*  Solitary tract nucleus legal definition of Solitary tract nucleus
Definition of Solitary tract nucleus in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Solitary tract nucleus? Meaning of Solitary tract nucleus as a legal term. What does Solitary tract nucleus mean in law?
  http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Solitary+tract+nucleus
*  Afferent Connections to the Rostrolateral Part of the Periaqueductal Gray: A Critical Region Influencing the Motivation Drive...
Neural Plasticity is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes articles related to all aspects of neural plasticity, with special emphasis on its functional significance as reflected in behavior and in psychopathology. Neural Plasticity publishes research and review articles from the entire range of relevant disciplines, including basic neuroscience, behavioral neuroscience, cognitive neuroscience, biological psychology, and biological psychiatry.
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2009/612698/
*  "Central Suppression of Regenerated Proprioceptive Afferents" by Valerie K. Haftel, Edyta K. Bichler et al.
Long after a cut peripheral nerve reinnervates muscle and restores force production in adult cats, the muscle does not respond reflexively to stretch. Motivated by the likelihood that stretch areflexia is related to problems with sensing and controlling limb position after peripheral neuropathies, we sought to determine the underlying mechanism. Electrophysiological and morphological measurements were made in anesthetized rats having one of the nerves to the triceps surae muscles either untreated or cut and immediately rejoined surgically many months earlier. First, it was established that reinnervated muscles failed to generate stretch reflexes, extending observations of areflexia to a second species. Next, multiple elements in the sensorimotor circuit of the stretch reflex were examined in both the PNS and CNS. Encoding of muscle stretch by regenerated proprioceptive afferents was remarkably similar to normal, although we observed some expected abnormalities, e.g., increased length ...
  https://corescholar.libraries.wright.edu/ncbp/27/
*  In search of afferent pathways of a cardiogenic hypertensive chemoreflex. | Circulation
Injection of serotonin (5-HT) into the left atrium or ventricle activates a hypertensive chemoreflex. The primary purpose of our study was to determine the afferent pathway(s) that mediates this response. A secondary goal was to localize the receptive sites of this reflex. We measured changes in arterial pressure, reflex vascular responses in skeletal muscle and paw, and changes in renal nerve traffic that occurred after the left atrial or left ventricular injection of 5-HT. Injection of 5-HT (100 to 600 micrograms) into left atrium or ventricle produced large reflex increases in vascular resistance and sympathetic outflow. These responses were not reduced after bilateral cervical vagotomy. In separate experiments, increases in renal nerve traffic with left ventricular injection of 5-HT were assessed before and after cardiac sympathetic deafferentation. Interruption of cardiac sympathetic afferent pathways did not ...
  http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/75/3/643
*  List of medical mnemonics - Wikipedia
This is a list of medical mnemonics categorized and alphabetized. ABC - Airway, Breathing and Circulation AEIOU-TIPS - causes of altered mental status APGAR - a backronym for Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, Respiration (used to assess newborn babies) ASHICE - Age, Sex, History, Injuries/illness, Condition, ETA/extra information FAST - Face, Arms, Speech, Time - stroke symptoms Hs and Ts - causes of cardiac arrest Is Path Warm? - suicide risk factors OPQRST - Onset, Provocation, Quality, Region, Severity, Time - symptom checklist RICE - Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation - for sprains and bruises RNCHAMPS - mnemonic for the types of shock RPM-30-2-Can Do - mnemonic for START triage criteria SOCRATES - mnemonic used to evaluate characteristics of pain SOAP, a technique for writing medical records SLUDGE - Salivation, Lacrimation, Urination, Defecation, Gastric upset, and Emesis (effects of nerve agent or organophosphate poisoning) Afferent connection arrives and an efferent connection ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_medical_mnemonics
*  Intrathecal administration of TRPA1 antagonists attenuate cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis in rats with hyper-reflexia...
The present study demonstrates the TRPA1 was expressed in both bladder and DRG (L6-S1) and had a pronounced upregulation in DRG but more slight in mucosa in rat cystitis. The blockade of TRPA1 via intrathecal administration decreased afferent nerve activities and consequently attenuated detrusor overactivity markly. More recently, Tomonori et al. have shown that TRPA1 channel could improve afferent nerve activities of the rat bladder through both Aδ- and C-fibers pathway [16]. TRPA1 channels have been conducted in multiple-sensation modalities at present including mechanical, nociceptive, and thermal sensation in mammal [17-19].. However, the function of TRPA1 as nociceptor in the DRG innervating bladder is really quite controversial and further research is needed. We suppose the activation of TRPA1 receptors in DRG may lead to hyperalgesia, playing a role in enhanced impulse conduction and detrusor overactivity. We observed hematuria, severe submucosal ...
  https://bmcurol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12894-016-0150-x
*  Letter by Hiltunen and Jolkkonen Regarding Article, "Secondary Neurodegeneration in Remote Regions After Focal Cerebral...
