*  How accurate is ultrasound of the optic nerve sheath diameter performed by inexperienced operators to exclude raised...
Introduction. It is well documented that ultrasound measurement of the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) shows good correlation with a raise in intracranial pressure (ICP), irrespective of the cause.1,2,3,4,5,6 The optic nerve sheath is a continuation of the dura mater, and a raise in ICP is transmitted via the subarachnoid space to the optic nerve sheath and the optic nerve head.1. The increase in ONSD has been established to emerge earlier than other findings evaluated by ophthalmoscopy.7In vitro studies suggest that the retrobulbar ONSD may undergo ultrasound-detectable distension only seconds after the development of intracranial hypertension.8 Several studies have compared the accuracy of ultrasound ONSD measurements with invasive ICP measurements with good results.3,4,6,9,10,11. Focal and systemic pathology such as tumours, metastasis, haemorrhage, Grave's disease and ...
  http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2078-67782015000100007
*  Optic Nerve Sheath Diameter Used as Ultrasonographic Assessment of the Incidence of Raised Intracranial Pressure in...
Optic nerve sheath ultrasound is a noninvasive method for the assessment of the risk of raised ICP. The subarachnoid spaces surrounding the optic nerve communicate with the intracranial cavity and changes in cerebrospinal fluid pressure are transmitted along the optic nerve sheath.20 In the anterior part of the optic nerve and particularly in the retrobulbar segment, the nerve is only surrounded by orbital fat. The retrobulbar optic nerve sheath is therefore distensible and can inflate in case of raised cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Comparing ocular ultrasonography with gold standard measures of ICP (invasive devices), values of ONSD above 5.8 mm have been shown to be associated with a 95% risk of raised ICP (i.e. , more than 20 mmHg).13 Such values were obtained in 19% of our preeclamptic patients, suggesting a substantial ...
  http://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=1933657
*  Tic Disorder: Optic Nerve Disorder
What is the optic nerve disorder that says that not being able to control the optic nerve disorder or asleep in our lives no matter where we go. From television, radio, and the optic nerve disorder of the optic nerve disorder to treat an eating disorder is, its characteristics, statistics, and ways to change the optic nerve disorder does contribute to more rapid cycling. Antiseizure medication, such as attributional style, learned helplessness, attitudes, and interpersonal therapy are currently the most deadly psychological disorder today? If you guessed an eating disorder, then you are right. According to WebMD, eating disorders involve distorted and critical thoughts of self and self-defeating negative self-talk. It is also very true, as having the optic nerve disorder. On the optic ...
  http://fsgf.blogspot.com/2013/09/optic-nerve-disorder.html
*  Intermediate filaments of zebrafish retinal and optic nerve astrocytes and Müller glia: differential distribution of...
Figure 3 Images of retina from Tg(gfap:GFP) (A, B, C) zebrafish showing localization of anti-cytokeratin and GFP (A, 60× oil immersion, NA 1.4; B, C, 20× water immersion, NA 0.95), and (D) a diagram showing the ribbon structure of zebrafish optic nerve. 3A. A portion of retina labeled with anti-cytokeratin (magenta), DAPI (blue) and GFP. The inner limiting membrane (ilm) appears brightly decorated with anti-cytokeratin, which also less intensely labels cytoplasm of cells in the inner plexiform layer (example at arrow). The foot processes (fp) and inner segments of the Müller glia cells are illuminated by GFP and the nuclei of the RGCs (rgcn) by DAPI. The calibration bar represents 45 μm. 3B. Image of the optic nerve from the same section as shown in Figures 3A and 3C. Anti-cytokeratin labeling (magenta, arrows) can be seen in the cytoplasm of the optic nerve astrocytes that form the neurolemma of the ...
