*  Bile acid - Wikipedia
Cholic acid is converted into deoxycholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid into lithocholic acid. All four of these bile acids ... Glycocholic acid Taurocholic acid Deoxycholic acid Chenodeoxycholic acid Glycochenodeoxycholic acid Taurochenodeoxycholic acid ... In humans, taurocholic acid and glycocholic acid (derivatives of cholic acid) and taurochenodeoxycholic acid and ... "deoxycholic acid" in that it had one fewer hydroxyl group than cholic acid. Deoxycholic acid is formed from cholic acid by 7- ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bile_acid
*  Frontiers | Functional Intestinal Bile Acid 7α-Dehydroxylation by Clostridium scindens Associated with Protection from...
Intestinal commensal organisms are well adapted to normal concentrations of bile acids in the gut. In contrast, physiological ... The most important bile acid transformation is 7-dehydroxylation, producing deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid. The ... The most important bile acid transformation is 7-dehydroxylation, producing deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid. The ... We find that the Oligo-MM12 consortium carries out bile acid deconjugation, a prerequisite for 7-dehydroxylation, and confers ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fcimb.2016.00191/full
*  Bile acids mimic oxidative stress induced upregulation of thioredoxin reductase in colon cancer cell lines : Carcinogenesis - oi
... cholic acid; DCA, deoxycholic acid; LCA, lithocholic acid; ROS, reactive oxygen species; TCDCA, taurochenodeoxycholic acid; TPA ... Thioredoxin reductase (TR) mRNA was upregulated after treatment with taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA) in St 23132 cells. This ... Thioredoxin reductase (TR) mRNA was upregulated after treatment with taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA) in St 23132 cells. This ... Bile acids have been suggested to play an important role in the etiology of colon and gastric cancer after gastrectomy, but the ...
  http://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.1093/carcin/23.8.1281
*  Frontiers | Bile Acids in Neurodegenerative Disorders | Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
... the relevant bile acids, their origin, and the precise molecular mechanism(s) by which they confer neuroprotection are not ... the relevant bile acids, their origin, and the precise molecular mechanism(s) by which they confer neuroprotection are not ... Bile acids, a structurally related group of molecules derived from cholesterol, have a long history as therapeutic agents in ... Bile acids, a structurally related group of molecules derived from cholesterol, have a long history as therapeutic agents in ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnagi.2016.00263/full
*  CHAPS detergent - Wikipedia
... it is structurally similar to certain bile acids, such as taurodeoxycholic acid and taurochenodeoxycholic acid. It is used as a ... It may be synthesized from cholic acid and is zwitterionic due to its quaternary ammonium and sulfonate groups; ... Taurodeoxycholic acid Taurochenodeoxycholic acid Hjelmeland, LM (November 1980). "A nondenaturing zwitterionic detergent for ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CHAPS_detergent
*  Medium-chain fatty acids decrease serum cholesterol via reduction of intestinal bile acid reabsorption in C57BL/6J mice,...
"Medium-chain fatty acids decrease serum cholesterol via reduction of intestinal bile acid reabsorption in C57BL/6J mice, ... 0 0.55 3.55 ND ND ND ND Cholic acid (CA), deoxycholic acid (DCA), chenodeoxy- cholic acid (CDCA), ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), ... taurocholic acid (TCA), tauro- C16:0 3.09 19.95 3.51 22.52 3.13 22.90 deoxycholic acid (TDCA), taurochenodeoxycholic acid C16:1 ... 0 0.55 3.55 ND ND ND ND Cholic acid (CA), deoxycholic acid (DCA), chenodeoxy- cholic acid (CDCA), ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), ...
  https://www.deepdyve.com/lp/springer_journal/medium-chain-fatty-acids-decrease-serum-cholesterol-via-reduction-of-E0UTApg40f
*  Probiotic modulation of symbiotic gut microbial-host metabolic interactions in a humanized microbiome mouse model | Molecular...