To the Editor:. We read with interest the recent article by Zhang et al.1 The authors described secondary degeneration in remote regions after experimental cerebral ischemia, which could provide a target for stroke management. We completely agree that this is an appealing approach. However, the underlying pathology may be different in ischemic rodents and patients with stroke.. Remote areas such as the thalamus connected to the cortical infarct are affected because of delayed retrograde degeneration of afferent connections. This is associated with extensive and complex pathology including inflammatory reactions, β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation, calcification, and angiogenesis in rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion.2 The Aβ deposition is particularly robust after an ischemic insult, which starts as a diffuse aggregation and over time transforms into dense plaque-like deposits together with calcium in the ventroposterior medial and ventroposterior lateral nuclei.3,4 Altered ...
  http://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/43/9/e96
*  Plus it
The present results replicate our previous finding that subdiaphragmatic vagal afferents are not necessary for the feeding-suppressive effects of intraperitoneal IL-1β and LPS and extend those findings to include another bacterial cell wall compound, MDP. Our functional test of complete subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation confirmed in both SDA and COM groups that low doses of CCK (4 μg/kg) failed to suppress food intake. Furthermore, these data reveal that neither splanchnic nor vagal subdiaphragmatic visceral afferents are necessary to mediate the hypophagia produced by intraperitoneal administration of IL-1β, LPS, or MDP, because combined subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation and celiac-superior mesenteric ganglionectomy failed to alter the ability of these compounds to suppress feeding.. The present finding that subdiaphragmatic vagal afferent fibers are not required for the hypophagic effect of intraperitoneal IL-1β, ...
  http://ajpregu.physiology.org/content/275/2/R384
*  Superoxide anions in the paraventricular nucleus mediate cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex in insulin resistance rats. |...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [H-J Sun, H Zhou, X-M Feng, Q Gao, L Ding, C-S Tang, G-Q Zhu, Y-B Zhou].
  http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/25307720
*  Abstract 334: Selective Renal Deafferentation Attenuates the Development of Genetic and Renal Hypertension | Hypertension
Renal denervation decreases arterial pressure (AP) in hypertensive rats and humans. This procedure destroys both afferent and efferent nerves. Several investigators have proposed that renal afferent nerves contribute to the elevated AP. We developed a procedure to selectively remove renal afferent nerves with capsaicin (1-100 mM) both topically on the nerve and in the renal pelvis. We examined the effects of renal deafferentation on the development of genetic and renal hypertension. We studied spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), and a model of renal hypertension, two kidney-one clip (2K1C) in Sprague-Dawley rats. SHR were treated at 3-4 weeks of age with capsaicin. Mean arterial pressure was recorded by tail cuff through 16 weeks of age. On week 17, rats were cannulated, allowed 3 days to recover then had their AP measured directly for 3 days (3 hrs/day). Rats with renal deafferentation (n=11) had lower arterial pressure ...
  http://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/60/Suppl_1/A334
*  Plus it
This study has demonstrated that systemically administered CCK produces inhibition of a subpopulation of RVLM presympathetic neurons via a mechanism that is dependent on intact subdiaphragmatic vagal afferents and central NMDA receptors.. Interruption of vagal afferent traffic arising in subdiaphragmatic branches of the vagus was achieved by topical application of the local anesthetic lidocaine. It was expected that this treatment would abolish the neuronal responses to CCK but not PBG, because subdiaphragmatic vagal afferents are responsive to systemically administered CCK and PBG activates 5-HT3 receptors located on cardiopulmonary vagal afferents (19, 21). This prediction proved correct because lidocaine application to the subdiaphragmatic vagi blocked the response to systemic CCK but not PBG. This finding also suggests that the lidocaine did not spread sufficiently to anesthetize cardiopulmonary vagal afferents. We (16) ...
