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*  PPT - Endocrine Physiology lecture 2 PowerPoint Presentation - ID:163946
... do not have intrinsic kinase activity, but activate soluble, intracellular kinases such as the Jak kinases. ... Protein kinase C activity is further increased by calcium which is released by the action of inositol phosphates. ... Each of these second messenger systems activates a specific protein kinase enzyme. ... Adenylate cyclase which catalyzes the conversion of ATP to cyclic AMP; *Guanylate cyclase which catalyzes the conversion of GMP ...
  https://www.slideserve.com/Thomas/endocrine-physiology-lecture-2
*  Protein kinase A - Wikipedia
The activated Gs alpha subunit binds to and activates an enzyme called adenylyl cyclase, which, in turn, catalyzes the ... The catalytic subunit contains the active site, a series of canonical residues found in protein kinases that bind and hydrolyse ... using adenylate cyclase. Protein kinase A acts to phosphorylate many enzymes important in metabolism. For example, protein ... The liberated catalytic subunits can then catalyze the transfer of ATP terminal phosphates to protein substrates at serine, or ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein_kinase_A
*  Interaction among Skeletal Muscle Metabolic Energy Systems during Intense Exercise
The creatine kinase and adenylate kinase reactions both produce ATP, yet the creatine kinase reaction has by far the greater ... 5] found that following a 30 seconds sprint on a cycle ergometer CrP was depleted to % of resting levels immediately following ... Second, AMP activates phosphofructokinase (PFK) within phase 1 of glycolysis, thereby allowing increased flux of G6P through ... Palmitate is a 16 carbon fatty acid, and when in the cytosol of skeletal muscle must be activated by addition of coenzyme A ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnme/2010/905612/
*  CALM2 calmodulin 2 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI
RHO GTPases activate PAKs, organism-specific biosystemThe PAKs (p21-activated kinases) are a family of serine/threonine kinases ... organism-specific biosystemCa2+ signal generated through NMDA receptor in the post-synaptic neuron activates adenylate cyclase ... The majority of Ca2+ in many organisms is bound to phosphates which form skeletal structures and also buffer Ca2+ levels in ... Smooth Muscle Contraction, organism-specific biosystemLayers of smooth muscle cells can be found in the walls of numerous ...
  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/805
*  Antioxidants
... which activates downstream ATP-sensing mechanisms C such as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) C to regulate cellular ... Lately, we found out two groups of Src particular kinase by collection of a 13,824-membered DNA-templated macrocyclic peptide ... Adenylate kinases (AKs) represent a set of enzymes that catalyze a reversible high-energy phosphoryl transfer reaction between ... and the buy 131189-57-6 non-oxidative PPP that recycles pentose phosphates to glycolytic intermediates or generates de novo ...
  http://www.brain-tumor-cancer-information.com/category/antioxidants/
*  Patent US6492130 - Modulation of the sulfonylurea receptor and calcium in adipocytes for ... - Google Patents
Since we found glibenclamide to stimulate adipocyte intracellular Ca2+ despite there having been no previous report of ... Adipocytes exposed to KCl (40 mM, to depolarize and activate voltage gated Ca2+ channels) for two hours and then harvested ... These effects were attributed to sulfonylurea-induced inhibition of cAMP level and protein kinase A activity. Thus, rodent ... an adenylate cyclase activator, induced a 48% increase in lipolysis in human adipocytes (p,0.05); this effect was reversed by ...
  http://www.google.com/patents/US6492130?dq=6,123,819
*  Frontiers | Computational Modeling of the Metabolic States Regulated by the Kinase Akt | Physiology
Not surprisingly considering its relevance for cellular metabolism, Akt/PKB is often found hyperactive in cancer cells. In the ... Protein Kinase B (PKB), also known as Akt, participates in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, a master regulator of aerobic glycolysis ... Not surprisingly considering its relevance for cellular metabolism, Akt/PKB is often found hyperactive in cancer cells. In the ... Protein Kinase B (PKB), also known as Akt, participates in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, a master regulator of aerobic glycolysis ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2012.00418/full
*  BIOCHEMISTRY OF MAGNESIUM - PDF
Magnesium ions activating adenylate cyclase control cyclic adenosine monophosphate (camp) synthesis. Adenylate cyclase ... One metal ion activates the attacking hydroxyl group, and the other stabilizes the negative charge of the oxygen atom of the ... Another metal ion (B) facilitates the leaving of the â- and ã-phosphates as well as phosphodiester bond formation (HARTWIG 2001 ... Moreover, double-stranded DNA break repair induced by ionizing radiation or formed during meiosis has also been found to be Mg- ...
  http://docplayer.net/1925075-Biochemistry-of-magnesium.html
*  Regulation of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 and Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II by Phosphatidylinositol-Linked...
