*  Threshold changes in vegetation along a grazing gradient in Mongolian rangelands - Sasaki - 2007 - Journal of Ecology - Wiley...
The concept of a threshold has become important in ecology and natural resources management (Lindenmayer & Luck 2005; Briske et al. 2006; Groffman et al. 2006). Critical thresholds occur when the response of a species or ecological process to disturbance is not linear, but instead changes abruptly at some threshold level. Exceeding this threshold leads to a loss of ecosystem functions and biodiversity; change in the opposite direction can instead lead to recovery if the threshold change can be reversed. Typical examples include observations that the loss of native vegetation cover to levels below a threshold leads to increased loss of species that depend on that native vegetation (Fahrig 2003; Radford et al. 2005) and that floristic composition changes abruptly at a threshold distance from habitat edges (Toms & Lesperance 2003). A comprehensive understanding of whether such ...
  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2007.01315.x/full
*  Frontiers | Vestibular Perceptual Thresholds Increase above the Age of 40 | Neurology
We measured vestibular perceptual thresholds in 105 healthy humans (54F/51M) ranging from 18 to 80 years of age. Direction-recognition thresholds were measured using standard methods. The motion consisted of single cycles of sinusoidal acceleration at 0.2 Hz for roll tilt and 1.0 Hz for yaw rotation about an earth-vertical axis, inter-aural earth-horizontal translation (y-translation), inferior-superior earth-vertical translation (z-translation), and roll tilt. A large subset of this population (99 of 105) also performed a modified Romberg test of standing balance. Despite the relatively large population (54F/51M), we found no difference between thresholds of male and female subjects. After pooling across sex, we found that thresholds increased above the age of 40 for all five motion-directions investigated. The data were best modeled by a two-segment age model that yielded a constant baseline below an age cut-off of about 40 and a ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fneur.2016.00162/full
*  ModelDB: AP back-prop. explains threshold variability and rapid rise (McCormick et al. 2007, Yu et al. 2008)
These model files were for the paper: Yu Y.G., Shu Y., Duque A., Haider B., and McCormick D.A. Cortical Action Potential Back-propagation Explains Spike Threshold Variability and Rapid-Onset Kinetics. Journal of Neuroscience, 28: 7260-7272, (2008). and also McCormick D.A., Shu Y., and Yu Y.G. Neurophysiology: Hodgkin and Huxley model - still standing? Nature. 445: E1-E2, (2007). This simple axon-soma model explained how the rapid rising phase in somatic spike is derived from propagated axon initiated spike. Creates a single cell containing a dendrite, soma, an axon with 60 micrometer and a axon bleb to investigate generation of spike kink at soma. As observed in experiment, spikes are usually initiated at the axon site 40~70 micrometer away from soma. There is a rapid rising phase in somatic spike, due to the initial segment traveling spike. After running the code, there is an output data file called 'neuron_soma.dat' Use the matlab code for_plot_spike.m to plot the somatic spike and axon ...
  https://senselab.med.yale.edu/ModelDB/ShowModel.cshtml?model=135839
*  ASTM E1432 - 04(2011) Standard Practice for Defining and Calculating Individual and Group Sensory Thresholds from Forced-Choice...
E1432 - 04(2011) Standard Practice for Defining and Calculating Individual and Group Sensory Thresholds from Forced-Choice Data Sets of Intermediate Size , air pollution, odor, panel, sensory evaluation, taste, 3-Alternative Forced-Choice Presentation, threshold, water pollution,
  https://www.astm.org/Standards/E1432.htm
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*  Storex Recycled Wall Files, Letter Size, 2/Pack | Staples
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*  Classification images predict absolute efficiency | JOV | ARVO Journals
In the 1 we give a full proof that Equation 5 recovers a linear observer's absolute efficiency, but here we briefly describe why the equation works. The key term is (C ⊗ TI)2, the squared cross-correlation of the classification image with the ideal template. Two factors are at play in this term: the similarity of the observer's template to the ideal template - sometimes called sampling efficiency - and the observer's internal noise power. Because the classification image estimates the observer's template, this cross-correlation will be higher when the observer's template is similar to the ideal template (i.e., when the observer has higher sampling efficiency). Furthermore, because a classification image has a greater signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for an observer with low internal noise (see discussion of Equation 16 in the 1), the cross-correlation will be higher for an observer with low internal noise. Thus sampling efficiency and internal noise power both affect the cross-correlation. They ...
