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*  The Role of Uridine Adenosine Tetraphosphate in the Vascular System
... but not by P2X receptor antagonist (Ip5I) or desensitization of P2X receptors with α,β-methylene-ATP [36]. Up4A -induced ... strong endogenous agonists of the purinergic system," British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 157, no. 7, pp. 1142-1153, 2009. ... P2X receptor) and G protein-coupled receptor (e.g., P2Y receptor and adenosine receptor) participate in multiprotein complexes ... P2X receptors) and metabotropic (P2Y receptors) [26-30]. Currently, there are at least 7 cloned P2X receptors and at least 8 ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/aps/2011/435132/
*  ATP-Evoked Sustained Vasoconstrictions Mediated by Heteromeric P2X1/4 Receptors in Cerebral Arteries | Stroke
Ca2+ entry following P2X receptor activation induces IP3 receptor-mediated Ca2+ release in myocytes from small renal arteries. ... P2 receptors in cardiovascular regulation and disease. Purinergic Signal. 2008;4:1-20. ... C, ATP and selective P2XR receptors (P2XR) agonist αβ-meATP evoked similar inward currents, suggesting a central role of P2XRs ... Adenosine triphosphate causes vasospasm of the rat femoral artery. Neurosurgery. 1998;42:825-832. ...
  http://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/45/8/2444
*  Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Andrea Lim
... a variety of G-protein-coupled P2Y receptors for ATP and P1 receptors for adenosine in addition to ionotropic P2X receptors for ... Activation of P2X receptors is implicated in dental pain, and receptor antagonists represent important targets for new ... When these receptors are combined with the plethora of extracellular enzymes capable of manipulating extracellular agonist ... The intricacies of the purinergic signaling system make it well-suited for the unique concerns of dental research, and future ...
  https://www.jove.com/author/Andrea_Lim
*  All oral presentations.xls
P2X purinergic receptor modulation of excitatory nociceptive transmission involve NMDA receptors Adenosine: Magic bullet ... Non-selective and selective adenosine receptor agonists in the treatment of radiation- and chemotherapy-induced ... G-Protein Coupled Receptors - New Portals for Nanoparticles in Cellular Drug Targeting? 13:15 Which role does PK/PD play in ... 12:00 Steroids, Receptors & pulmonary Seretide:a revolution in the treatment of asthma and COPD diseases. Predicting optimal ...
  http://healthdrugpdf.com/e/ehrlich2007.org1.html
*  Pharmacological and molecular characterization of functional P2 receptors in rat embryonic cardiomyocytes | SpringerLink
... adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) and uridine 5′-triphosphate (UTP)) are well known to exert physiological effects on the ... P2Y2 receptor agonist with enhanced stability protects the heart from ischemic damage in vitro and in vivo. Purinergic Signal 9 ... ATP P2X receptors P2Y receptors P1 receptors Rat embryo Heart Cardiomyocyte FLIPR Calcium mobilization ... Nori S, Fumagalli L, Bo X, Bogdanov Y, Burnstock G (1998) Coexpression of mRNAs for P2X1, P2X2 and P2X4 receptors in rat ...
  https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11302-014-9441-4
*  Frontiers | Ionotropic P2X ATP Receptor Channels Mediate Purinergic Signaling in Mouse Odontoblasts | Physiology
K+-ATP, nonselective P2X receptor agonist, induced inward currents in odontoblasts in a concentration-dependent manner. K+-ATP- ... We examined these properties of P2X receptors in mouse odontoblasts by patch-clamp recordings. K+-ATP, nonselective P2X ... receptors (P2X1-P2X7) in odontoblasts were still unclear. We examined these properties of P2X receptors in mouse odontoblasts ... P2X7 selective agonist (BzATP) induced inward currents dose-dependently. We could not observe P2X1,2/3,3 selective agonist (αβ- ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2017.00003/full
*  Ectonucleotidases in Cancer and Inflammation
In 1978, Burnstock proposed two types of purinergic receptors: P1 receptors selective for adenosine and P2 receptors selective ... these studies suggest potential clinical use of recombinant ectonucleotidases or adenosine receptor agonists for regulation of ... In 1985, a pharmacological approach was proposed to distinguish between two types of P2 receptors: ionotropic P2X and ... While early studies focused on the role of purinergic receptors in neurotransmission, it soon became obvious that extracellular ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2012/951423/
*  NAD+-Induced Vasotoxicity in the Pericyte-Containing Microvasculature of the Rat Retina: Effect of Diabetes | IOVS | ARVO...