... indicating that SKF83959 activates cdk5 transiently. A dose-response analysis indicates that SKF83959 activated cdk5 activity ... indicating that the activations of the kinases are independent of each other. We also found that SKF83959 induces the ... Undie AS and Friedman E (1990) Stimulation of a dopamine D1 receptor enhances inositol phosphates formation in rat brain. J ... stimulates phospholipase-C activity independent of adenylate cyclase. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 248: 171-175. ...
  http://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/66/6/1500
*  C-Raf - Wikipedia
... are activated by MEKK-related kinases (e.g. Ste11 in yeast) instead of Raf enzymes. Raf kinases found in retroviruses (such as ... Kyriakis JM, App H, Zhang XF, Banerjee P, Brautigan DL, Rapp UR, Avruch J (July 1992). "Raf-1 activates MAP kinase-kinase". ... BAD (Bcl2-atagonist of cell death) is directly phosphorylated by c-Raf, along with several types of adenylate cyclases, myosin ... and the enzymes dedicated for removal of these phosphates are the protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C-Raf
*  SMART: Secondary literature for RAS domain
The mitogen-activated and stress-activated protein kinases transduce signals from plasma membrane signalling machinery into the ... Mutant, constitutively activated forms of Ras proteins are frequently found in cancer. While constitutive Ras activation ... and adenylate kinase (ADK). We find that there is a close correspondence between the conformation and position of our predicted ... Four loops are involved in interactions with bound guanosine diphosphate: one with the phosphates, another with the ribose, and ...
  http://smart.embl.de/smart/show_secondary.cgi?domain=RAS
*  The E-NTPDase family of ectonucleotidases: Structure function relationships and pathophysiological significance | SpringerLink
... adenylate kinase, nucleoside diphosphate kinase, and potentially ecto-F1-Fo ATP synthases [21, 22, 23, 24, 25] that may ... ATP can activate both P2X receptors and subtypes P2Y receptors whereas UTP activates subtypes of P2Y receptors only. After ... NTPDase1 to NTPDase3 were found as dimers to tetramers [29, 64, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78]. In contrast to the P2X receptors that ... They also contribute to recycling of nucleosides derived from extracellular nucleoside phosphates and metabolic salvage ...
  https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11302-006-9003-5
*  Metabotropic glutamate receptor - Wikipedia
... anesthetic-activated potassium leak channel, KCNK3, is regulated by 14-3-3β-dependent, protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated ... activates only group III mGluRs. Several subtype-selective positive allosteric modulators that activate only the mGlu2 subtype ... though they have been found on both pre- and postsynaptic membranes. Also, different mGluR subtypes are found predominantly in ... when it was shown that it could stimulate the formation of inositol phosphates. This finding allowed in 1987 to yield an ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metabotropic_glutamate_receptor
*  Plus it
... with creatine kinase (CK) linking ATP generation to KATP channel closure and adenylate kinase (AK) regulating KATP channel ... 2D and E shows, Kir6.2-K185D/SUR1-KAKM channels were in fact activated by azide. Thus, this increase in current (ii, Fig. 2E) ... Gribble FM, Tucker SJ, Haug T, Ashcroft FM: MgATP activates the beta cell KATP channel by interaction with its SUR1 subunit. ... Subsequently, many other mutations within both SUR1 and Kir6.2 have been found to reduce MgADP activation and simultaneously ...
  http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/53/suppl_3/S113
*  Plus it
Dangelmaier C, Jin J, Daniel JL, Smith JB, and Kunapuli SP (2000) The P2Y1 receptor mediates ADP-induced p38 kinase-activating ... ATP hydrolysis was measured under the conditions of these assays and found to be less then 0.5% (data not shown). That is, more ... Cooper DMF and Rodbell M (1979) ADP is a potent inhibitor of human platelet plasma membrane adenylate cyclase. Nature (Lond) ... 3H]Inositol phosphates were quantified by Dowex chromatography followed by liquid scintillation counting as described ...
  http://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/64/5/1210
*  Bupivacaine Inhibits Activation of Neuronal Spinal Extracellular Receptor-activated Kinase through Selective Effects on...
The activation of these postsynaptic receptors activates protein kinases such as PKA and PKC, and ERK pathway. AC = adenylate ... On the other hand, AMPA and NMDA receptors are classically located on postsynaptic sites but also can be found on presynaptic ... Chen C-C, Chang J, Chen WC: Potentiation of bradykinin-induced inositol phosphates production by cyclic AMP elevating agents ... The activation of these postsynaptic receptors activates protein kinases such as PKA and PKC, and ERK pathway. AC = adenylate ...
  http://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=1923305
*  US20080008694A1 - Methods to prevent and treat diseases - Google Patents
In the cytosol, cytochrome C binds to a protein called Apaf-1 (apoptosis activating factor-1), and the complex activates ... The creatine kinase pathway has a critical role in the efficient mobilization and use of ATP for energy. The natural substrate ... N-Formylmethionine (fMet) is an amino acid found in all living cells. It is a derivative of the amino acid methionine. It is a ... In other words, the EF (adenylate cyclase) that produces cAMP would encounter a reduced pool of ATP in the presence of a given ...
  https://patents.google.com/patent/US20080008694A1/en
*  Frontiers | Depotentiation from Potentiated Synaptic Strength in a Tristable System of Coupled Phosphatase and Kinase |...