  https://bmcresnotes.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1756-0500-3-50
*  Promoting Optic Nerve Regeneration in Adult Mice with Pharmaceutical Approach
Abstract  Our previous research has suggested that lack of Bcl-2-supported axonal growth mechanisms and the presence of glial scarring following injury are major impediments of optic nerve regeneration in postnatal mice. Mice overexpressing Bcl-2 and simultaneously carrying impairment in glial scar formation supported robust optic nerve regeneration in the postnatal stage. To develop a therapeutic strategy for optic nerve damage, the combined effects of chemicals that induce Bcl-2 expression and selectively eliminate mature astrocytesâ€Â"scar forming cellsâ€Â"were examined in mice. Mood-stabilizer, lithium, has been shown to induce Bcl-2 expression and stimulate axonal outgrowth in retinal ganglion cells in culture and in vivo. Moreover, astrotoxin (alpha-aminoadipate), a glutamate analogue, selectively kills astrocytes while has minimal effects on surrounding neurons. In the present study, we ...
  http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/34305462/promoting-optic-nerve-regeneration-adult-mice-pharmaceutical-approach
*  Morphometric Analysis of Optic Nerve Axons Using Automated ArcGIS Feature Extraction | IOVS | ARVO Journals
Purpose : Manual histological light microscopy image analysis of optic nerve axons is an excellent outcome measure in animal studies and human histopathologic evaluations, but extremely labor intense with additional challenges of reproducibility and analyst bias. Previous publications have demonstrated methods for automating axonal morphometric analysis using electron microscopy but this is less useful or desirable compared to light microscopy. The present study explores the feasibility of using ArcGIS to automate feature extraction from optic nerve cross-sections acquired with light microscopy. Methods : We performed manual, semi-automated and automated analysis on optic nerves from human controls and patients with Lebers Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) stained with P-phenylenediamine (PPD) and imaged with light microscopy. Manual analysis was done on ImageJ: considered the gold standard ...
  http://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2563909
*  Changes in angle of optic nerve and angle of ocular orbit with increasing age in Japanese children | British Journal of...
Body parts change considerably during the fetal period and early childhood. A number of studies have examined morphological changes in the orbit with increasing age,1-9 but only a few studies have measured changes in the opening angle of the optic nerve and orbit after birth in normal subjects.7-9 We measured the opening angle of the optic nerve and orbit using axial CT images in 147 normal Japanese children aged from 6 months to 18 years.. In an autopsy study, Zimmermann et al7 measured the angle formed by two lines running from the optic chiasm to the site where the optic nerves are attached to each eye. They reported that the opening angle of the optic nerve measured by this method decreased slightly during the fetal period, and that the angle was ∼71.5° at birth and ∼68° in adults. This early study involved measurements on autopsied heads, and the method ...
  http://bjo.bmj.com/content/early/2014/08/21/bjophthalmol-2014-305236
*  Quantitative And Qualitative Analyses Of The Nerve Fiber Layer Degeneration After Optic Nerve Axotomy In Adult Mice. | IOVS |...
Purpose: : To analyze the degenerative events taking place in the nerve fiber layer of the mouse retina after optic nerve transection or optic nerve crush. Methods: : Adult albino Swiss male mice were used for this study. The left optic nerve was intraorbitally transected (IONT) or crushed (IONC). The right eyes were used as controls. Three, seven, fourteen and ninety days post-lesion (dpl), retinas were dissected as whole flat mounts (n=6-8 per time point and lesion). Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) axons, i.e. the nerve fiber layer, were detected by immunodetection of the highly phosphorylated heavy subunit of the neurofilament triplet (pNFH). Retinas were photographed under an epifluorescence microscopy. The aberrant expression of pNFH after axotomy was qualitatively studied, and the number and distribution of RGCs expressing high or low levels of pNFH in their somas ...
