*  Protocols and Video Articles Authored by William C. Mobley (Translated to Hindi)
We found that NGF induced a sustained activation of Rap1, a small monomeric GTP-binding protein of the Ras family, and that ... Moreover, NGF-induced activation of Rap1 and sustained activation of MAPK1/2 were markedly suppressed. Inhibition of dynein ... TrkB Binds and Tyrosine-phosphorylates Tiam1, Leading to Activation of Rac1 and Induction of Changes in Cellular Morphology ... Retrolinkin, a membrane protein highly enriched in neuronal endosomes, binds directly to BPAG1n4. Deletion of retrolinkin ...
  https://www.jove.com/author/William+C._Mobley?language=Hindi
*  Epigenetic mechanisms in cognition. - PubMed - NCBI
The ERK cascade is initiated by the activation of Raf kinase via the small GTP-binding protein, ras, or the ras-related protein ... rap-1. Activated Raf then phosphorylates MEK, a dual specific kinase. MEK phosphorylates ERK 1 and 2 on a tyrosine and ... Proteins with methyl binding domains, bind to methylated DNA and associate with other co-factors, such as HDACs or ... and NMDAR activation of Protein Kinase M zeta (PKMzeta) and downstream targeting of NFkappaB signaling in the nucleus. ERK MAPK ...
  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21658577?dopt=Abstract
*  THU0021 Defective rap1 activation in synovial fluid t lymphocytes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis | Annals of the...
GTP-bound Rap1 was precipitated using the bacterial expressed fusion protein GST-RalGDS and detected by ECL Western blotting. ... The defective Rap1 activation was not due to increased levels of the Rap1 GTPase activating proteins RapGAP or spa1. While ... This defective activation is not due to increased levels of the Rap1 GTPase activating proteins RapGAP or Spa1. ... Background Rap1 is a small G-protein, member of the Ras GTPase family. Rap1 has been linked to T cell anergy and it is ...
  http://ard.bmj.com/content/60/Suppl_1/A211.3
*  RAP2A - Wikipedia
"Identification of a specific effector of the small GTP-binding protein Rap2". European Journal of Biochemistry / FEBS. 252 (2 ... "Differential roles of Ras and Rap1 in growth factor-dependent activation of phospholipase C epsilon". Oncogene. 21 (53): 8105- ... Ménétrey J, Cherfils J (Nov 1999). "Structure of the small G protein Rap2 in a non-catalytic complex with GTP". Proteins. 37 (3 ... "Identification of a specific effector of the small GTP-binding protein Rap2". European Journal of Biochemistry / FEBS. 252 (2 ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RAP2A
*  G-protein signaling - RhoA regulation pathway Pathway Map - PrimePCR | Life Science | Bio-Rad
... activity promotes RhoA activation [14], [15]. RAP1, GTP-GDP dissociation stimulator 1 (Rap1GDS1) bound with Kinesin-associated ... G-proteins alpha-q/11 and G-protein alpha-12 family can also associate with LARG thus promoting RhoA activation [5], [6], [7 ... that bind to prenylated GDP-bound Rho proteins and allow translocation between membranes and the cytosol [2], [3]. ... thatpromote exchange of GTP for GDP; GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) that enhance the intrinsic GTP-hydrolysis activity, ...
  http://www.bio-rad.com/en-us/prime-pcr-assays/pathway/g-protein-signaling-rhoa-regulation-pathway
*  Guanine nucleotide binding properties of rap1 purified from human neutrophils | Biochemical Journal
Furthermore, the ability of a cytosolic rap1 GTPase-activating protein to stimulate neutrophil rap1 GTP hydrolysis was not ... These data suggest that the activation of rap in vivo may be regulated by the release of endogenous GDP, but that ... The guanine nucleotide binding properties of rap1 protein purified from human neutrophils were examined using both the protein ... The binding of guanine nucleotides was found to correlate with the loss of endogenous nucleotide from the rap1 protein, which ...