... which is not a direct purinergic agonist, serves as a substrate for ecto-ribosylation reactions that subsequently trigger P2X7- ... 1C)nor blocked the lethal effect of the P2X7 ligand BzATP (Fig. 1C) . Presumably, structural features of the P2X7 receptor ... we demonstrated previously that exposure of retinal microvessels to the synthetic P2X7 agonist, benzoylbenzoyl-adenosine ... Molecular physiology of P2X receptors. Physiol Rev. 2002;82:1013-1067. [CrossRef] [PubMed] ...
  http://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2125178
*  Purinergic receptor - Wikipedia
P2 receptors) or adenosine (P1 receptors). P2 receptors have further been divided into five subclasses: P2X, P2Y, P2Z, P2U, and ... which is an agonist and has a high preference for the purinergic receptor type 1 isoform (P2Y1R), significantly contributes to ... There are three known distinct classes of purinergic receptors, known as P1, P2X, and P2Y receptors. P2X receptors are ligand- ... IUPHAR GPCR Database - Adenosine receptors IUPHAR GPCR Database - P2Y receptors Purinergic Receptors at the US National Library ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Purinergic_receptor
*  Gliotransmitter - Wikipedia
ATP targets P2X receptors, P2Y, and A1 receptors. ATP has several functions as a gliotransmitter, including insertion of AMPA ... Other less common gliotransmitters include: homocysteic acid, an endogenous N-methyl-(D)-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) agonist ... and remyelination by entering into the cell's extracellular space upon injury to activate purinergic receptors, which increase ... activity is controlled in the retina by the molecule's ability to hyperpolarize the neuron by converting from ATP to adenosine ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gliotransmitter
*  Purinergic signalling - Wikipedia
There are currently four types of adenosine receptors found in the heart. After binding onto a specific purinergic receptor, ... In 2014, the first purinergic receptor in plants, DORN1, was discovered. The primitive P2X receptors of unicellular organisms ... Cerqueira, Manuel D (July 2004). "The future of pharmacologic stress: selective a2a adenosine receptor agonists". The American ... There are three known distinct classes of purinergic receptors, known as P1, P2X, and P2Y receptors. Cell signalling events ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Purinergic_signalling
*  P2X2 | P2X receptors | IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY
P2X2 - P2X receptors. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of drug ... P2X purinoceptor 2 , purinergic receptor P2X, ligand gated ion channel, 2 , purinergic receptor P2X ... 2000) Immunohistochemical localization of adenosine 5'-triphosphate-gated ion channel P2X(2) receptor subunits in adult and ... Development of selective agonists and antagonists of P2Y receptors. Purinergic Signalling, 5: 75-89. [PMID:18600475] ...
  http://guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/ObjectDisplayForward?objectId=479&familyId=77&familyType=IC
*  The P2Y2 receptor sensitizes mouse bladder sensory neurons and facilitates purinergic currents
Effect of UTP on purinergic agonist-evoked responses. Because endogenous ATP could activate both P2X and P2Y receptors ( ... Sun Y, Keay S, Deyne P, Chai T. Stretch-activated release of adenosine triphosphate by bladder uroepithelia is augmented in ... we hypothesized that there is an interaction between P2X and P2Y receptors in response to purinergic agonists. In current clamp ... can facilitate ionotropic P2X receptor-mediated responses to subsequent purinergic agonist administration. These results ...
  http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC2828760/
*  Plus it
... nucleotidases into adenosine, which acts as an agonist of the P1 receptor (41). Although extracellular nucleotides and ... For example, eATP can activate plasma membrane-localized ATP-gated ion channel (P2X) receptors and G protein-coupled (P2Y) ... proteome and revealed ATP synthase α binds to ABCC1 in plasma membranes and may cooperate to regulate eATP level and purinergic ... Ectopic β-chain of ATP synthase is an apolipoprotein AI receptor in hepatic HDL endocytosis. Nature 2003;421:75-9. ...
  http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/72/18/4696
*  Rostral ventromedial medulla - Wikipedia
On-cells displayed a greater response to P2X agonists vs P2Y agonists. For example, α,β-methylene ATP, a P2X agonist, activated ... Histological staining by another research group examined the distribution of purinergic receptor subtypes throughout the RVM. ... Neutral cells are inhibited by adenosine, a P1 agonist, whereas on-cells and off-cells lack a response to adenosine. ... NK1 agonism induced hypersensitivity is dependent on 5-HT3 receptors, and modulated by GABAA and NMDA receptors as well. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rostral_ventromedial_medulla
*  "The role of P2X7 in red blood cell biology" by Bin Wang
Once released, ATP triggers the activation of purinergic P2 receptors in an autocrine or paracrine fashion. The P2X7 receptor ... The most potent P2X7 agonist 3'-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyl-adenosine 5'- triphosphate, but not adenosine 5'-diphosphate or uridine 5 ... is a ligand-gated ion channel belonging to the P2X receptor family. P2X7 activation induces a number of downstream effects ... Mature RBCs or erythrocytes contain high amounts of adenosine 5'- triphosphate (ATP) which can be release under various ...
  https://ro.uow.edu.au/theses/3607/
*  Adenosine triphosphate
In contrast to P2 receptors (agonist order ATP , ADP , AMP , ADO), purinergic nucleotides like ATP are not strong agonists of ... do not function as receptors that raise cytosolic calcium. The P2X ionotropic receptor subgroup comprises seven members (P2X1- ... ATP, ADP, or adenosine are recognised by purinergic receptors.. In humans, this signaling role is important in both the central ... as a remnant of old nomenclature of adenosine receptor), all of which are G protein-coupled receptors, A1 and A3 being coupled ...