  http://ajpregu.physiology.org/content/287/4/R809
*  Plus it
1. Membrane currents evoked in the dentate gyrus (DG) by stimulation of afferent pathways from the entorhinal cortex (EC) and contralateral DG were examined by current-source density (CSD) analysis in urethan-anesthetized rats. Stimulation of each afferent pathway evoked membrane currents with distinct spatial and temporal organization in the DG. CSD and anatomic analysis revealed that afferent input from the EC activated the DG bilaterally through parallel and serial pathways. The analysis provided a detailed description of the location, timing, and relative amplitude of evoked monosynaptic and multisynaptic currents in the DG. 2. Orthodromic stimulation of the perforant path (PP) evoked a large ipsilateral excitatory postsynaptic current (iEPSC) at a latency of 2.5-4 ms in the middle and outer stratum moleculare (STM) of the DG, and a population spike that was generated by an excitatory inward current at a ...
  http://jn.physiology.org/content/75/1/329
*  Biology-Online • View topic - Sonic reflexes
We know that a painful stimulus activates a complex afferent system, the organisation and integration centres of which are only now being partly elucidated. We can accept the view of Bard and Mountcastle (1948) according to which the neocortex, the cingulate cortex, the amygdaloid nucleus and the pyriform lobe correspond to zones of the inhibition of pain and anger reactions. Their influence would be transmitted as far down as the brainstem by way of a circuit similar to the amygdaloid pathway. They suggest the presence, in addition, of a direct extra-amygdaloid pathway via which the neocortex might exert a facilitatory influence on the mesencephalic centres ...
  http://www.biology-online.org/biology-forum/post-53513.html
*  Brca1 is required for embryonic development of the mouse cerebral cortex to normal size by preventing apoptosis of early neural...
The cerebral cortex, which underlies higher brain functions, has undergone a large expansion in size during mammalian evolution, most notably in the primate lineage (Rakic, 1988; Caviness and Takahashi, 1995; Northcutt and Kaas, 1995; Rakic, 1995). Although many intrinsic and extrinsic factors may influence cortical size and cytoarchitecture, such as patterns of neuronal migration (Letinic et al., 2002; Kriegstein and Noctor, 2004; Bystron et al., 2006), thalamic afferents (Windrem and Finlay, 1991; Dehay et al., 2001) and the diversification of subventricular zone neural progenitors (Smart et al., 2002; Haubensak et al., 2004; Miyata et al., 2004; Noctor et al., 2004; Fish et al., 2008), an increase in neuron number during brain development and evolution is ultimately controlled by the number and modes of division of neural progenitors in the embryonic ventricular and subventricular zones (Götz and Huttner, 2005; Kriegstein et al., 2006; Fish et al., 2008).. According to the radial unit ...
  http://dev.biologists.org/content/136/11/1859
*  Classification and properties of acidic amino acid receptors in hippocampus. III. Supersensitivity during the postnatal period...
The effects of excitatory amino acids on 22Na efflux rate in rat hippocampal slices were determined at various postnatal days and following removal of a major afferent system. Two weeks after a unilateral hippocampal aspiration, the 22Na efflux induc
  http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Classification-properties-acidic-amino-acid/6136903.html
*  Plus it
The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of vagal afferent activation on salivation and swallowing-like events. Salivation is part of a reflex induced by stimulation of the oral area during feeding or chewing. Recently, we reported that nausea induced by gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) activation produced salivation and swallowing in humans. Here, we investigated the ability of visceral sensation to enhance salivation and swallowing in rodents in order to inform the mechanism of GER-mediated stomatognathic activation. First, we administered LiCl to anesthetized male rats to induce nausea. LiCl significantly increased salivation and increased the activity of the vagal afferent nerve. Next, we simultaneously recorded salivation and swallowing using an electrode attached to the mylohyoid muscle during vagal afferent stimulation in a physiological range of frequencies. Vagal afferent stimulation significantly increased salivation and ...
  http://ajpregu.physiology.org/content/early/2016/10/03/ajpregu.00292.2016
*  Convergence of cutaneous, visceral and muscle afferents onto nociceptive dorsal horn neurons at the level of the medullary...
Convergence of cutaneous, visceral and muscle afferents onto nociceptive dorsal horn neurons at the level of the medullary/spinal cord ...