  http://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2355462
*  Optic nerve, light micrograph - Stock Image P424/0248 - Science Photo Library
Optic nerve. Coloured light micrograph of a section through the optic nerve. The optic nerve (bright pink) collects impulses from the light sensitive cells of the retina and relays them to the brain. The optic nerve is leaving the ocular bulb (eyeball, top) via the optical canal (bottom). The retina (pale pink) contains light sensitive photoreceptor cells (purple) and runs towards the optic nerve. This region is known as the blind spot as there are no photoreceptor cells in this region to receive light. The choroid (black) lines the inside of the eye and prevents light from reflecting and distorting the image. Magnification: x110 when printed at 10cm wide. - Stock Image P424/0248
  http://www.sciencephoto.com/media/308922/view
*  Unilateral Optic Nerve Granuloma
In this case, the patient had bilateral panuveitis and a unilateral optic nerve granuloma with several systemic symptoms, including weight loss, productive cough, and night sweats. Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease that is characterized by granulomatous inflammation occurring in the lungs, thoracic lymph nodes, and/or extrathoracic organs, such as the skin or the eye(s). Sarcoidosis is thought to be related to an exaggerated response of immune cells (e.g., T cells) to a variety of environmental and/or infectious antigens [1 ,2]. Monozygotic twin studies suggest that the increased Th1 response may be in part due to genetic predisposition [3]. A large multicenter analysis of over 700 biopsy proven patients with sarcoidosis, suggested that an allelic variation at the HLA-DRB1 locus may be related to developing the disease [4]. Epidemiology data suggest that this disease predominantly affects women (female to male ratio of 8:3) and African or African American patients with a ...
  http://eyerounds.org/cases/248-unilateral-optic-nerve-granuloma.htm
*  Optic nerve sheath diameter sonography for the diagnosis of increased intracranial pressure: a systematic review and meta...
In addition, we will present and then include the MOONSTRIP unpublished prospective blinded study conducted at a level one tertiary care trauma centre. Investigators of this study were given visual materials and readings prior to attending didactic and hands-on supervised ultrasound training sessions. During these sessions, quality assurance data were collected to ensure all investigators met acceptable standards.. In this study, all patients referred to the trauma centre will undergo assessment in accordance with advanced trauma life support protocol. If assessment warrants investigation for increased ICP, a CT scan will be performed. An investigator blinded to the CT scan will assess the patient based on the following inclusion criteria: age ≥16 years, following trauma, and ONSD sonography required to be performed within 1 hour of the CT scan. All patients will be consented prior to enrolment. Exclusion criteria includes: penetrating trauma to the head or significant ocular trauma; patient ...
  http://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/7/8/e016194
*  Optic neuropathy - Wikipedia
Optic neuropathy refers to damage to the optic nerve due to any cause. Damage and death of these nerve cells, or neurons, leads to characteristic features of optic neuropathy. The main symptom is loss of vision, with colors appearing subtly washed out in the affected eye. On medical examination, the optic nerve head can be visualised by an ophthalmoscope. A pale disc is characteristic of long-standing optic neuropathy. In many cases, only one eye is affected and patients may not be aware of the loss of color vision until the doctor asks them to cover the healthy eye. Optic neuropathy is often called optic atrophy, to describe the loss of some or most of the fibers of the optic nerve. In medicine, "atrophy" usually means "shrunken but capable of regrowth", so some argue that "optic atrophy" ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optic_neuropathy
*  Optic Nerve Saygo Interchangeable Sunglasses at Road Runner Sports
Optic Nerve Saygo Interchangeable Sunglasses - OPTIC NERVE® SAYGO INTERCHANGEABLE :: Get a stylish and versatile shade with double the opportunity for fun with the Optic Nerve® Sayago Interchangeable. This popular sport shade offers great post workout style and the interchangeable lenses allow you to adjust your view quick and easy. Never fear a little dirt, water or dust, these lenses are protected with Optic Nerve's Hydrophobic coating, keeping your vision and your focus clear.
  http://www.roadrunnersports.com/rrs/products/OPN121/?cc=SHNBK
*  Optic Nerve Samuri Sunglasses at Road Runner Sports
Optic Nerve Samuri Sunglasses - OPTIC NERVE® SAMURI :: Capture your sneaky style in a shade that's designed to master obstacles with total finesse. You'll love the Optic Nerve Samuri for those days when you want to keep your performance super stealth. Comfortable and durable, this high-performance shade ideal for running, biking, or any fast paced action. Never fear a little dirt, water or dust, these lenses are protected with Optic Nerve's Hydrophobic coating, keeping your vision and your focus clear.
  http://www.roadrunnersports.com/rrs/products/OPN117/optic-nerve-samuri/
*  UNTHSC Scholarly Repository - Research Appreciation Day: Retina ganglion cell subtype specific cell death following optic nerve...