... muricholic acid; CA, cholic acid; CDCA, chenodeoxycholic acid; Cp, C. perfringens; Ec, E. coli; GCA, glycocholic acid; La, ... taurochenodeoxycholic acid; TMCA, tauro‐β‐muricholic acid; TUDCA, tauroursocholic acid; UDCA, ursocholic acid. * and *** ... Metges CC (2000) Contribution of microbial amino acids to amino acid homeostasis of the host. J Nutr 130: 1857S-1864S. ... Kurdi P, van Veen HW, Tanaka H, Mierau I, Konings WN, Tannock GW, Tomita F, Yokota A (2000) Cholic acid is accumulated ...
  http://msb.embopress.org/content/4/1/157.export
*  new bile acid enzymes
In adult pig (Sus scrofa), hyocholic acid replaces cholic acid as a primary bile acid [5].. References:. 1. Araya, Z. and ... Glossary: taurochenodeoxycholic acid = N-(3α,7α-dihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oyl)taurine. taurohyocholic acid = N-(3α,6α,7α- ... This membrane-bound enzyme catalyses the first step in the conjugation of bile acids with amino acids, converting bile acids ... Glossary: lithocholic acid = 3α-hydroxy-5β-cholan-26-oic acid. murideoxycholic acid = 3α,6β-dihydroxy-5β-cholan-26-oic acid. ...
  http://www.sbcs.qmul.ac.uk/iubmb/enzyme/supplements/sup2005/newenz5.html
*  List of MeSH codes (D04) - Wikipedia
... cholic acids MeSH D04.808.105.225.130 --- cholic acid MeSH D04.808.105.225.130.330 --- cholates MeSH D04.808.105.225.130.330. ... taurochenodeoxycholic acid MeSH D04.808.105.225.272.962 --- ursodeoxycholic acid MeSH D04.808.105.225.400 --- glycocholic acid ... cholic acids MeSH D04.808.221.430.130 --- cholic acid MeSH D04.808.221.430.130.330 --- cholates MeSH D04.808.221.430.130.330. ... taurochenodeoxycholic acid MeSH D04.808.221.430.342.925 --- ursodeoxycholic acid MeSH D04.808.221.430.484 --- glycocholic acid ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(D04)
*  Cholesterol Metabolism By Amr S. Moustafa, M.D.; Ph.D. - ppt download
16 Bile Acids and Salts Primary bile acids: Cholic acid and Chenodeoxycholic acid Bile acids: 24 C, 2 or 3 OH -COOH at side ... amide-linked with glycine or taurine Glycocholic Taurocholic Glycochenodeoxycholic Taurochenodeoxycholic ... or Tauro-cholic -Chenodeoxycholic Bile acids Cholic acid Chenodeoxycholic 2° Bile acids Deoxycholic acid Lithocholic Intestinal ... 18 Bile Acids: Synthesis 19 Bile Salts  More effective detergent  -COOH (glycine) & -SO 4 (taurine): Fully-ionized  Only ...
  http://slideplayer.com/slide/3376785/
*  MCB II Block 3
A: glycocholic acid (Glycine + Cholic Acid CoA). Taurochenodeoxycholic acid (Taurine + Chenodeoxycholic acid CoA) ... A: convert them into soluble bile acids, but costly, so retain them as long as possible. There's a limit on how much ... A: Cholic acid inhibits it, cholesterol promotes it.. Q: What is special about the structure of bile salt?. A: It is ionized on ... A: Cholesterol → Cholic acid via Cholesterol-7-a-hydroxylase (so adds OH to 7 C in cholesterol) ...
  http://www.caribbeanmedstudent.com/notes/mcb-ii-block-3/
*  The anti-cholesterolaemic effect of a consortium of probiotics: An acute study in C57BL/6J mice, Scientific Reports | 10.1038...
0.43 Cholic acid 1.49 ± 0.63 1.35 ± 1.82 17.00 ± 16.70 18.82 ± 15.33*** Taurochenodeoxycholic Acid 9.18 ± 9.09* 4.36 ± 3.04 ... Cholic acid accumulation and its diminution by short-chain fatty acids in bifidobacteria. Microbiology 149, 2031-2037, doi: ... 0.43 Cholic acid 1.49 ± 0.63 1.35 ± 1.82 17.00 ± 16.70 18.82 ± 15.33*** Taurochenodeoxycholic Acid 9.18 ± 9.09* 4.36 ± 3.04 ... Cholic acid accumulation and its diminution by short-chain fatty acids in bifidobacteria. Microbiology 149, 2031-2037, doi: ...
