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*  P/O ratio and animal performance | Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences
... a process through which substrate molecules are first oxidized by the tricarboxylic acid cycle to produce the reducing ... situated within the inner mitochondrial membrane and then to the final acceptor, oxygen. The electron flow through the ETC ... The nature of the metabolic substrate oxidized by the mitochondria affects not only the P/O ratio but also the ratio of carbon ... 1961 Coupling of phosphorylation to electron and hydrogen transfer by a chemi-osmotic type of mechanism. Nature 191, 144-148. ( ...
  http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/282/1812/20151028
*  Structural Biochemistry/Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid cycle) - Wikibooks, open books for an open world
NAD+ is used as electron acceptor and CoA as the carrier of the succinyl group. This reaction is virtually identical to the ... Citric Acid Cycle[edit]. Other name for citric acid cycle is tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle. The citric acid ... The carbon center located in the TPP is ionized to form a carbanion which is added to the carbonyl group of pyruvate. As part ... Aconitase is an iron-sulfur protein that participate in the dehydration and rehydration of the substrate. ...
  https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Structural_Biochemistry/Krebs_Cycle_
*  The Krebs Cycle :) | justanotherbiochemian
This brought major advances in biochemistry , not only does the cycle breakdown pyruvate but it also acts a central pathway for ... The krebs cycle has many different names including tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and also citric acid cycle. ... Decarboxylation - this is catalysed by decarboxylase enzymes and involves carbon atoms being remove from the Krebs cycle ... These two compounds NAD and FAD will be oxidised in the electron transport chain to yield energy that would synthesis ATP from ...
  https://chelseaharripersad.wordpress.com/2013/04/13/the-krebs-cycle/
*  Syntrophy in Anaerobic Global Carbon Cycles
Geobacter sulfurreducens oxidizes acetate by the tricarboxylic acid cycle [26] while Thermacetogenium phaeum uses the Wood- ... and use benzoate as an electron acceptor to form cyclohexane carboxylate with crotonate as the electron donor [43]. The type of ... Syntrophic benzoate degradation (Table 1) is an enigma because it is unclear how known substrate-level phosphorylation and ion- ... Syntrophy in Anaerobic Global Carbon Cycles. Michael J. McInerney,1 Jessica R. Sieber,1 and Robert P. Gunsalus. 2 ...
  http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC2790021/
*  MB C5 Self Quiz (by tokia) - Memorize.com - Learn and Remember
Krebs cycle. Also is know as the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) or as the citric acid cycle. ... Anaerobic pathway that uses an organic final electron acceptor. Photosymthesis. Pathway that uses carbon dioxide light and ... enzymes generally exhibit a high degree of specificity for one particular substrate...enzymes have a region called the active ... Electron transport. Transfer of electron to final electron acceptor (oxygen) 22. The end products of photosynthesis in ...
  http://memorize.com/mb-c5-self-quiz/tokia
*  Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Kyu Y. Rhee
Gluconeogenic Carbon Flow of Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Intermediates is Critical for Mycobacterium Tuberculosis to Establish and ... in response to varying degrees of O2 limitation and the presence or absence of the alternate electron acceptor nitrate. This ... Para-aminosalicylic Acid Acts As an Alternative Substrate of Folate Metabolism in Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Science (New York ... to confirm that PEPCK is essential for growth of Mtb on fatty acids and catalyzes carbon flow from tricarboxylic acid cycle- ...
  https://www.jove.com/author/Kyu++Y._Rhee
*  Pyruvate carboxylase - Wikipedia
... for the tricarboxylic acid cycle (essential to provide oxaloacetate), when intermediates are removed for different biosynthetic ... In the second reaction, occurring in the CT domain of an adjacent monomer, carbon dioxide is transferred to the acceptor ... Cohen ND, Beegen H, Utter MF, Wrigley NG (March 1979). "A re-examination of the electron microscopic appearance of pyruvate ... diabetes similarly increases gluconeogenesis through enhanced uptake of substrate and increased flux through liver PC in mice ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyruvate_carboxylase
*  18.3.1 - Root respiration and anaerobic metabolism | Plants in Action
Anoxia prevents pyruvate from entering the TCA cycle because O2 is unavailable as a terminal electron acceptor. Carbon is ... Roots in drained soil respire by catabolising carbohydrates in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, with the 'reducing power' ... Carbohydrates are then broken down via fermentative pathways to yield at least some ATP, produced during substrate-level ... produced used in the electron transport chain (ETC) with O2 as the terminal electron acceptor. Energy in the form of ATP is ...
  http://plantsinaction.science.uq.edu.au/content/1831-root-respiration-and-anaerobic-metabolism
*  metabolism | Definition, Process, & Biology - The study of metabolic pathways | Britannica.com
The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle*Formation of coenzyme A, carbon dioxide, and reducing equivalent ... another TCA cycle intermediate [28]. Either NADP+ or both NADP+ and NAD+ may serve as the hydrogen or electron acceptor, ... The loss of the two molecules of carbon dioxide in steps [41] and [42] does not yield biologically useful energy. The substrate ... The 16-carbon fatty acid, palmitic acid, for example, undergoes a total of seven such cycles, yielding eight molecules of ...
