by mutation can occur only if mutation arises when mutation has ... reflects the fact that mutation affects the fate of mutation even if it appears afterward, when mutation is still at a low ...
  http://www.genetics.org/content/203/2/959
*  A Novel Approach for Choosing Summary Statistics in Approximate Bayesian Computation | Genetics
1973 Model of mutation appropriate to estimate number of electrophoretically detectable alleles in a finite population. Genet. ... Note that all summary statistics are symmetrical with respect to the order of the loci, which is consistent with our ... in allele length (S1), the total between-deme MSD in allele length (S2), the total RST, and the number of allele types in the ... The total time is split by t1 into an ancestral phase with mutation and a recent phase for which mutation is ignored (see text ...
  http://www.genetics.org/content/192/3/1027
*  Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Ary A. Hoffmann (Translated to Norwegian)
... a dominant negative Hsp90 allele on a mutant 3rd chromosome or (ii) a null P-insertion mutation, which was introgressed into ... measured as differences between the left and right sides of several bilaterally symmetrical bristle and wing traits in ... E(sev) alleles consistently influenced variable bristle traits while there were fewer effects of the Su(Raf) alleles. For the ... There were also several alleles with significant genotype-by-inversion interaction effects on wing size. None of the alleles ...
  https://www.jove.com/author/Ary++A._Hoffmann?language=Norwegian
*  Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Ary A. Hoffmann (Translated to Chinese)
... a dominant negative Hsp90 allele on a mutant 3rd chromosome or (ii) a null P-insertion mutation, which was introgressed into ... measured as differences between the left and right sides of several bilaterally symmetrical bristle and wing traits in ... E(sev) alleles consistently influenced variable bristle traits while there were fewer effects of the Su(Raf) alleles. For the ... showing striking similarity in the distribution of specific alleles and the rate at which allele frequencies change across ...
  https://www.jove.com/author/Ary++A._Hoffmann?language=Chinese
*  Homozygous mutations in LPIN2 are responsible for the syndrome of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis and congenital...
The mutant allele frequency in the ethnically matched controls was 0.005. It is possible that this mutation is more prevalent ... Giedion A, Holthusen W, Masel LF, Vischer D. Subacute and chronic "symmetrical" osteomyelitis. Ann Radiol (Paris)1972;15 (3) : ... No mutations were identified by sequence analysis in the genes TGIF, KNTC2, and EMILIN2, but two mutations were found in LPIN2. ... The allele frequencies for all the markers were assumed to be equal, since the true allele frequency for this population is ...
  https://jmg.bmj.com/content/42/7/551?ijkey=45096281cc35135925b5989c5ceff0d0032fa8ff&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
*  Islands of introgression in a songbird | Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences
However, it is possible that introgression of highly adaptive alleles occurred and that those alleles were immediately fixed ... We used a mutation rate of 3.44 × 10−9, based on that derived for the closest relative in [24], the medium ground finch. A ... is not necessarily symmetrical. Under a selection with allopatry model, the level of gene flow following secondary contact ... Demographic processes such as range expansion can also lead to differentiation of neutral alleles via allele surfing, as drift ...
  http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/284/1850/20162414
*  Aging and Lifespan
... mutations. These LamC mutations were modeled after A-lamin (LMNA) mutations causing progeroid syndromes (PSs) in humans. ... Alleles of genes encoding components of this pathway have also been linked to longevity in humans. Multiple studies have ... Symmetrical division is the best characterized mechanism of stem cell replacement, but other mechanisms could also be deployed ... The ATPCL mutation results in a rather specific change in histone acetylation and does not affect all acetylation sites to the ...
  http://www.sdbonline.org/sites/fly/modelsystem/aginglifespan.htm
*  D. S. Falconer and Introduction to Quantitative Genetics | Genetics
For example, alleles increasing size may have been more frequent than those decreasing size in the base population; there might ... The main changes in the text were to incorporate more on mutation in quantitative genetics and a little on mixed model analysis ... a symmetrical response to divergent selection for increasing and decreasing values of the trait is expected, the rate of which ... Assuming that many genes affect the trait and that allele frequencies are not correlated with the magnitude of their effects, ...