  https://www.deepdyve.com/lp/springer_journal/the-anti-cholesterolaemic-effect-of-a-consortium-of-probiotics-an-jEssoVLgOK
*  Macro Nutrients - Lipid Flashcards - Cram.com
... cholic acid). * Glycochenodeoxycholic Acid (glycine + chenodeoxycholic acid). * Taurochenodeoxycholic Acid (taurine + ... 1. phospholipds, cholesterol, bile acids (cholic acid). 2. One end has an AA side chain that is hydrophilic, the other end has ... Glycocholic Acid (glycine + cholic acid). * Taurocholic Acid (taurine + ... Linoleic & Arachidonic Acids are low in plasma. * eicosatrienoic acid (20:3 n-9) is an abnormal by-product of oleic acid ...
  http://www.cram.com/flashcards/macro-nutrients-lipid-316161
*  Solid Oral Dosage Form Containing An Enhancer - Patent application
... acid"), ursodeoxycholic acid, taurocholic acid, taurodeoxycholic acid, taurolithocholic acid, taurochenodeoxycholic acid, ... cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, lithocholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid (also referred to as "chenodiol" or "chenic ... fatty acid esters; lower alcohol fatty acids esters; propylene glycol fatty acid esters; sorbitan fatty acid esters; ... glycocholic acid, glycodeoxycholic acid, glycolithocholic acid, glycochenodeoxycholic acid, and glycoursodeoxycholic acid. [ ...
  http://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20100247640
*  human metabolite (CHEBI:77746)
iduronic acid Definition : A member of the class of iduronic acids that is the major uronic acid component of the dermatan ... cholic acid Mass :408.57140 Formula : C24H40O5 erythronic acid Mass :136.10332 Formula : C4H8O5 ... taurochenodeoxycholic acid Mass :499.70464 Formula : C26H45NO6S taurolithocholic acid Mass :483.70400 Formula : C26H45NO5S ... glucaric acid Mass :210.13880 Formula : C6H10O8 indole Definition : Either of two isomeric forms comprising a benzene ring ...
  http://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/chebiOntology.do?chebiId=77746
*  MCB II Block 4
What is taurocholic acid made of?. A: glycocholic acid = cholic acid + glycine. Taurocholic acid = chenodeoxycholic acid + ... A: glycocholic acid and taurocholic acid ("taurochenodeoxycholic acid"). They emulsify - surround triacylglycerols to form ... Q: What are the ketogenic amino acids (converted to Ketones i.e. acetone, acetoacetic acid, beta-hydroxybutyric acid)?. A: ... A: Proteins are degraded into amino acids and turned into gluconeogenic precursors. Fatty acids and ketone bodies (fatty acids ...
  http://www.caribbeanmedstudent.com/notes/mcb-ii-block-4/
*  Chemistry of Lipids. - ppt download
Lipids are organic compounds formed mainly from alcohol and fatty acids combined together by ester linkage. ... 3 fatty acids 3-Type of fatty acids: Fatty acid mainly palmitic or stearic acid. Long and short chain fatty acids. 4-Acrolein ... 91 Bile acids: They are produced from oxidation of cholesterol in the liver producing cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids that ... taurocholic and taurochenodeoxycholic acids. They react with sodium or potassium to produce sodium or potassium bile salts. ...
  http://slideplayer.com/slide/5132655/
*  Human Insulin Resistance Is Associated With Increased Plasma Levels of 12α-Hydroxylated Bile Acids | Diabetes
... glycodeoxycholic acid; HDCA, hyodeoxycholic acid; TCA, taurocholic acid; TCDCA, taurochenodeoxycholic acid; TDCA, ... In healthy subjects, insulin resistance (IR) was associated with increased 12α-hydroxylated BAs (cholic acid, deoxycholic acid ... Role of bile acids and bile acid receptors in metabolic regulation. Physiol Rev 2009;89:147-191pmid:19126757. ... The primary products of the BA synthetic pathway in humans are CDCA and cholic acid (CA). They in turn are modified by gut ...
  http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/62/12/4184
*  Taurochenodeoxycholic Acid | CTD
Bile Acids and Salts ← Cholic Acids ← Deoxycholic Acid ← Chenodeoxycholic AcidTaurochenodeoxycholic Acid ... Bile Acids and Salts ← Cholic Acids ← Deoxycholic Acid ← Taurodeoxycholic AcidTaurochenodeoxycholic Acid ... Bile Acids and Salts ← Cholic Acids ← Taurocholic Acid ← Taurodeoxycholic AcidTaurochenodeoxycholic Acid ... Sulfonic Acids ← Alkanesulfonic Acids ← Taurine ← Taurocholic Acid ← Taurodeoxycholic AcidTaurochenodeoxycholic Acid 3.. ...
  http://ctdbase.org/detail.go?type=chem&acc=D013655
*  Medical Isotopes, Inc.