  http://www.biochemj.org/content/267/2/407
*  The AF-6 Homolog Canoe Acts as a Rap1 Effector During Dorsal Closure of the Drosophila Embryo | Genetics
2003 Cellular functions of the Rap1 GTP-binding protein: a pattern emerges. J. Cell Sci. 116: 435-440. ... Rap1 activation appears to be stimulated by numerous exchange factors that do not act on the prototypic Ras GTPases. Rap1 has ... Rap1 binds Cno in a GTP-dependent manner and partially colocalizes with Cno in vivo: To identify molecules through which Rap1 ... Rap1 belongs to the Ras superfamily of small GTPases, which cycle between an inactive GDP-bound and an active GTP-bound state, ...
  http://www.genetics.org/content/165/1/159
*  Cyclic AMP Raises Intracellular Ca2+ in Human Megakaryocytes Independent of Protein Kinase A | Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis,...
GTP-bound Rap1 to the Rap-binding domain of RalGDS, we investigated the effect of iloprost and forskolin on Rap1 activation. ... bound GTPγS. One of these proteins was identified as Rap1, and GTPγS binding was accompanied by inhibition of Ca2+-ATPases in ... 10 seconds later than the beginning of Rap1 activation, suggesting that Rap1 activation precedes the Ca2+ increase. Rap1 was ... In these cells, iloprost induced only little Rap1 activation, but thrombin induced a 15-fold increase in GTP-Rap1, which ...
  http://atvb.ahajournals.org/content/22/1/179
*  Plus it
Rac is active when bound to GTP and inactive in the GDP-bound state. GTP loading requires the guanine exchange factors (GEF), ... Activation of Rac by cadherin through the c-Src-Rap1-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Vav2 pathway. Oncogene 2006;25:8-19. ... 6C). Downregulation of Rap1a/b further reduced Rac-GTP levels without affecting total Rac protein levels (Fig. 6D), supporting ... Preventing the activation or cycling of the Rap1 GTPase alters adhesion and cytoskeletal dynamics and blocks metastatic ...
  http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/74/18/5256
*  EPAC-RAP1 Axis-Mediated Switch in the Response of Primary and Metastatic Melanoma to Cyclic AMP | Molecular Cancer Research
The effect of EPAC inhibition on activation of RAP1 (GTP-bound RAP1) was assessed by pull-down assay using GST-RalGDS-RBD ... RAP1-GTP pull-down assay. Cells were lysed with RIPA buffer with protease and phosphatase inhibitors. Equal amount of protein ( ... Contradictory roles have been assigned to RAP1 in melanoma. For example, although higher activated RAP1 (GTP bound RAP1) levels ... there are only a few reports on the role of RAP1 in melanoma. It was reported that RAP1 activity (RAP1-GTP) is increased in a ...
  http://mcr.aacrjournals.org/content/15/12/1792
*  The GDP Exchange Factor AND-34 Is Expressed in B Cells, Associates With HEF1, and Activates Cdc42 | The Journal of Immunology
Rap-1), and GST-RalBP1 (Ral), respectively. After isolation of the GST-chimeric proteins the GTP-bound GTPases were eluted from ... Activation of Rac1 by a Crk SH3-binding protein, DOCK180. Genes Dev. 12: 3331. ... treatment of WEHI-231 cells with GTP-γ-S demonstrated the ability of the assay to detect endogenous GTP-bound RalA and Rap-1 ( ... Regulation of the small GTP-binding protein Rho by cell adhesion and the cytoskeleton. EMBO J. 18: 578. ...
  http://www.jimmunol.org/content/170/2/969?ijkey=5e163188919689daab370c4d49dd15de6a53e605&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
*  CD25 and CD69 induction by α4β1 outside-in signalling requires TCR early signalling complex proteins | Biochemical Journal
Ras-GTP and Rap1-GTP levels in the lysates were assayed using specific Ras (Cytoskeleton) and Rap1 (Pierce) Activation kits ... Ras-GTP) from the cell lysates. A GST-fusion protein containing the RBD (Rap1-binding domain) of human Ra1GDS (guanine ... Activation of B-Raf and ERK by the small G-protein Rap1 has been demonstrated in various cell types [27]. Rap1-mediated ... A GST-fusion protein containing the RBD of human Ra1GDS was used to affinity precipitate Rap1-GTP from the cell lysates. Rap1- ...