  https://www.britannica.com/science/metabolism/The-study-of-metabolic-pathways
*  Citric acid cycle
The citric acid cycle, also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) or the Krebs cycle, (On rare occasions the citric ... The citric acid cycle begins with acetyl-CoA transferring its two-carbon acetyl group to the four-carbon acceptor compound ( ... Glycolysis → Pyruvate Decarboxylation → Citric Acid Cycle → Oxidative Phosphorylation (Electron Transport Chain + ATP synthase) ... The regulation of the TCA cycle is largely determined by substrate availability and product inhibition. NADH, a product of all ...
  http://www.chemeurope.com/en/encyclopedia/Citric_acid_cycle.html
*  Genome resolved analysis of a premature infant gut microbial community reveals a Varibaculum cambriense genome and a shift...
... this organism is able to process various sugar substrates and make use of multiple different electron acceptors during ... Twelve of these genomes share >90% putative ortholog amino acid identity with reference genomes. Manual curation of the ... V. cambriense tricarboxylic acid cycle. There is strong evidence for a tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and respiratory capacity ... the TCA cycle, and substrate degradation reactions (ethanol degradation, for example) can be used as electron donors during ...
  https://microbiomejournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/2049-2618-1-30
*  High-value biomass from microalgae production platforms: strategies and progress based on carbon metabolism and energy...
Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle, tricarboxylic acid cycle, glycolysis pathway and processes of product biosynthesis in microalgae, ... The coordination of carbon and energy fluxes is emerging as the potential strategy to increase efficiency of carbon fixation ... In this review, we provide an overview of the recent advances in carbon and energy fluxes of light-dependent reaction, ... Engineering strategies by regulating carbon partitioning and energy route are capable of improving the efficiencies of ...
  https://biotechnologyforbiofuels.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13068-018-1225-6
*  Krebs cycle facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Krebs cycle
Make research projects and school reports about Krebs cycle easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... and pictures about Krebs cycle at Encyclopedia.com. ... Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle; tricarboxylic acid cycle; TCA ... also called the tricarboxylic acid cycle or citric acid cycle). In the Krebs cycle, the carbon of pyruvate is fully oxidized to ... After condensation, the oxaloacetic acid and acetyl CoA react to produce citric acid, which serves as a substrate for seven ...
  https://www.encyclopedia.com/science-and-technology/biochemistry/biochemistry/krebs-cycle
*  Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Molecular Ecology, Archaea.
C. RTCA Cycle Enzymes. We also study another model CO2 fixation system, the reductive tricarboxylic acid (RTCA) pathway, in ... Indeed, knocking out the cbb system, under conditions where CO2 is normally used as an electron acceptor and not a carbon ... the enzyme that catalyses the formation of the substrate for RubisCO. Transketolase and pentose 5-phosphate-3-epimerase are two ... Carbon dioxide may also be employed as the sole source of carbon by a large and diverse group of organisms on this planet. For ...
  http://osumicrobiology.org/faculty/ftabita.htm
*  MitochondriaLab Background
... the Krebs cycle also known as the citric acid cycle, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle), and (3) the electron ... Many of the electron acceptor molecules are iron-containing proteins called cytochromes. The cytochromes are clustered together ... Each of these molecules serves as a substrate for the next enzyme in the Krebs cycle and some of these intermediates serve to ... When performed under aerobic conditions his studies established that organic acids could be oxidized to produce carbon dioxide ...
  http://www.sciencecourseware.org/biologylabsonline/protected/MitochondriaLab/bkgtext.php
*  Ch.5 Flashcards by Julissa Garcia | Brainscape
An ATP-generating process in which molecules are oxidized and the final electron acceptor is (almost always) an inorganic ... Krebs Cycle/ Citric Acid/ Tricarboxylic Acid (TCA) 14 Cellular respiration ... ATP is usually generated when a high-energy phosphate is directly transferred from a phosphorylated compound (a substrate) to ... The conversion of light energy from the sun into chemical energy; The light-fueled synthesis of carbohydrates from carbon ...
  https://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/ch5-4824165/packs/7152208
*  Frontiers | Defining the metabolic requirements for the growth and colonization capacity of Campylobacter jejuni | Frontiers in...