Bile Acids. Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in the bile of mammals. The two major bile acids are cholic acid, ... Taurochenodeoxycholic-2,2,4,4-d4 acid 98%D 1 mg. $490. Add to Cart. ... Others include glycocholic acid, taurocholic acid, deoxycholic acid, and lithocholic acid. For example, lithocholic acid is a ... Tauro-β-muricholic Acid Request Quote. D72474. Tauro-β-muricholic acid-d4 sodium salt 0.25 mg. $750. Add to Cart. 1 mg. $1,350 ...
  http://www.medicalisotopes.com/product-category.php?id=54
*  Taurodeoxycholic Acid | CTD
Bile Acids and Salts ← Cholic Acids ← Deoxycholic Acid ← Taurodeoxycholic Acid 4.. Chemicals ← Polycyclic Compounds ← Fused- ... Sulfur Acids ← Sulfonic Acids ← Alkanesulfonic Acids ← Taurine ← Taurocholic Acid ← Taurodeoxycholic Acid 3.. Chemicals ← ... Bile Acids and Salts ← Cholic Acids ← Taurocholic Acid ← Taurodeoxycholic Acid 5.. Chemicals ← Polycyclic Compounds ← Fused- ... Cholic Acids ← Deoxycholic Acid ← Taurodeoxycholic Acid 6.. Chemicals ← Polycyclic Compounds ← Fused-Ring Compounds ← Steroids ...
  http://ctdbase.org/detail.go?type=chem&acc=D013657
*  In vitro, in HEP G2 cell line, tauroursodeoxycholic acid has a protective effect against ethanol-induced human hepatocellular...
Cameron, R.G.; Neuman, M.G.; Shear, N.H.; Bellentani, S.; Tiribelli, C., 1994: In vitro, in HEP G2 cell line, tauroursodeoxycholic acid has a protective effect against ethanol-induced human hepatocellular damage
  https://eurekamag.com/research/031/866/031866200.php
*  Abstract 409: Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Mediates Fluid Balance and Metabolic Effects of the Brain Renin-Angiotensin System |...
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the subsequent unfolded protein response (UPR) have been identified as important contributors to various neural diseases. We examined the role of ER stress and the UPR in the metabolic and fluid balance effects of brain angiotensin in two mouse models. The ER stress-reducing chemical chaperone tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA, 5.28 ug/day) or aCSF vehicle was infused into the lateral cerebral ventricle (ICV) of either C57Bl/6J mice treated for three weeks with high dietary sodium and chronic subcutaneous deoxycorticosterone acetate (the "DOCA-salt" model), or transgenic "sRA" mice that express human renin in neurons via the synapsin promoter and human angiotensinogen via its own promoter. Both the DOCA-salt and sRA models exhibit hyperactivity of the brain RAS, suppression of circulating RAS, hypertension, polydipsia, and an elevated resting metabolic rate. Forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain regions of sRA mice exhibited ...
  http://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/60/Suppl_1/A409
*  My Parkinson's Journey: Week 1: Off Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid
This was the first symptomatic improvement to happen after starting TUDCA, and as you can see, it was dramatic. On day two of taking it, suddenly I could solidly hit the low notes I used to be able to hit before PD came on the scene. It was a complete surprise to me as no medication had changed that. No amount of dopamine had improved it. So I wasn't even thinking about it as something to watch for. Because of this, I felt this symptom improvement could fairly certainly be ascribed to TUDCA because there's nothing Azilect could have done to regain that ability. All it does is allow the dopamine in your body to not breakdown as fast, and so it lasts longer and allows for more buildup as you pump more in via Sinemet ...
  http://rickspdjourney.blogspot.com/2015/01/week-1-off-tauroursodeoxycholic-acid.html
*  The porcine taurochenodeoxycholic acid 6alpha-hydroxylase (CYP4A21) gene: evolution by gene duplication and gene conversion |...