  http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/catalog/2186022025
*  Plus it
Our results have shown that, within the LS and CLS segments, deep pyramidal cells performed little to no filtering of envelope stimuli, as indicated by their gains that were independent of envelope frequency and negligible phase leads. As such, their responses closely resembled those of most peripheral afferents (Metzen and Chacron, 2015). An important question is thus, what is the functional role of having central neurons whose responses are virtually identical to those of most peripheral receptors? One potential explanation is that deep cells exclusively project to the nucleus praeminentialis and provide feedback to their superficial and intermediate counterparts indirectly via parallel fibers originating from cerebellar granule cells within the eminentia granularis posterior (Bastian et al., 2004). We hypothesize that the lack of filtering by LS and CLS deep cells is necessary to provide feedback to their superficial and intermediate counterparts, thereby determining their response ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/36/38/9859
*  ARTICLES | Journal of Neurophysiology
The absence of intense N52 staining of TMJ neurons and only light N52 staining in the minority of these neurons suggests that the TMJ is innervated by afferents with unmyelinated and thinly myelinated (Aδ and C fiber) axons. That all TMJ afferents had an inflection on the falling phase of the action potential suggests that these neurons gave rise to high-threshold receptors (Ritter and Mendell 1992). Furthermore, the observation that the majority of TMJ afferents were responsive to capsaicin suggests that these afferents are nociceptive. These observations are consistent with previous electrophysiological and anatomical data. For example, results from an electrophysiological study using a mechanical search stimulus indicate that the TMJ is innervated by high-threshold afferents with slowly (Aδ and C fiber) conducting axons (Cairns et al. 2001). Similar results were obtained in a second electrophysiological study employing ...
  http://jn.physiology.org/content/93/3/1585.full
*  Buzzing the Vagus Nerve Just Right to Fight Inflammatory Disease | School of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the Georgia...
Stimulating the vagus nerve supports that tempering effect, but it can also somewhat excite the part of the nervous system that stimulates the immune response, which is counterproductive if you're looking to calm it.. "Every circuit has a path coming from the brain and one going to the brain, and when you stimulate electrically, you usually have no control over which one you get. You usually get both." Patel said. These paths are often in the same nerve being stimulated.. The path leaving the brain and going toward other organs, called the efferent pathway, is the one to stimulate to temper the immune system and help relieve chronic inflammatory conditions. The one going to the brain, called the afferent pathway, if stimulated, leads eventually to the hypothalamus, a pea-sized region in the center of the brain. That triggers a chain of hormonal responses, eventually releasing cytokines, messaging molecules that promote inflammation.. "You get a heightened ...
  https://www.ece.gatech.edu/news/585555/buzzing-vagus-nerve-just-right-fight-inflammatory-disease
*  Vagus Nerve: Sensory Pathways
Afferent fibers originating in nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) project to both supra- and subdiaphragmatic viscera. Back ...
  http://terpconnect.umd.edu/~sporges/vags.htm
*  Use MAT-Files to Feed Data to Inport Blocks for Rapid Simulations
t= [0:0.1:2*pi]'; Inb1.time = t; Inb1.signals.values(:,1) = 2*sin(t); Inb1.signals.values(:,2) = 2*cos(t); t= [0:0.2:2*pi]'; Inb2.time = t; Inb2.signals.values(:,1) = sin(2*t); t= [0:0.1:2*pi]'; Inb3.time = t; Inb3.signals.values(:,1) = 0.5*sin(3*t); Inb3.signals.values(:,2) = 0.5*cos(3*t); save rsim_i_multi_struct.mat Inb1; save rsim_i_multi_struct.mat Inb2 -append; save rsim_i_multi_struct.mat Inb3 -append; disp('rsim_i_multi_struct.mat contains three variables Inb1\Inb2\Inb3'); disp('in struct format. Note that command save -append option must be'); disp('used to generate the MAT-file to preserve the order of the'); disp('variables in the MAT-file generated. The command:') disp('save rsim_i_multi_struct.mat Inb1 Inb2 Inb3 might not preserve'); disp('the order of the variables in the MAT-file and you should not use it'); disp('to generate the MAT-file.' ...
  http://www.mathworks.com/examples/embedded-coder/mw/simulinkcoder-ex52242905-use-mat-files-to-feed-data-to-inport-blocks-for-rapid-simulations
*  Airway sensors with myelinated afferents - Jerry Yu
The long-term objective of this proposal is to identify the unknown morphology and pathophysiological functions of pulmonary sensory receptors, potentially bene...
  http://grantome.com/grant/NIH/I01-BX000693-03
*  Da-Lite 95696N Fast-Fold Deluxe Projection Screen 95696N B&H
Buy Da-Lite 95696N Fast-Fold Deluxe Projection Screen (10'6' x 14') features Free Standing, Tensioned. Review Da-Lite Folding Screens, Projection Screens (by Type)
  https://www.bhphotovideo.com/c/product/724606-REG/Da_Lite_95696N_95696N_Fast_Fold_Deluxe.html
*  bulking natty stack - AnabolicMinds.com
I'm currently cutting for the next two months and need some input on what natural bulking stack would help me achieve the best goals possible. I was
  http://anabolicminds.com/forum/supplements/175184-bulking-natty-stack.html