*  Epigenetic mechanisms in cognition. - PubMed - NCBI
The ERK cascade is initiated by the activation of Raf kinase via the small GTP-binding protein, ras, or the ras-related protein ... rap-1. Activated Raf then phosphorylates MEK, a dual specific kinase. MEK phosphorylates ERK 1 and 2 on a tyrosine and ... Proteins with methyl binding domains, bind to methylated DNA and associate with other co-factors, such as HDACs or ... We also describe a central role for mitogen-activated protein kinases in controlling chromatin signaling in plasticity and ...
  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21658577?dopt=Abstract
*  Specific Mutations in KRAS Codons 12 and 13, and Patient Prognosis in 1075 BRAF Wild-Type Colorectal Cancers | Clinical Cancer...
Regulation of RAS involves binding of GTP, which activates the protein. Activation of RAS enables high affinity interactions ... This on and off switch regulation is tightly controlled by ARHGAP (Rho-GTPase activating proteins) and RAPGEF (Rap guanine- ... Intrinsic and GTPase-activating protein-stimulated Ras GTPase assays. Methods Enzymol 1995;255:161-70. ... codon 12-mutated RAS theoretically remains in an active GTP-bound state longer than codon 13-mutated or wild-type RAS. ...
  http://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/18/17/4753.long
*  Guanine nucleotide binding properties of rap1 purified from human neutrophils | Biochemical Journal
Furthermore, the ability of a cytosolic rap1 GTPase-activating protein to stimulate neutrophil rap1 GTP hydrolysis was not ... Guanine nucleotide binding properties of rap1 purified from human neutrophils. G M Bokoch, L A Quilliam ... The guanine nucleotide binding properties of rap1 protein purified from human neutrophils were examined using both the protein ... Binding of GTP[S] (guanosine 5′-[gamma-thio]triphosphate) or GDP was found to be slow in the presence of free Mg2+, but very ...
  http://www.biochemj.org/content/267/2/407
*  GTPase-activator protein for Ras-like GTPase - Wikipedia
... or GTPase-activating proteins. As it is the GTP bound form of ras which is active, these proteins are said to be down- ... Note: There are distinctly different GAPs for the rap and rho/rac subfamilies of ras-like proteins (reviewed in reference) that ... Ras proteins are membrane-associated molecular switches that bind GTP and GDP and slowly hydrolyze GTP to GDP. This intrinsic ... The Ras GTPase-activating proteins are quite large (from 765 residues for sar1 to 3079 residues for IRA2) but share only a ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GTPase-activator_protein_for_Ras-like_GTPase
*  KAKEN - Research Projects | The molecular biollogical and electrophysiological investigation of the degranulation of human...
... small G protein) such as smg P21 (rap 1).. Platelet activating factor (PAF)-induced intracelllular Ca_,2+, concentration ... S.Northaern blot analysis revealed the definite expression of a small molecular weight guanine nucleotide binding protein ( ... Publications] T.Aizawa etal.: 'Induction of gramle release by intracellular application of Ca and GTP-α-S′in human eosinophils ... Publications] T.Aizawa etal.: 'Calphostin C (a nsvel protein Kinase Cinhibitor) blocks platelet activating factor(PAF)induced ...