Porcine taurochenodeoxycholic acid 6α-hydroxylase, cytochrome P450 4A21 (CYP4A21), differs from other members of the CYP4A subfamily in terms of structural features and catalytic activity. CYP4A21 participates in the formation of hyocholic acid, a species-specific primary bile acid in the pig. The CYP4A21 gene was investigated and found to be approx. 13 kb in size and split into 12 exons. The intron-exon organization of the CYP4A21 gene corresponds to that of CYP4A fatty acid hydroxylase genes in other species. Comparison with a genomic segment of a pig CYP4A fatty acid hydroxylase gene (CYP4A24) revealed a sequence identity with CYP4A21 that extends beyond the exons, indicating a common origin by gene duplication. A pronounced sequence identity was found also within the proximal 5´-flanking ...
  http://www.biochemj.org/content/378/3/1053
*  My Parkinson's Journey: Day 4: Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid
Likewise, as I was vacuuming, I often hang my left thumb on the left pants pocket to let my arm hang loose. That seems to help the dystonia some than if it is just hanging at my side. Today, I felt little need to do that. I believe I even noticed my left arm swinging a little when I walked instead of being stiff as a board. Stiffness and tremors have been noticeably reduced. The only time I noticed any was when I had some stress added like in straining to do something. We'll see if that holds up in the days ahead or whether this was just an exceptional day ...
  http://rickspdjourney.blogspot.com/2015/01/day-4-tauroursodeoxycholic-acid.html
*  Gut microbiota regulates bile acid metabolism by reducing the levels of tauro-beta-muricholic acid, a naturally occurring FXR...
Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and further metabolized by the gut microbiota into secondary bile acids. Bile acid synthesis is under negative feedback control through activation of the nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (
  http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Gut-Microbiota-Regulates-Bile-Acid/23395169.html
*  Ursodiol in Huntington's Disease - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Huntington's disease is an inherited neurodegenerative disease that causes a movement disorder, dementia, and psychiatric and behavioral disturbance in affected individuals.. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is a bile acid synthesized in the liver by the conjugation of taurine to ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). It is thought to function as an anti-apoptotic agent in HD, evidenced by studies in toxic cell models and both toxic and transgenic rodent models of the disease.. Ursodiol is a commercially-available exogenous form of UDCA, the precursor of TUDCA. Although the compound has an established dosing, safety, tolerability and efficacy profile in patients with hepatobiliary disorders, gaps exist in the understanding of the pharmacokinetics / pharmacodynamics of the compound, particularly in patients with normal gastrointestinal function, and no human data exist for its ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00514774?cond=%22Huntington+disease%22&rank=9
*  Ursodiol in Huntington's Disease - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Huntington's disease is an inherited neurodegenerative disease that causes a movement disorder, dementia, and psychiatric and behavioral disturbance in affected individuals.. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is a bile acid synthesized in the liver by the conjugation of taurine to ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). It is thought to function as an anti-apoptotic agent in HD, evidenced by studies in toxic cell models and both toxic and transgenic rodent models of the disease.. Ursodiol is a commercially-available exogenous form of UDCA, the precursor of TUDCA. Although the compound has an established dosing, safety, tolerability and efficacy profile in patients with hepatobiliary disorders, gaps exist in the understanding of the pharmacokinetics / pharmacodynamics of the compound, particularly in patients with normal gastrointestinal function, and no human data exist for its ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00514774?term=Chorea&rank=15
*  Abstract 17023: Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Regulates Protein-Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B Expression and Cellular Glucose Uptake...
Obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes. Sustained obesity overwhelms the capacity of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for the folding of proteins leading to insulin resistance. Protein tyrosine-phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a negative regulator of insulin signaling. Because PTP1B is localized in the ER, this study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that ER stress upregulates PTP1B leading to insulin resistance. Leptin deficient obese mice and PTP1B knockout mice were used for in vivo studies. For in vitro studies cultured, differentiated C2C12 myotubes were treated with the ER-stressor tunicamycin and insulin-stimulated deoxyglucose uptake was assessed. Obese mice exhibited higher expression levels of ER stress markers and PTP1B in the liver and gastrocnemius muscle compared to age and sex-matched lean control mice. Oral administration of ER-chaperone tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA, 50 mg/kg/d) attenuated ...