Purpose: Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy that causes cupping of the optic disc, retina ganglion cell (RGC) loss, and characteristic visual field defects. Published literature suggests differential RGC susceptibility to damage. However, the mechanisms by which the optic nerve and RGCs become more susceptible to injury and damage are largely unknown. We investigated individual RGC subtypes' susceptibility to damage after optic nerve crush (ONC). Methods: We utilized two mouse strains that selectively express GFP in individual RGC subtypes: CB2-GFP strain (selectively expresses GFP in transient OFF-alpha RGCs) and TRHR-GFP strain (selectively expresses GFP in On-Off direction selective RGCs). ONC was performed unilaterally, with the contralateral eye serving as a control. RGC subtype specific damage was evaluated at 0, 1, 3, 7, and 14 days post ONC. RGC damage was assessed by immunofluorescence of labeled ...
  http://digitalcommons.hsc.unt.edu/rad/RAD15/EyeVision/6/
*  "Radiation treatment inhibits monocyte entry into the optic nerve head " by Gareth R Howell, Ileana Soto et al.
Glaucoma is a common ocular disorder that is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. It is characterized by the dysfunction and loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Although many studies have implicated various molecules in glaucoma, no mechanism has been shown to be responsible for the earliest detectable damage to RGCs and their axons in the optic nerve. Here, we show that the leukocyte transendothelial migration pathway is activated in the optic nerve head at the earliest stages of disease in an inherited mouse model of glaucoma. This resulted in proinflammatory monocytes entering the optic nerve prior to detectable neuronal damage. A 1-time x-ray treatment prevented monocyte entry and subsequent glaucomatous damage. A single x-ray treatment of an individual eye in young mice provided that eye with long-term protection from glaucoma but had no effect on the contralateral eye. Localized radiation ...
  https://mouseion.jax.org/stfb2012/96/
*  Optic Nerve Hypoplasia - AAPOS
Optic nerve hypoplasia can be associated with central nervous system (CNS) malformations which put the patient at risk for other problems, including seizure disorder and developmental delay. Hormone deficiencies occur in most children, regardless of associated midline brain abnormalities or pituitary gland abnormalities on MRI. In fact, most children with growth hormone deficiency have a normal MRI.. ...
  https://aapos.org/terms/conditions/83
*  Optic Nerve Hypoplasia - AAPOS
Optic nerve hypoplasia can be associated with central nervous system (CNS) malformations which put the patient at risk for other problems, including seizure disorder and developmental delay. Hormone deficiencies occur in most children, regardless of associated midline brain abnormalities or pituitary gland abnormalities on MRI. In fact, most children with growth hormone deficiency have a normal MRI.. ...
  https://aapos.org/terms/show/83
*  Cell Replacement Therapy for Optic Nerve Disorders
This review article explains major optic nerve disorders and cell replacement therapy. This article also signifies new innovative methods, biopharmaceuticals, implantable biomaterials, devices and diagnostic tools developed for restoration of vision. It asserts notable technological advancements made for regeneration of neurons and restoration of visual system network. However, for finding quick solutions of optical- neuronal disorders more advanced biomaterial cell scaffolds and concurrent efforts are needed to revitalize visual-neural receptor system. This article stresses upon novel bioengineered methods mainly required to activate endogenous stem and progenitor cells, which could reawaken cells in dormancy, instructing them to promote repair and regeneration in optic nerve cells and retina. For better management of optic nerve disorders, the important role of tissues, genes, growth ...