  https://kaken.nii.ac.jp/grant/KAKENHI-PROJECT-04670454/
*  AGAP3 and Arf6 Regulate Trafficking of AMPA Receptors and Synaptic Plasticity | Journal of Neuroscience
2003) GGAPs, a new family of bifunctional GTP-binding and GTPase-activating proteins. Mol Cell Biol 23:2476-2488, doi:10.1128/ ... 2008) The C2 domain of SynGAP is essential for stimulation of the Rap GTPase reaction. EMBO Rep 9:350-355, doi:10.1038/embor. ... 2012) GTP-binding protein-like domain of AGAP1 is protein binding site that allosterically regulates ArfGAP protein catalytic ... Small G-proteins are active when they are GTP bound, and inactive when they are GDP bound. They are intrinsically poor GTPases ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/33/31/12586.full
*  Rap1 - Wikipedia
GTPases are inactive when in their GDP-bound form, and become active when they bind to GTP. GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) ... Ras and Rap are regulated by different sets of guanine nucleotide exchange factors and GTPase-activating proteins, thus ... and GEFs promoting the GTP-bound (active) form. When bound to GTP, small GTPases regulate myriad cellular processes. These ... RIAM (Rap1-GTP-interacting adapter molecule) is a broadly expressed adaptor protein that contains an RA (Ras association)-like ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rap1
*  The nucleoporin RanBP2 tethers the cAMP effector Epac1 and inhibits its catalytic activity | JCB
Exchange protein directly activated by cAMP1 (Epac1) and Epac2 are GEFs for small G proteins of the Rap family (de Rooij et al ... Nup358, a cytoplasmically exposed nucleoporin with peptide repeats, Ran-GTP binding sites, zinc fingers, a cyclophilin A ... exchange protein directly activated by cAMP. GAP. GTPase-activating protein. GEF. guanine nucleotide exchange factor. NPC. ... Conversely, GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) stimulate GTP hydrolysis and, thereby, inactivation of the G protein. Together, ...
  http://jcb.rupress.org/content/193/6/1009
*  Plus it
... as a Rap-2 binding partner. In coimmunoprecipitation experiments using tagged purified proteins, we confirmed that this ... B, GTP-Rap2 activated the Rac1-GEF activity of Tiam2/STEF. Myc-tagged Rac1 was preincubated with either DN (S17) or CA (V12) ... C, Characterization of Rap2 binding to Rufy3. FLAG-tagged Rap2, the GDP-binding DN form (S17N), or the GTP-binding CA form ( ... Proteomic analysis of protein binding partners.. Vectors encoding pFLAG-tagged proteins that were used as bait were transfected ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/37/15/4046
*  Darwinist Ideologues Are on the Run
This was confirmed by a pull-down assay that quantifies the binding of activated (i.e. GTP-bound) Rac to p21-activated kinase. ... Got diabetes? Pray to God for help or go after the pathogen that alters Rho G proteins that are the signaling cascade for ... Rap, and Rac, markedly attenuated the mastoparan-induced insulin secretion, implicating Rac in this phenomenon. Mastoparan- ... Taken together, our findings implicate Rho G proteins, specifically Rac, in mastoparan-induced insulin release.. U.S. Class 424 ...
  http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1568474/posts?page=80
*  The AF-6 Homolog Canoe Acts as a Rap1 Effector During Dorsal Closure of the Drosophila Embryo | Genetics
2003 Cellular functions of the Rap1 GTP-binding protein: a pattern emerges. J. Cell Sci. 116: 435-440. ... 1999 M-Ras/R-Ras3, a transforming ras protein regulated by Sos1, GRF1, and p120 Ras GTPase-activating protein, interacts with ... Rap proteins were originally identified as antagonists of oncogenic Ras (Kitayamaet al. 1989; Cooket al. 1993; Okadaet al. 1998 ... Rap1 belongs to the Ras superfamily of small GTPases, which cycle between an inactive GDP-bound and an active GTP-bound state, ...
  http://www.genetics.org/content/165/1/159
*  RAP2B antibody | acris-antibodies.com
... identity with Ras proteins and is similarly post-translationally modified by… ... Rap2B is a 21 kDa small GTP-binding protein that that exhibits 46% ... Rap2B is a 21 kDa small GTP-binding protein that that exhibits 46% identity with Ras proteins and is similarly post- ... Rap2B protein does not interfere with Ras-induced transformation suggesting that the activity of Rap proteins goes beyond the ...