  http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/126/Suppl_21/A17023
*  Chaperona química - Wikipedia
Uma chaperona química (ou chaperona farmacológica) é uma pequena molécula que entra na célula, por meio de uma droga, auxiliando em processos de enovalmento protéico de proteínas com suas conformações incorretas. Mutações em proteínas podem causar problemas no enovelamento, resultando em problemas celulares. Essas drogas já vem sendo utilizadas em alguns modelos de estudo de doenças, como Diabetes mellitus tipo 2. 4-Fenilbutirato TUDCA Umut Özcan et al. Chemical Chaperones Reduce ER Stress and Restore Glucose Homeostasis in a Mouse Model of Type 2 Diabetes Science 25 August 2006: Vol. 313 no. 5790 pp. 1137-1140 Welch WJ, Brown CR. Influence of molecular and chemical chaperones on protein folding. Cell Stress Chaperones. 1996 Jun;1(2):109-15. Qing Xie et al. Effect of tauroursodeoxycholic acid on endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced caspase-12 activation. Hepatology Volume 36, Issue 3, pages 592-601, September ...
  https://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chaperona_qu%C3%ADmica
*  Repositório da Universidade de Lisboa: Binding studies of bile acids using the native fluorescence of the tryptophan residue of...
Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and its taurine-conjugate, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), play a unique role in modulating the apoptotic threshold in cells. The mechanism is thought to involve, in part, inhibition of translocation for Bax from the ...
  http://repositorio.ul.pt/handle/10451/21084
*  Kanamycin Monosulfate - Drugs.com
Kanamycin Monosulfate is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Kanamycin Monosulfate is available on the Drugs.com website.
  https://www.drugs.com/international/kanamycin-monosulfate.html
*  6 alpha-hydroxylation of taurochenodeoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid by CYP3A4 in human liver microsomes
The aim of the present study was to identify the enzymes in human liver catalyzing hydroxylations of bile acids. Fourteen recombinant expressed cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, human liver microsomes from different donors, and selective cytochrome P450 inh. ...
  http://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:112787
*  CAS # 25389-94-0, Kanamycin sulfate, Kanamytrex, Kantrex, Kantrim, Kanamycin A monosulfate
chemBlink provides information about CAS # 25389-94-0, Kanamycin sulfate, Kanamytrex, Kantrex, Kantrim, Kanamycin A monosulfate, molecular formula: C18H36N4O11.H2SO4;C18H38N4O15S.
  http://www.chemblink.com/products/25389-94-0.htm
*  Bilirubin inhibits bile acid induced apoptosis in rat hepatocytes | Gut
Although our understanding of the pathogenesis of cholestatic liver disease is incomplete, it is generally believed that accumulation of toxic hydrophobic bile acids, such as deoxycholic acid conjugates, within the hepatocyte can contribute to liver injury by inducing hepatocyte apoptosis.7,3 Antioxidants, such as α-tocopherol or lazaroid, reduce both the generation of ROS and cell injury in freshly isolated hepatocytes treated with GCDC4,10 as well as in the intact rat infused with taurochenodeoxycholic acid.22 Bilirubin, the yellow pigment which accumulates in the plasma of patients with cholestasis, was recognised as an antioxidant of possible physiological importance approximately 15 years ago, and its activity as a free radical scavenger was demonstrated in model membrane systems, being equal to or even surpassing that of α-tocopherol.13,14 As bilirubin ...
  http://gut.bmj.com/content/52/12/1774
*  Plus it
Effect of bile acids on DNA synthesis by the regenerating liver was investigated in mice in vivo after partial hepatectomy (PH). Radioactivity incorporation into DNA after [14C]thymidine intraperitoneal administration peaked at 48 h after PH. At this time a significant taurocholate-induced dose-dependent reduction in DNA synthesis without changes in total liver radioactivity content was found (half-maximal effect at approximately 0.1 mumol/g body wt). Effect of taurocholate (0.5 mumol/g body wt) was mimicked by chocolate, ursodeoxycholate, deoxycholate, dehydrocholate, tauroursodeoxycholate, taurochenodeoxycholate, and taurodeoxycholate. In contrast, chenodeoxycholate, glycocholate, glycochenodeoxycholate, glycoursodeoxycholate, glycodeoxycholate, 5 beta-cholestane, bromosulfophthalein, and free taurine lacked this effect. No relationship between hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance and inhibitory effect was observed. Analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography indicated ...