  https://www.ommegaonline.org/article-details/Cell-Replacement-Therapy-for-Optic-Nerve-Disorders/1541
*  Plus it
Laminin-1 is found at the end-feet of neuroepithelial cells along the outer margin of the optic pathway during early stages of development. Prior to the establishment of most retinal projections in vivo, laminin- 1 expression becomes restricted to basement membranes associated with the eye and optic pathway. We report that, in contrast to the alpha 1, beta 1, and gamma 1 chains of laminin-1, laminin alpha 2 chain (formerly laminin M chain) is expressed within the pathway of avian and murine retinal ganglion cell (RGC) growth cones as they extend into the optic nerve, across the optic chiasm and into the brain. Expression of laminin alpha 2 chain is reduced soon after formation of the visual projections but nevertheless maintained at non-basal lamina sites within the adult optic nerve. Laminin alpha 2 chain, in contrast to laminin-1 chains, is also highly expressed in the developing avian ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/15/12/8067
*  Glaucoma - IAPB
Risk factors for the development of glaucoma include intraocular (eye) pressure (although it is important to recognise that glaucoma frequently develops with so-called 'normal' intraocular pressure [IOP]), increasing age, positive family history for glaucoma and ethnicity. POAG is most common in white Caucasians and black individuals of African origin. PACG is most common in South-East Asians and worldwide about 33% of individuals with primary glaucoma have PACG. PACG is associated with a greater risk of blindness in comparison with POAG. Although elevated IOP is the major risk factor for glaucoma the condition is not considered to be a direct consequence of the pressure, but to relate to IOP-associated risk factors such as stress susceptibility of the optic nerve supporting structures and optic nerve blood flow, that are affected by IOP. Certain individuals can sustain a degree of IOP elevation without the development of glaucoma and are ...
  https://www.iapb.org/knowledge/what-is-avoidable-blindness/glaucoma/
*  Optic Nerve - Horse
Optic Nerve horse page with past performances, results, pedigree, photos and videos. Optic Nerve horse rating and status. See who is a fan of Optic Nerve.
  http://www.horseracingnation.com/horse/Optic_Nerve
*  Neurovascular Coupling in Patients With Early Stage Diabetes Retinopathy - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
A variety of studies demonstrate that ocular blood flow is altered in diabetes and retinal perfusion abnormalities have been proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy.. Various animal and human studies have demonstrated that retinal and optic nerve blood flow increase in response to diffuse luminance flicker. Based on studies with ERG, this effect has been attributed to augmented activity in the retinal ganglion cells and associated axons indicating a coupling mechanism between neuronal activity and retinal blood flow. Whereas a variety of studies describe the effects of flickering light on retinal and optic nerve head blood flow, the knowledge about this coupling in the diabetic retina is sparse.. In view of the fact that neural activity and blood flow are strongly coupled in the human retina, one could hypothesize that neurodegenerative changes in the retina could contribute to the vascular dysregulation and in ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00712842
*  Drusen of the optic nerve head: Definition with Drusen of the optic nerve head Pictures and Photos
Definition of Drusen of the optic nerve head with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
  http://www.lexic.us/definition-of/drusen_of_the_optic_nerve_head
*  NASA ISS On-Orbit Status 4 June 2014 - SpaceRef
Today: Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE)-M-2 Sample Start: Flight Engineer (FE)-5 Wiseman configured the Light Microscopy Module (LMM) in the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) and inserted the second sample for an ACE-M-2 investigation run.. In the ACE-M-2 investigation, a model colloidal system is used to observe the microscopic behavior of liquids and gases separating from each other, near the critical point, via a process called spinodal decomposition.. Ocular Health: Wiseman assisted Commander (CDR) Swanson and FE-6 Gerst in taking ultrasound images of their eyes. All three USOS crewmembers took cardiac echo measurements of each other as part of the Ocular Health data collection. The ultrasound images will be used to identify changes in globe morphology, including flattening of the posterior globe, and document optic nerve sheath diameter, optic nerve sheath tortuosity, globe axial measurements, and choroidal engorgement. The Ocular Health ...
  http://spaceref.com/international-space-station/nasa-iss-on-orbit-status-4-june-2014.html