  http://www.biochemj.org/content/454/1/109
*  RAPGEF2 - Wikipedia
1999). "nRap GEP: a novel neural GDP/GTP exchange protein for rap1 small G protein that interacts with synaptic scaffolding ... of GTP to maintain the active GTP-bound state and are the key link between cell surface receptors and RAS activation. RAPGEF2 ... RAPGEF2 is a cyclic AMP binding protein. Members of the RAS subfamily of GTPases function in signal transduction as GTP/GDP- ... 2007). "Rap1-PDZ-GEF1 interacts with a neurotrophin receptor at late endosomes, leading to sustained activation of Rap1 and ERK ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RAPGEF2
*  Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Mark R. Philips
Nitrogen Cavitation and Differential Centrifugation Allows for Monitoring the Distribution of Peripheral Membrane Proteins in ... Ras is a GTP-binding protein that plays multiple important roles in cell activation, including proliferative and inflammatory ... The PM association of GFP-Rap1 was dependent on GTP binding, and GFP-Rap1 was rapidly up-regulated on this compartment in ... We have developed fluorescent, GFP-based probes capable of selectively binding GTP-bound Ras or Rap1 in living cells. We have ...
  https://www.jove.com/author/Mark++R._Philips
*  C3G | SpringerLink
Crk SH3 domain binding guanine nucleotide release protein (C3G), Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 (RAPGEF1), Guanine ... These proteins are inactive when they are bound to GDP and are active when bound to GTP, thereby acting as molecular switches. ... Activation of a Dab1/CrkL/C3G/Rap1 pathway in Reelin-stimulated neurons. Curr Biol. 2004;CB 14:606-10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... Conversion of GTPases from inactive GDP bound form to active GTP bound form is performed by GTP exchange factors (GEFs). GEFs ...
  https://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007%2F978-3-319-67199-4_101544
*  Krev interaction trapped protein elisa and antibody
Recombinant Protein and Krev interaction trapped protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and ... containing membranes in a GTP-bound RAP1-dependent manner (By similarity).. Below are the list of possible Krev interaction ... and inhibits ERK1/2 phosphorylation indirectly through activation of the DELTA-NOTCH cascade. Acts in concert with CDH5 to ... Microtubule-associated protein that binds to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2)-containing membranes in a GTP-bound ...
  https://www.mybiosource.com/protein_family.php?root=krev-interaction-trapped-protein
*  Rap1 - Wikipedia
GTPases are inactive when in their GDP-bound form, and become active when they bind to GTP. GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) ... The PKD-Rap1 interaction may thus be central to the subsequent activation of Rap1 and triggering of downstream effectors such ... An additional Rap1 effector provides a link between Rap1 and the actin cytoskeleton. RIAM (Rap1-GTP-interacting adapter ... and GEFs promoting the GTP-bound (active) form. When bound to GTP, small GTPases regulate myriad cellular processes. These ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rap1
*  JCI - RAP1-mediated MEK/ERK pathway defects in Kabuki syndrome
We first purified GTP-bound RAP1A (mutant or WT) with RalGDS-RBD beads (23); although the overall protein amounts of the mutant ... RAP1 signals via BRAF in human adult fibroblasts. (A) Activation of BRAF is reduced in RAP1AR163T fibroblasts (n = 4). (B) ... The RBBP5 protein, a core protein of the ASCOM complex, was found to bind to the RAP1B promoter region in WT human fibroblasts ... Activation of ERK1/2 by platelet-activating factor receptor is independent of receptor internalisation and G-protein activation ...