  http://ajpgi.physiology.org/content/268/6/G1051
*  Plus it
These data are consistent with the current model of multiple overlapping binding sites on MRP2 (Ito et al., 2001a; Bodo et al., 2003; Zelcer et al., 2003), where transport activity can be markedly stimulated by numerous endogenous and exogenous compounds. Thus, taurocholate, glycocholate, glycochenodeoxycholate, taurochenodeoxycholate, and taurodeoxycholate can activate transport of E217G by MRP2 expressed in Sf9 cell membrane vesicles; glycocholate may also be transported in the presence of E217G (Bodo et al., 2003; Zelcer et al., 2003). Here, we examined a range of concentrations of UDC, TUDC, and GUDC to provide an in-depth mathematical assessment of the nature of the binding and to obtain good fits to a pharmacologically meaningful model. We also corrected for endogenous transport (i.e., transport in EV membranes) to obtain more accurate kinetic parameters of the modulation of MRP2-mediated transport. The present data confirm the previous studies (Bodo et al., 2003; Zelcer et al., 2003) and ...
  http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/320/2/893
*  Reestablishment of rabbit gallbladder epithelial cells in collagen gel culture and their alterations by cytochalasin B and...
We previously developed a model in which rabbit gall bladder epithelial cells in collagen gels proliferated and formed multicellular spherical cysts after 2 to 4 days. In the present study, we examined in depth the dynamic processes of loss and reestablishment of cell polarity of rabbit gallbladder epithelial cells isolated and cultured in collagen gel. Six hours after being place in culture, the isolated epithelial cells had lost the morphologic features and phenotypic markers inherent in the in vivo gallbladder mucosa, and autophagic vacuoles appeared transiently, reflecting epithelial cell injury, or remodelling, or both. After 12 hours, mucin dots appeared in clumps of epithelial cells and gradually became larger, and the epithelial cell clumps were transformed into multicellular cysts after 1 to 2 days. The luminal surfaces of the mucin dots (intracytoplasmic inclusions or small lumens sealed by several epithelial cells) and multicellular cysts were covered by microvilli and presented profiles of
  https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Reestablishment-of-rabbit-gallbladder-epithelial-c-Yoshida-Katayanagi/e1bff04316630201f62809d2f3a0a5f8d87eaecb
*  Plus it
106 Gallbladder carcinomas carry poor prognosis and difficulties with treatment, often due to late stage diagnosis, highly malignant nature, and limited knowledge regarding the pathogenesis. Overexpression of erbB2 in gallbladder epithelial cells in BK5.erbB2 transgenic mice leads to development of adenocarcinoma in 90% of the homozygous transgenic mice. This transgenic mouse model provided a useful tool for investigating the mechanism of erbB2 induced development of gallbladder carcinoma. We detected that erbB2 overexpression in transgenic gallbladder epithelial cells was associated with a high level of EGFR and both erbB2 and EGFR were constitutively activated. We further analyzed the downstream of erbB2/EGFR signaling in gallbladder epithelial cells from BK5.erbB2 mice to investigate the mechanism of carcinogenesis. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that activated Akt was predominantly nuclear in gallbladder epithelial cells from the transgenic mice, but not in nontransgenic mice. Western ...
  http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/67/9_Supplement/106
*  Functional and ultrastructural features of ethanol/bile salts interaction in the isolated perfused rat liver - Alvaro - 1995 -...
We investigated whether bile salts (BS) with different hydrophobic-hydrophilic properties interact with ethanol on bile secretion, enzyme (aspartate transaminase [AST], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH]) release in the perfusate, liver ultrastructure, and vesicular exocytosis in the isolated perfused rat liver. Ethanol (0.1 or 1%) promoted a rapid decrease of bile flow and BS secretion in livers perfused with taurocholate (TCA), the physiologic BS in the rat (−28% decrease of baseline values with 0.1% and −34% with 1% ethanol). The inhibitory effect of ethanol on bile flow and BS secretion was significantly (P , .02) attenuated by perfusing liver with the hydrophilic BS, tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDCA), and it was exacerbated (P , .02) by perfusion with the hydrophobic BS, taurodeoxycholate (TDCA). The release of AST and LDH in the perfusate was unaffected by 0.1% ethanol, but increased threefold to fivefold by 1% ethanol in TCA-perfused livers. This cytolitic effect of ethanol was not observed in ...