  http://jov.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2121826
*  Patent US6587723 - Method and system for automatically measuring capture threshold in an ... - Google Patents
An implantable cardiac stimulation device with automatic threshold testing capabilities. The device utilizes an algorithm for measuring a first and a second threshold settings. The first threshold setting is determined by decreasing the stimulation energy from an initially high, supra-threshold value until loss of capture is detected, and is set as the pulse energy at which capture is still detected. The second threshold setting is determined by increasing the stimulation energy from an initially low, sub-threshold value until capture is detected, and is set as the stimulation energy at which capture is regained. The algorithm further determines if the threshold test results are reliable by comparing the difference between the first and second threshold settings to an expected difference, known as the Wedensky Effect value. A deviation from the Wedensky Effect value which is ...
  http://www.google.com/patents/US6587723?dq=5920316
*  Validation of a Tablet as a Tangent Perimeter | TVST | ARVO Journals
The steps used by the MRF were scaled to range from 0 to 30 dB over seven discrete levels. Adopting seven levels retains estimates within the capacity of the 8-bit output and can be justified in terms of sampling efficiency. Optimizing sampling efficiency recognizes that threshold variability increases with reduced sensitivity, so step size needs to increase. The conclusion is that seven to eight steps are optimal to sample over a range of 30 dB.12 We have adopted a three-presentation binary Baysean protocol to yield eight steps (23) across the 30-dB range (Zippy Estimation by Sequential Testing, ZEST). Our thresholding approach is a binary logic that commences at a level (probability density function [PDF]; see Fig. 1 of Vingrys and Pianta13) that is easily visible to 97.5% of normal observers (17 dB). This starting value has the advantage that it provides reinforcement of the task in regions of normal sensitivity, because it is easily seen, and can be used as a screening ...
  http://tvst.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2534339
*  Patent US6868114 - Interference suppression in a spread spectrum communications system using ... - Google Patents
In a frequency-domain excision system for a wide band receiver, a window function is applied to blocks of received signal samples and a transform function is applied to the windowed blocks. Each block of frequency-domain coefficients from the transform function is morphologically filtered to generate a threshold function representing an estimate of the spectrum of the desired wide band signal, and a non-linear gain function is applied to the coefficients. The gain function has a fixed-gain region for input values less than a threshold value from the threshold function, an excision region for input values greater than a multiple of the threshold value, and a soft limiting region between the fixed-gain region and the excision region. The inverse transform is performed on the excised blocks of coefficients, and an overlap-eliminating central portion of the inverse of the window function is applied to the resulting blocks of signal samples.
  http://www.google.com/patents/US6868114?dq=7,603,356
*  Discount Xerox 100% Recycled Bond Paper, 92 Brightness, 20-lbs., 8-1/2" x 11", Letter Size, White, 5000 Sheets Per Carton
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*  Discount Xerox 100% Recycled Bond Paper, 92 Brightness, 20-lbs., 8-1/2" x 11", Letter Size, White, 5000 Sheets Per Carton
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*  C Line 8 Pocket Spiral Bound Poly Portfolio Letter Size Assorted Colors | Staples
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*  Discount C-Line Biodegradable 13-Pocket Poly Expanding Files, Button & Elastic Closure, Letter Size, Assorted Colors, 3 Per Pack
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*  "A 32 kb 10T sub-threshold sram array with bit-interleaving and differe" by Ik Joon Chang, Jae-Joon Kim et al.
Ultra-low voltage operation of memory cells has become a topic of much interest due to its applications in very low energy computing and communications. However, due to parameter variations in scaled technologies, stable operation of SRAMs is critical for the success of low-voltage SRAMs. It has been shown that conventional 6T SRAMs fail to achieve reliable subthreshold operation. Hence, researchers have considered different configuration SRAMs for subthreshold operations having single-ended 8T or 10T bit-cells for improved stability. While these bit-cells improve SRAM stability in subthreshold region significantly, the single-ended sensing methods suffer from reduced bit-line swing due to bit-line leakage noise. In addition, efficient bit-interleaving in column may not be possible and hence, the multiple-bit soft ...
  http://docs.lib.purdue.edu/ecepubs/8/
*  Plus it
The ECLAMC surveillance data, like data from other surveillance systems,3132 records diagnoses made by clinicians for clinical (not research) purposes, which are only to a limited extent subject to standardisation by belonging to a surveillance network. In our data, about half of cases had a head size larger than −3 SD (according to the Intergrowth curve), including some larger than −2 SD in whom other signs indicated an abnormally small brain. This is despite the ECLAMC recommendation to use a threshold of −3 SD. Some of this discrepancy may relate to differences between the growth charts used (Intergrowth charts were not widely used in this period) and whether they explicitly show the −3 SD threshold measurements. Most readily available charts, including Intergrowth, showed only the third centile during this period,35414243 the third centile being equivalent to the lowest 3% of measurements of the reference population compared with 2.3% for −2 SD and 0.13% for −3 SD in a ...