  https://www.jci.org/articles/view/80102
*  RAPGEF5 - Wikipedia
... of GTP to maintain the active GTP-bound state and are the key link between cell surface receptors and RAS activation (Rebhun et ... Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAPGEF5 gene. Members of the RAS (see ... 2005). "Novel Rap1 dominant-negative mutants interfere selectively with C3G and Epac". Oncogene. 24 (28): 4509-20. doi:10.1038/ ... and active GTP-bound states. Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), such as RAPGEF5, serve as RAS activators by promoting ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RAPGEF5
*  Platelet-neutrophil interactions under thromboinflammatory conditions
Takai Y, Sasaki T, Matozaki T. Small GTP-binding proteins. Physiol Rev. 2001;81(1):153-208. [PubMed] ... Rap1 is activated by cytosolic Ca2+ and diacylglycerol through PLC activation [170] and controls αMβ2 integrin activation ... receptor interactions stimulate diverse signaling pathways such as activation of G-proteins, phospholipase C, protein and lipid ... Activation of the small GTPase rap1 in human neutrophils. Blood. 1998;92(6):2133-2140. [PubMed] ...
  http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC4480154/
*  Annexin A1 Counteracts Chemokine-Induced Arterial Myeloid Cell RecruitmentNovelty and Significance | Circulation Research
H, GTP-bound Rap1 protein in mouse neutrophils 30 s after stimulation with CCL5 and prestimulation for 30 minutes with Ac2-26. ... as assessed by measuring the level of GTP-bound Rap1. Thus, Ac2-26 inhibits integrin activation by interfering with the ... chemokine-driven activation of Rap1, an essential step in integrin activation. To test the involvement of Rap1 in Ac2-26- ... Although the transfer of the fusion proteins did not affect LFA1 activation in response to CCL5 alone, the constitutively ...
  http://circres.ahajournals.org/content/116/5/827
*  Dock4 - Wikipedia
... and their activation requires the dissociation of GDP and binding of guanosine triphosphate (GTP). GEFs activate G proteins by ... which function as activators of small G proteins. Dock4 activates the small G proteins Rac and Rap1. Dock4 was discovered as a ... The adaptor protein ELMO has been shown to bind DOCK proteins and induce a conformational change which relieves the inhibition ... which contribute to cellular signalling events by activating small G proteins. In their resting state G proteins are bound to ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dock4
*  RASGRP3 - Wikipedia
... of GTP to maintain the active GTP-bound state and are the key link between cell surface receptors and RAS activation (Rebhun et ... Ras guanyl-releasing protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RASGRP3 gene. Members of the RAS (see HRAS; MIM ... Rebhun JF, Castro AF, Quilliam LA (Nov 2000). "Identification of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for the Rap1 GTPase ... and active GTP-bound states. Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), such as RASGRP3, serve as RAS activators by promoting ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RASGRP3
*  MRAS - Wikipedia
"The putative tumor suppressor RASSF1A homodimerizes and heterodimerizes with the Ras-GTP binding protein Nore1". Oncogene. 21 ( ... M-Ras is involved in TNF-alpha-stimulated and Rap1-mediated LFA-1 activation in splenocytes. More generally, cells transfected ... "The putative tumor suppressor RASSF1A homodimerizes and heterodimerizes with the Ras-GTP binding protein Nore1". Oncogene. 21 ( ... Ras-related protein M-Ras, also known as muscle RAS oncogene homolog and R-Ras3, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MRAS
*  Trk | China-Mainland | Sigma-Aldrich
Binding Partners/. Associated Proteins. Shc. PLC-γ1. Grb2. FRS2. SH2-B. APS. CHK. GIPC. Csk. SHP-1. GRIT. TID1. Ras-GRF1. ... In addition to activation by neurotrophins, Trk can be activated by ligands of G-protein coupled receptors, including pituitary ... These proteins link Trk to the Ras/Raf/MEK/MAP kinase, Rap1/Braf, PI3-kinase/Akt/GSK3-β/ILK, ΔNp73 (p53 family member) and PKC ... p75NTR binds and sequesters Rho-GDI, a Rho GTP dissociation inhibitor, thereby activating RhoA and inhibiting axonal growth. ...
  https://www.sigmaaldrich.com/china-mainland/zh/technical-documents/articles/biology/rbi-handbook/protein-serine-threonine-tyrosine-kinases/trk.html