  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hep.1840210435/abstract
*  Abstract 143: Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Impairs Vascular Function Through Enhanced Nadph Oxidase Activity and Reduction in...
Cardiovascular diseases are associated with the induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The induction of ER stress in C57BL/6J and p47phox-/- mice, by the injection of tunicamycin, greatly impaired vascular endothelium-dependent relaxation in C57BL/6J than in p47phox-/- mice. To determine the mechanism by which ER stress impairs endothelium function, we incubated mice primary endothelial cells from coronary arteries (ECs) with tunicamycin (1 μg/mL) for 6 h in the presence or absence of two ER stress inhibitors (Tudca, 500 μg/mL and PBA, 10 mM). Tunicamycin increased the phosphorylation of PERK and eIF2alpha, the expression of CHOP, ATF6 and Bip, Nox2/Nox4 mRNA levels, NADPH oxidase activity and superoxide anion levels. In addition, phosphorylated eNOS and nitrites levels were reduced with tunicamycin. All these events were prevented, at least partially, with the inhibition of ER stress. Tunicamycin treatment or the transfection of ECs with plasmids that express ATF6 or CHOP reduced the ...
  http://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/60/Suppl_1/A143
*  TOM CLARK: Jorge Luis Borges: El hilo de la fábula / The thread of the story
Taurine is conjugated via its amino terminal group with chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid to form the bile salts sodium taurochenodeoxycholate and sodium taurocholate. The low pKa[12] of taurine's sulfonic acid group ensures this moiety is negatively charged in the pH ranges normally found in the intestinal tract and, thus, improves the surfactant properties of the cholic acid conjugate. Taurine crosses the blood-brain barrier[13][14][15] and has been implicated in a wide array of physiological phenomena including inhibitory neurotransmission,[16] long-term potentiation in the striatum/hippocampus,[17] membrane stabilization,[18] feedback inhibition of neutrophil/macrophage respiratory burst, adipose tissue regulation and possible prevention of obesity,[19][20] calcium homeostasis,[21] recovery from osmotic shock,[22] ...
  http://tomclarkblog.blogspot.com/2011/03/jorge-luis-borges-el-hilo-de-la-fabula.html?showComment=1301319207610
*  4-Phenylbutyrate Inhibits Tunicamycin-Induced Acute Kidney Injury via CHOP/GADD153 Repression
Different forms of acute kidney injury (AKI) have been associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress; these include AKI caused by acetaminophen, antibiotics, cisplatin, and radiocontrast. Tunicamycin (TM) is a nucleoside antibiotic known to induce ER stress and is a commonly used inducer of AKI. 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) is an FDA approved substance used in children who suffer from urea cycle disorders. 4-PBA acts as an ER stress inhibitor by aiding in protein folding at the molecular level and preventing misfolded protein aggregation. The main objective of this study was to determine if 4-PBA could protect from AKI induced by ER stress, as typified by the TM-model, and what mechanism(s) of 4-PBA's action were responsible for protection. C57BL/6 mice were treated with saline, TM or TM plus 4-PBA. 4-PBA partially protected the anatomic segment most susceptible to damage, the outer medullary stripe, from TM-induced AKI. In vitro work showed that 4-PBA protected human proximal tubular cells from
  http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0084663
*  Plus it
Data from recent studies (15,18,22,23) conducted in both rodent models and human subjects have demonstrated that obesity is associated with liver and adipose tissue but not muscle ER stress. Treating obese mice with TUDCA, which acts as a chemical chaperone that reduces ER stress in liver and adipose tissue, results in improved insulin sensitivity in liver, muscle, and adipose tissue (18). However, the use of agents that can decrease ER stress to treat obesity-associated insulin resistance has not been evaluated in people. Accordingly, we conducted a randomized controlled trial to determine the effect of 4 weeks of treatment with TUDCA on multiorgan insulin sensitivity and factors involved in regulating insulin action in obese subjects with insulin resistance. Our data demonstrate that TUDCA therapy increases hepatic and muscle insulin action in vivo with a concomitant increase in the phosphorylation of components of the muscle insulin-signaling pathway. Moreover, the magnitude of the ...
  http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/59/8/1899