  http://www.bmj.com/content/359/bmj.j5018
*  Spike-accomodation in the hippocampus
In article ,2k61tf$p90 at news.u.washington.edu,, wcalvin at u.washington.edu (William Calvin) writes: ,, kisley at spot.Colorado.EDU (Michael Kisley) writes: ,, ,, ,I am seeking references regarding spike-accomodation in pyramidal cells ,, ,(or any other cell types) in the hippocampal formation. I am primarily ,, ,speaking of the tendency for decreased spiking response to non-novel ,, ,stimulation. Nevertheless, I'd likely be interested in looking at any paper ,, ,, What you are looking for is generally called 'adaptation' in spiking; ,, 'accommodation' is generally reserved for threshold changes to a slow ,, depolarization. Actually, the tendency to 'ignore' non-novel stimuli can also be a form of accommodation since it can occur as a function of threshold modification. See; AV Hill (1936) Excitation and Accommodation in Nerve. Proc. Royal Soc. London, B, 119:305:355 and some variation on the theme to include spiking behavior: BR Parnas and ER Lewis (1993) A ...
  http://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/neur-sci/1994-February/013430.html
*  Plus it
Our results demonstrate that contrast thresholds for increments and decrements are similar across different spatial frequencies (Fig. 1B,C). However, at suprathreshold levels in noisy backgrounds, we show that darks are perceived remarkably faster and more accurately than lights. Moreover, we show that the advantage to perceive darks disappears when the background is adjusted to correct for the irradiation illusion. The perceptual advantage for darks with a simple detection task is consistent with recent studies showing a dominant representation of dark stimuli in early visual processing (Ahmad et al., 2003; Jin et al., 2008, 2011; Yeh et al., 2009; Xing et al., 2010).. Our threshold results contradict previous psychophysical claims that observers are more sensitive to decrements than increments at threshold (Blackwell, 1946; Krauskopf, 1980). The short presentations of incremental and decremental gratings in our study (Fig. 1A) were ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/31/23/8654
*  AIIMS AIPMT JIPMER MCAT - Human Neural System Practice Questions - HourlyBook
16. An investigator places an isolated neuron in a calcium-free medium, gives the neuron a suprathreshold stimulus and then performs an assay to test whether neurotransmitter is released into the medium. Which of the following outcomes would you predict? ...
  https://www.hourlybook.com/aiims-aipmt-jipmer-mcat-human-neural-system-practice-questions/
*  Probability and Threshold Test Page
Bar graphs indicate the probability of selected flight category element. The color represents the difference (using 10% thresholds between categories) between the probability and the threshold required to make a categorical forecast. Solid black lines indicate the threshold value at each hour ...
  http://www.nws.noaa.gov/mdl/gfslamp/uncertplots.php?sta=KBRL&elm=cig3000
*  Probability and Threshold Test Page
Bar graphs indicate the probability of selected flight category element. The color represents the difference (using 10% thresholds between categories) between the probability and the threshold required to make a categorical forecast. Solid black lines indicate the threshold value at each hour ...
  http://www.nws.noaa.gov/mdl/gfslamp/uncertplots.php?sta=KCAR&elm=cig3000
*  Probability and Threshold Test Page
Bar graphs indicate the probability of selected flight category element. The color represents the difference (using 10% thresholds between categories) between the probability and the threshold required to make a categorical forecast. Solid black lines indicate the threshold value at each hour ...
  http://www.nws.noaa.gov/mdl/gfslamp/uncertplots.php?sta=KCQC&elm=cig3000
*  Probability and Threshold Test Page
Bar graphs indicate the probability of selected flight category element. The color represents the difference (using 10% thresholds between categories) between the probability and the threshold required to make a categorical forecast. Solid black lines indicate the threshold value at each hour ...
  http://www.nws.noaa.gov/mdl/gfslamp/uncertplots.php?sta=KGWO&elm=cig3000
*  Probability and Threshold Test Page
Bar graphs indicate the probability of selected flight category element. The color represents the difference (using 10% thresholds between categories) between the probability and the threshold required to make a categorical forecast. Solid black lines indicate the threshold value at each hour ...
  http://www.nws.noaa.gov/mdl/gfslamp/uncertplots.php?sta=KVLL&elm=cig3000