  https://www.acris-antibodies.com/target/rap2b-antibody.htm
*  The GDP Exchange Factor AND-34 Is Expressed in B Cells, Associates With HEF1, and Activates Cdc42 | The Journal of Immunology
Rap-1), and GST-RalBP1 (Ral), respectively. After isolation of the GST-chimeric proteins the GTP-bound GTPases were eluted from ... treatment of WEHI-231 cells with GTP-γ-S demonstrated the ability of the assay to detect endogenous GTP-bound RalA and Rap-1 ( ... Secondly, AND-34 could activate Cdc42 by acting as an adapter protein rather than a GEF. AND-34 binds to p130Cas by its "GEF" ... Regulation of the small GTP-binding protein Rho by cell adhesion and the cytoskeleton. EMBO J. 18: 578. ...
  http://www.jimmunol.org/content/170/2/969?ijkey=5e163188919689daab370c4d49dd15de6a53e605&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
*  Regulation of Rap2 in B lymphocytes - UBC Library Open Collections
A G S T - R a l G D S fusion protein was used to selectively precipitate the activated GTP-bound forms o f the Rap proteins. ... These GTP-binding proteins cycle between an inactive GDP-bound form or an active GTP-bound form which can bind downstream ... These GTP-binding proteins cycle between an inactive GDP-bound form or an active GTP-bound form which can bind downstream ... A GST-RalGDS fusion protein was used to selectively precipitate the activated GTP-bound forms of the Rap proteins. Western ...
  https://open.library.ubc.ca/cIRcle/collections/ubctheses/831/items/1.0090517
*  Small GTPase - Wikipedia
A typical G-protein is active when bound to GTP and inactive when bound to GDP (i.e. when the GTP is hydrolyzed to GDP). The ... Therefore, a G-protein can be switched on and off. GTP hydrolysis is accelerated by GTPase activating proteins (GAPs), while ... Rap, Rheb, and Rad. Miro is a recent contributor to the superfamily. Each subfamily shares the common core G domain, which ... GTP-binding protein regulators Wennerberg K, Rossman KL, Der CJ (March 2005). "The Ras superfamily at a glance". J. Cell Sci. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Small_GTPase
*  MRAS - Wikipedia
For instance, it is activated by Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factors and can bind/activate some Ras protein effectors. M- ... "The putative tumor suppressor RASSF1A homodimerizes and heterodimerizes with the Ras-GTP binding protein Nore1". Oncogene. 21 ( ... a Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor that serves as a downstream target of M-Ras". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 ... "The putative tumor suppressor RASSF1A homodimerizes and heterodimerizes with the Ras-GTP binding protein Nore1". Oncogene. 21 ( ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MRAS
*  RGS17 - Wikipedia
The protein attenuates the signaling activity of G-proteins by binding to activated, GTP-bound G alpha subunits and acting as a ... "Modulation of rap activity by direct interaction of Galpha(o) with Rap1 GTPase-activating protein". The Journal of Biological ... GTPase activating protein (GAP), increasing the rate of conversion of the GTP to GDP. This hydrolysis allows the G alpha ... Regulator of G-protein signaling 17 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RGS17 gene. This gene encodes a member of the ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RGS17
*  BUD2 protein (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) - STRING interaction network
GTPase-activating protein that negatively regulates RAS by converting it from the GTP- to the GDP-bound inactive form, required ... significantly similar to mammalian Rap GTPases; Involved in development of cell polarity during the cell division cycle, and ... GTPase-activating protein that negatively regulates RAS by converting it from the GTP- to the GDP-bound inactive form, required ... GTPase-activating protein that negatively regulates RAS by converting it from the GTP- to the GDP-bound inactive form, required ...
  https://string-db.org/network/4932.YKL092C
*  SMART: RA domain annotation
P-CIP10 binds to selected members of the Rho subfamily of small GTP binding proteins (Rac1, but not RhoA or Cdc42). P-CIP10 ( ... which allows GTP binding and activation of the GTPases. It interacts and acts as an effector molecule for R-ras, K-Ras and Rap ... Activated Ras interacts with the Ral guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator.. *Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994; 91: 11089-93 ... This protein bound to the GTP gamma S (guanosine 5'-(3-O-thio)triphosphate, a nonhydrolyzable GTP analog).GST-Ha-Ras affinity ...