... which plays the central role in controlling the carbon flow by connecting the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle with the lower ... which represents a growth substrate but also a precursor of the alternative electron acceptor fumarate for C. jejuni, as ... The TCA cycle intermediate succinate is not only a carbon and energy source for C. jejuni but serves also as an electron donor ... acetate and intermediates of the TCA cycle as well as a restricted number of amino acids. The importance of organic acids for ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fcimb.2014.00137/full
*  Citric acid cycle - Wikipedia
The citric acid cycle begins with the transfer of a two-carbon acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to the four-carbon acceptor ... The citric acid cycle (CAC) - also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle - is a series of chemical ... The regulation of the citric acid cycle is largely determined by product inhibition and substrate availability. If the cycle ... also acting as an intermediate in the electron transport chain. The citric acid cycle is continuously supplied with new carbon ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citric_acid_cycle
*  Cellular Respiration. Review. Glycolysis. The Krebs Cycle - PDF
... citric acid), the Krebs cycle is also known as the citric acid cycle or the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The CO 2 produced ... 3 Cellular Respiration The final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain is oxygen. The 1 2 O 2 accepts the two ... carbon-carbon bond formation dehydration hydration decarboxylation oxidation reduction substrate level phosphorylation ... The Krebs Cycle The Krebs cycle details what happens to pyruvate, the end product of glycolysis. Although the Krebs cycle is ...
  http://docplayer.net/39498819-Cellular-respiration-review-glycolysis-the-krebs-cycle.html
*  Lecture: 4 Biochemistry Anwar J Almzaiel. Citric acid cycle - PDF
Krebs cycle, tricarboxylic acid cycle) is a series of reactions in mitochondria that bring about the catabolism of acetyl ... Electrons are stripped from a fuel substrate (e.g., glucose) and passed to the appropriate electron acceptor, ... Lactic Acid Dehydrogenase Pyruvic Acid Dehydrogenase Complex Pyruvate to ACETYL coa CC CoA + CO 2 Mitochondria 3 carbon ... 1 Citric acid cycle Citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle, tricarboxylic acid cycle) is a series of reactions in mitochondria that ...
  http://docplayer.net/27235365-Lecture-4-biochemistry-anwar-j-almzaiel-citric-acid-cycle.html
*  Cellular respiration - Wikipedia
This is also called the Krebs cycle or the tricarboxylic acid cycle. When oxygen is present, acetyl-CoA is produced from the ... 2 Carbon Dioxide + 2 Hydrogen 3. Krebs Cycle: --- 2 Acetyl CoA + 3 O2 → 6 Hydrogen + 4 Carbon Dioxide + 2 ATPs 4. Electron ... amino acids and fatty acids, and the most common oxidizing agent (electron acceptor) is molecular oxygen (O2). The chemical ... per molecule of glucose Substrate-level phosphorylation: 2 ATP from glycolysis + 2 ATP (directly GTP) from Krebs cycle ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cellular_respiration
*  Vitamins and trace elements : Oxford Textbook of Medicine - oi
... carries two-carbon (acetyl) fragments into the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Thus a small group of molecules derived from the B ... Oxygen is the final electron acceptor when food is oxidized, but the transfer from energy substrate to oxygen is not direct; it ... Although molecular oxygen is an ideal final electron acceptor, 'danger lurks in the reduction of O2'. Partial reduction, ... folate for one-carbon groups, and coenzyme A (pantothenate) ...
  http://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.1093/med/9780199204854.003.01102
*  Frontiers | Sending Out an SOS: Mitochondria as a Signaling Hub | Cell and Developmental Biology
Liu, Z., and Butow, R. A. (1999). A transcriptional switch in the expression of yeast tricarboxylic acid cycle genes in ... DHODH activity is critically dependent on OXPHOS activity and the presence of reduced ubiquinone as a direct electron acceptor ... Succinate, fumarate and 2-ketoglutarate are the four-carbon and five-carbon metabolites of the TCA cycle, respectively. These ... One distinctive feature of NAD+ is that cells can utilize it as both a cofactor and a co-substrate (Canto et al., 2015; Verdin ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fcell.2016.00109/full
*  Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Peter-Leon Hagedoorn
It is therefore not expected to use the oxidative tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle for energy transduction. Nonetheless, its ... state can be trapped only by reduction with substrate, with consecutive one-electron intraprotein electron transfer to the ... this is a stable state in the absence of an external electron acceptor. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy ... enzymes catalyze important redox reactions in the global carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur cycles. Except in nitrogenases both ...
  https://www.jove.com/author/Peter-Leon_Hagedoorn
*  Loss of malic enzymes leads to metabolic imbalance and altered levels of trehalose and putrescine in the bacterium...
... pyruvate is oxidized via the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and the resulting reductant is passed-on to the electron acceptor O ... and balances TCA cycle flux in cells that are utilizing a gluconeogenic substrate such as succinate as a source of carbon. We ... Tricarboxylic acid cycle and anaplerotic enzymes in rhizobia. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 1998;22:105-23.View ArticlePubMedGoogle ... However, fatty acid biosynthesis involves NADPH as an electron donor [1], and thus, the increased fatty acid biosynthesis may ...
  https://0-bmcmicrobiol-biomedcentral-com.brum.beds.ac.uk/articles/10.1186/s12866-016-0780-x