  http://www.genetics.org/content/167/4/1529.full
*  piRNAs, transposon silencing, and Drosophila germline development | JCB
Mutations in 42AB and other dual-strand clusters have not been reported, but mutations in the rhino (rhi) locus lead to both ... which generates symmetrical dimethyl arginines (sDMAs), which creates a binding site for Tudor domains (Kirino et al., 2009). ... but existing Dmhen1 alleles may not be null. ... In addition, mutations in mnk and mei-41 do not suppress the ... Mutations that eliminate primary piRNAs are predicted to lead to a collapse of the ping-pong cycle. However, mutations that ...
  http://jcb.rupress.org/content/191/5/905
*  First page
As I understand it, evolution is the random occurance of mutations and the ones that favour the survival of the species will ... will become more common in the gene pool than its alleles which do not confer such an advantage. Human emotions tend to have ... symmetrical, reproductively viable potential sexual partner), others of more cultural, proximal importance and function (such ... After a series of mutations a new species will come into existence that will not be able to reproduce with the representatives ...
  http://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/topic/124797-what-is-life/
*  Characterizing the impact of sustained sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine use upon the Plasmodium falciparum population in Malawi |...
No major differences were detected in allele frequency for known drug resistance mutations (see Additional file 1: Table S3). ... there is evidence in non-Malawian populations of near symmetrical decays of EHH to a level close to zero within 25 kb. Malawi ... Differences in selective pressure on dhps and dhfr drug resistant mutations in western Kenya. Malar J. 2012;11:77.CrossRef ... All alternative alleles in kelch13 are present at low frequencies, the maximum at 0.091 for K189T, and reflect previous SNPs ...
  https://rd.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12936-016-1634-6
*  Multiple displacement amplification - Wikipedia
Symmetrical mode of DNA replication". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 264 (15): 8935-40. PMID 2498321. Tindall KR and ... Its high fidelity also makes it reliable to be used in the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) allele detection. Due to its ... also benefit from MDA-based genome sequencing's ability to study mutations in individual cells. The MDA products from a single ... ADO is defined as the random non-amplification of one of the alleles present in a heterozygous sample. Some studies have ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiple_displacement_amplification
*  Species-wide distribution of highly polymorphic minisatellite markers suggests past and present genetic exchanges among house...
Given the high mutation rate of mouse minisatellite loci, this picture cannot be interpreted only with simple splitting events ... Examples of identical or nearly identical alleles were found across subspecies and in geographically very distant locations, ... Internal structures of alleles were determined by minisatellite variant repeat mapping PCR to produce maps of intermingled ... Each penalty is independent of the variant involved in the mutation event and our model is symmetrical, that is, I = D and A = ...
  https://genomebiology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/gb-2007-8-5-r80
*  B3GALNT2 mutations associated with non-syndromic autosomal recessive intellectual disability reveal a lack of genotype...
Mutant alleles shown by "+" and WT allele shown by "−." c, e Sections of Sanger sequencing chromatograms for the mutations, ... Neurological evaluation revealed dysphasia and he had symmetrical low tendon reflexes, but no further signs of pyramidal, ... Remarkably, the combination of a missense mutation and a frameshift mutation lead to a range of variable phenotypes: WWS; MEB/ ... Overview of known B3GALNT2 mutations, categorized by clinical phenotype. Effect of the underlined mutations was tested by the ...
  https://genomemedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13073-017-0505-2
*  Heredity - Wikipedia
DNA sequences can change through mutations, producing new alleles. If a mutation occurs within a gene, the new allele may ... The heat/cold part is largely symmetrical, though influenced on the father's side by other factors; but the form part is not. ... Dominant and recessive alleles[edit]. An allele is said to be dominant if it is always expressed in the appearance of an ... Thus pea plants with the pair of alleles either GG (homozygote) or Gg (heterozygote) will have green pods. The allele for ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biological_inheritance
*  Angelman syndrome - Wikipedia
Most of the time, it is due to a deletion or mutation of the UBE3A gene on that chromosome. Occasionally, it is due to ... Next most common is a symmetrical 4-6 Hz high voltage rhythm. The third pattern, 3-6 Hz activity punctuated by spikes and sharp ... In a normal individual, the maternal allele of the gene UBE3A, part of the ubiquitin pathway, is expressed and the paternal ... On one end of the spectrum, a mutation to the UBE3A gene is thought to correlate to the least affected, whereas larger ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angelman_syndrome
*  Specific Alleles of CLN7/MFSD8, a Protein That Localizes to Photoreceptor Synaptic Terminals, Cause a Spectrum of Nonsyndromic...