  http://www.cs.mcgill.ca/~rwest/wikispeedia/wpcd/wp/a/Adenosine_triphosphate.htm
*  P2X2 purinoceptor (IPR003045) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI
Molecular cloning studies have identified seven P2X receptor subtypes, designated P2X1-P2X7. These receptors are proteins that ... This agonist profile has been found to be shared by the P2X4, P2X5 and P2X6 receptors. The single-channel properties of the ... P2X purinoceptors are cell membrane ion channels, gated by adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and other nucleotides; they have ... Functional and molecular diversity of purinergic ion channel receptors.. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 868 716-29 1999 ...
  http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR003045
*  Crosstalk between purinergic receptors and lipid mediators in leishmaniasis | Parasites & Vectors | Full Text
... and adenosine (Ado), which activate the purinergic receptors system. Herein, we discuss the role of extracellular nucleotides ... The balance of these two molecules can be generated by extracellular nucleotides, such as adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) ... Modulation of P2X(7) purinergic receptor in macrophages by Leishmania amazonensis and its role in parasite elimination. ... inhibition by adenosine A(2a) receptor agonists and crucial role of autocrine activation by leukotriene B(4). Mol Pharmacol. ...
  https://parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13071-016-1781-1
*  The E-NTPDase family of ectonucleotidases: Structure function relationships and pathophysiological significance | SpringerLink
... receptor subtypes have been identified and characterized to date. Whereas P2X receptors respond to ATP, P2Y receptors can be ... Comparative hydrolysis of P2 receptor agonists by NTPDase 1, 2, 3 and 8. Purinergic Signalling 1:193-204PubMedGoogle Scholar ... The ultimate generation of extracellular adenosine from dephosphorylated ATP not only activates adenosine receptors but also ... Taste cells and nerve fibers express P2X2 and P2X3 receptors [237] and various P2Y receptors [238, 239]. Genetic elimination of ...
  https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11302-006-9003-5
*  Frontiers | Visualization of cyclic nucleotide dynamics in neurons | Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
... whereas the ionotropic P2X receptors are activated by ATP. By modulating purinergic signaling pathways in cultured hippocampal ... It is known that dopamine D1 receptors undergo rapid endocytosis following agonist induced activation. In another recent study ... ICUE3 was recently used to investigate the impact of ionotropic and metabotropic purinergic receptor signaling on axon ... Cyclic adenosine monophosphate and PKA are one of the few bona fide axon determinants that play a critical role in axon ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fncel.2014.00395/full
*  Extracellular ATP | Interface Focus
The purinergic receptor family is composed of adenosine (P1) and nucleotide (P2) selective receptors. P1 receptors are further ... 2009 P2X(7): a growth-promoting receptor: implications for cancer. Purinergic Signal. 5, 251-256. doi:10.1007/s11302-009-9145-3 ... Last but not least, pmeLUC-transfected cells proliferate normally in vitro and respond to a variety of physiological agonists ... 2011 Activation and regulation of purinergic P2X receptor channels. Pharmacol. Rev. 63, 641-683. doi:10.1124/pr.110.003129 (doi ...
  http://rsfs.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/3/3/20120101
*  Plus it
1996) Adenosine A1-receptor agonist attenuates the light-induced phase shifts and fos expression in vivo and optic nerve ... the large pore of the P2X7 purinergic receptor (Suadicani et al., 2006), and through ATP-binding cassette proteins (multidrug ... Plasticity of Signaling by Spinal Estrogen Receptor α, κ-Opioid Receptor, and Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors over the Rat ... 1991) Circadian rhythm in adenosine A1 receptor of mouse cerebral cortex. Life Sci 48:PL25-PL29. ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/31/23/8342
*  P2X7 receptor agonists pre- and postcondition the heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury by opening pannexin-1/P2X₇ channels...
Purinergic P2X Receptor Agonists. *Purinergic P2X Receptor Antagonists. *Receptors, Lysosphingolipid. *Receptors, Purinergic ... Adenosine Triphosphate/administration & dosage. *Adenosine Triphosphate/analogs & derivatives. *Analysis of Variance. *Animals ... ATP binds to P2X(7) receptors, inducing the formation of a channel in association with pannexin-1. We hypothesized that this ... P2X7 receptor agonists pre- and postcondition the heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury by opening pannexin-1/P2X₇ channels ...
  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21685263?dopt=AbstractPlus
*  Role of neurogenic inflammation in local communication in the visceral mucosa | SpringerLink
Alterations in P2X and P2Y purinergic receptor expression in urinary bladder from normal cats and cats with interstitial ... Kullmann FA, Kurihara R, Ye L, Wells GI, McKenna DG, Burgard EC, Thor KB (2013) Effects of the 5-HT4 receptor agonist, ... Ruggieri MR, Filer-Maerten S, Hieble JP, Hay DW (2000) Role of neurokinin receptors in the behavioral effect of intravesical ... Kumar V, Chapple CR, Surprenant AM, Chess-Williams R (2007) Enhanced adenosine triphosphate release from the urothelium of ...
  https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00281-018-0674-0