  http://smart.embl.de/smart/do_annotation.pl?DOMAIN=RA&BLAST=DUMMY
*  GoLoco motif - Wikipedia
Ponting CP (1999). "Raf-like Ras/Rap-binding domains in RGS12- and still-life-like signalling proteins". J. Mol. Med. 77 (10): ... GTPase activating proteins (GAPs), which enhance GTP hydrolysis (see PDOC50132), and guanine dissociation inhibitors (GDIs), ... When the ligand is associated to the receptor, GDP is displaced from G-alpha and GTP is bound. The GTP/G-alpha complex ... A GTPase activator for the nuclear ras-related regulatory protein RAP-1A. Drosophila protein Rapsynoid (also known as Partner ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GoLoco_motif
*  The GAPs, GEFs, and GDIs of heterotrimeric G-protein alpha subunits
... binding activated Gα·GTP in competition with effectors; e.g., [67, 68, 69, 70]). In contrast, the three members of the F/GEF ... Modulation of rap activity by direct interaction of Galpha(o) with Rap1 GTPase-activating protein. J Biol Chem. 1999 ;274(31): ... GTPase-activating proteins for heterotrimeric G proteins: regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) and RGS-like proteins. Annu ... RGS4 and GAIP are GTPase-activating proteins for Gq alpha and block activation of phospholipase C beta by gamma-thio-GTP-Gq ...
  http://www.ijbs.com/v01p0051.htm
*  Angiotensin II Signal Transduction Through Small GTP-Binding Proteins | Hypertension
Rap belongs to the Ras family of small G proteins. In pulmonary vein endothelial cells, Ang II was proposed to activate PYK2 ... Small GTP-binding proteins (G proteins) are monomeric G proteins with a low molecular weight of 20 to 40 kDa. A small G protein ... Activation of Rac1 by Ang II in VSMCs has been shown by using p21-activated kinase (PAK)-protein binding domain binding assay. ... from eIF4E binding protein/PHAS-I on phosphorylation of eIF4E binding protein/PHAS-I regulated through ERK and Akt activated by ...
  http://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/48/4/534
*  C3G | SpringerLink
Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 (RAPGEF1), Guanine nucleotide-releasing factor 2 (GRF2) Small GTPases belonging to Ras ... Crk SH3 domain binding guanine nucleotide release protein (C3G), ... C/EBP (CCAAT/Enhancer-Binding Protein) Homologous Protein, CHOP ... These proteins are inactive when they are bound to GDP and are active when bound to GTP, thereby acting as molecular switches. ... Tsukamoto N, Hattori M, Yang H, Bos JL, Minato N. Rap1 GTPase-activating protein SPA-1 negatively regulates cell adhesion. J ...
  https://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007%2F978-3-319-67199-4_101544
*  Localization of nectin-free afadin at the leading edge and its involvement in directional cell movement induced by platelet...
5A). Rap1GAP is a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for Rap1. In the in vitro binding assay, we used pure recombinant proteins of ... Yamada, T., Sakisaka, T., Hisata, S., Baba, T. and Takai, Y. (2005). RA-RhoGAP, Rap-activated Rho GTPase-activating protein ... Takai, Y., Sasaki, T. and Matozaki, T. (2001). Small GTP-binding proteins. Physiol. Rev. 81, 153-208. ... Activated Cdc42 and Rac bind to the GTPase activator protein IQGAP1 (also known as p195) and these molecules cooperatively ...
  http://jcs.biologists.org/content/122/23/4319
*  RAPGEF2 - Wikipedia
RAPGEF2 is a cyclic AMP binding protein. Members of the RAS subfamily of GTPases function in signal transduction as GTP/GDP- ... Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAPGEF2 gene. ... "The guanine nucleotide exchange factor CNrasGEF activates ras in response to cAMP and cGMP". Curr. Biol. 10 (9): 555-8. doi: ... 1999). "nRap GEP: a novel neural GDP/GTP exchange protein for rap1 small G protein that interacts with synaptic scaffolding ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RAPGEF2