It was suggested that some of the missense alleles may represent functional null mutations.36 Based on the pathogenicity ... including progressive and symmetrical retinal disease. ... Mutated Alleles of the Rod and Cone Na-Ca+K-Exchanger Genes in ... Update of the mutation spectrum and clinical correlations of over 360 mutations in eight genes that underlie the neuronal ... variant allele, causes isolated macular dystrophy when paired either with a null variant on the other allele9 or a missense ...
  https://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2631222
*  TBC1D24 Mutations in a Sibship with Multifocal Polymyoclonus
... a repeat MRI scan at 3 years 10 months showed atrophy of the lateral aspects of the cerebellar hemispheres and symmetrical ... exclusion of variants with a minor allele frequency , 0.1% in the established databases and 2,000 in-house analyzed exomes); 2 ... The mutations included a missense change c.457G,A (p.Glu157Lys), and a novel frameshift mutation c.545del (p.Thr182Serfs*6). ... Both mutations showed appropriate familial segregation.. Other possible disease-causing mutations identified in the two ...
  http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC5395678/
*  Disruption of early proximodistal patterning and AVE
However, in both the Axin1 mutation and the hypomorphic Apc allele, ␤-catenin activity is not completely deregulated (Zeng et ... shortly after symmetrical expression of Lefty1 mRNA. Accordingly, it is interesting that such clonal growth is asymmetric, ... Loss-of-function Wnt mutations or ␤catenin mutations have not previously indicated such early roles for the Wnt signaling ... Axin1 mutations (Zeng et al., 1997) and a hypomorphic mutation in Apc (Ishikawa et al., 2003) also lead to embryos with ectopic ...
  http://studyres.com/doc/146549/disruption-of-early-proximodistal-patterning-and-ave
*  An Animal Model for the Molecular Genetics of CADASIL | Stroke
Drosophila Abruptex alleles are a distinct phenotypic class of mutations within the Drosophila Notch gene. Abruptex alleles are ... shown that the arthropod and chordate lineages diverged during the original evolutionary radiation of bilaterally symmetrical ... alleles that are lethal in combination with Notch mutations (ie, lethal when heterozygous over a null allele of Notch). On the ... Mutations in the Drosophila Notch gene, including Abruptex alleles, are expressed in a cell-autonomous fashion.23 31 34 In ...
  http://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/32/1/6
*  SHFM1 locus limb malformation aetiology | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Mutations of the DLX5 (distal-less) transcription factor-encoding gene in chromosome 7 cause SHFM through haploinsufficiency, ... 7 homologues in one daughter cell and also to keep both alleles epigenetically silenced in the other daughter cell. This is ... the generation of bilaterally symmetrical neurons in the C. elegans worm by injecting mutant tubulin message into the one- ... The mouse equivalent Dlx5 and Dlx6 genes mutations cause SHFM, although both copies of both genes must be deleted to generate ...
  http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/371/1710/20150415
*  Retinoblastoma - Wikipedia
Several methods have been developed to detect the RB1 gene mutations. Attempts to correlate gene mutations to the stage at ... According to the two-hit model, both alleles need to be affected, so two events are necessary for the retinal cell or cells to ... The corneal light reflex / Hirschberg test: checking for symmetrical reflection of beam of light in the same spot on each eye ... May 2009). "Detection of mosaic RB1 mutations in families with retinoblastoma". Human Mutation. 30 (5): 842-51. doi:10.1002/ ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Retinoblastoma
*  Genetic and Medical Glossary - alphabetical vocabulary listing
When the allele has a complete loss of function (null allele) it is often called an amorphic mutation. Phenotypes associated ... one external opening of the nose; may occur in the midline or on one side and be symmetrical or asymmetrical ... Allele. a form of a gene at a locus (site); each locus in an individual's chromosomes has two alleles, which may be the same or ... an allele or a trait that will mask the presence of a recessive allele or trait; requires only one of the genes to be mutated ...
  https://chromodisorder.org/genetic-and-medical-glossary/