A generic tristable system, which couples the phosphatase and kinase switches, exclusively explains how moderate and high ... further show that significant elevation of cytoplasmic calcium concentration switches activation of both kinase and phosphatase ... further show that significant elevation of cytoplasmic calcium concentration switches activation of both kinase and phosphatase ... A generic tristable system, which couples the phosphatase and kinase switches, exclusively explains how moderate and high ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fncom.2016.00104/full
*  Angiotensin II-induced inotropism requires an endocardial endothelium-nitric oxide mechanism in the in-vitro heart of Anguilla...
NO, nitric oxide; Gi/o, Gi/o proteins; MR, muscarinic receptor; PKG, cGMP-activated protein kinase; GC, guanylate cyclase; eNOS ... Endoluminal ANG II activates AT1-like receptors in the EE that stimulate NO release, eliciting in the subjacent myocardium the ... mediate the inhibitory effect of ANG II on l-type Ca2+ currents and on the adenylate cyclase system (Ai et al., 1998). Whether ... we found that losartan did not prevent the ANG II-mediated effects. This finding can be explained by the functional ...
  http://jeb.biologists.org/content/206/15/2675
*  Brain Resuscitation
Second messengers such as calcium, diacylglycerol, and acid activate protein kinese.. · Protein kinase regulates important ... The Phosphorylation State depends on the relative activities of two opposing types of enzymes - kinase and phosphates. ... During inductions, glutamate activates a neuronal receptor activation of NMDA receptor leads to an influx of Calcium, where as ... found in CA1 region of hippocampus. ... M GluR4 inhibits adenylate cyclase · M GluR5 Stimulates ...
  http://drdhaugoda.blogspot.com/2011/06/brain-resuscitation-and-magnesium.html
*  Optogenetic Reporters: Fluorescent Protein-Based Genetically-Encoded Indicators of Signaling and Metabolism in the Brain
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and epidermal growth factor activate neuronal m-calpain via mitogen-activated protein kinase- ... The imaging data suggest that glutamate activates both Gαs and Gαq, but Gd3+ only activates Gαq (Tateyama et al., 2004). ... To this end, the Tubby domain, a PIP2-binding motif of a mammalian transcription factor, was found to be selective for PIP2 and ... Phosphoinositides can be hydrolyzed to inositol phosphates and diacylglycerol (DAG) in a receptor-mediated manner, and these ...
  http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC3494096/?lang=en-ca
*  Plus it
Although CFTR is a cyclic AMP-activated Cl− channel, it is also activated by protein kinase C (Jia et al., 1997) and by cyclic ... or protein kinase G-mediated mechanism, or via prostaglandin release and activation of adenylate cyclase-coupled prostaglandin ... 1997c) UDP activates a mucosal-restricted receptor on human nasal epithelial cells that is distinct from the P2Y2 receptor. ... P2Y4 and P2Y6 receptor promoted a steady accumulation of inositol phosphates for up to 60 min (Figs. 2A and3A). Although the ...
  http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/297/1/43
*  Polyphosphate - an ancient energy source and active metabolic regulator | Microbial Cell Factories | Full Text
Polyphosphate kinases (PPKs) can currently be categorized into three groups (PPK1, PPK2 and PPK3) according their functionality ... These two processes, energetic metabolism and regulation, are orchestrated by polyphosphate kinases. ... no structural similarities between Ec PPK1 and other histidine kinases has been found. Some structural similarities were found ... Investigation of this mechanism revealed that Ec PPK1 overproduction enhanced the activity of adenylate kinase and expressed ...
  https://microbialcellfactories.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1475-2859-10-63
*  Untitled Document
EGF and HER-2 activate a variety of kinases and transcription factors including MAP kinases, PI3/Akt kinases, Ras, Raf, and MEK ... Genistein and daidzein are found in legumes such as soy, 8-prenylnaringenin is found in hops, and coumestrol is found in ... EGF can activate the estrogen receptor through the MAPK pathway and estrogen receptors can activate Src which in turn activates ... The enzymes which transfer phosphates to these amino acids, usually from ATP, are called protein kinases. Protein kinases ...
  http://bio.sunyorange.edu/updated2/THINKING_EVOLUTION/disorders/breast%20cancer.htm
*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols
... activated kinase-1-NAP kinase kinase 6 (MKK6)-mediated p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. We found that ... Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide with highly efficient cytoprotective actions. Its ... likely by disregulating kinase cascades and transcription factors. Oxidative stress activates poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP ... BGP-15 (200 ?M) prevented the imatinib mesylate-induced oxidative damages, attenuated the depletion of high-energy phosphates, ...
  https://www.jove.com/visualize?author=Ferenc%20Gallyas%20