*  Redox factor-1 | definition of Redox factor-1 by Medical dictionary
Looking for online definition of Redox factor-1 in the Medical Dictionary? Redox factor-1 explanation free. What is Redox factor-1? Meaning of Redox factor-1 medical term. What does Redox factor-1 mean?
*  "Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 2 is necessary for normal B cell de" by Jeroen E. J. Guikema, Rachel M. Gerstein et al.
B cell development involves rapid cellular proliferation, gene rearrangements, selection, and differentiation, and it provides a powerful model to study DNA repair processes in vivo. Analysis of the contribution of the base excision repair pathway in lymphocyte development has been lacking primarily owing to the essential nature of this repair pathway. However, mice deficient for the base excision repair enzyme, apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 2 (APE2) protein develop relatively normally, but they display defects in lymphopoiesis. In this study, we present an extensive analysis of bone marrow hematopoiesis in mice nullizygous for APE2 and find an inhibition of the pro-B to pre-B cell transition. We find that APE2 is not required for V(D)J recombination and that the turnover rate of APE2-deficient progenitor B cells is nearly normal. However, the production rate of pro- and pre-B cells is reduced due to a p53-dependent DNA damage response. ...
*  Reduction of Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease Expression After Transient Global Cerebral Ischemia in Rats | Stroke
The present study provides evidence that the reduction of the DNA repair enzyme APE/Ref-1 has a role in the apoptotic cell death pathway in delayed neuronal damage after transient global cerebral ischemia. Delayed neuronal cell death and selective vulnerability in the hippocampal CA1 neurons after transient global ischemia have been investigated in great detail.8 23 In this study, we observed by DNA electrophoresis a significant amount of DNA fragmentation in the vulnerable hippocampal CA1 subregion after global ischemia (Figure 1⇑) and TUNEL staining (Figures 2G⇑, 2H⇑, 5A⇑, and 5B⇑). In addition, the time course of increasing TUNEL-positive cells clearly showed that DNA fragmentation occurred in a delayed fashion after transient global ischemia (Figure 5B⇑). However, in light of the increasing evidence that astrocytes and oligodendrocytes could undergo apoptosis after brain injury, we cannot exclude the possibility that the observed ...
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Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1)/redox effector factor (Ref-1) is a key regulator of cellular response to oxidative stress. It is a multifunctional protein involved in both transcriptional regulation of gene expression during adaptive cellular response to oxidative stress, and in base excision repair pathway of DNA lesions generated as a consequence of oxidant-induced base damages. In the latter, APE1/Ref-1 contributes to the maintenance of the genome stability. APE1 normally resides in the nucleus and this is consistent with its established role in base excision repair and redox regulation of transcription factors [Tell et al 2009]. However, in some cancers, abnormal re-distribution of APE1 to the cytoplasm or its presence in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm without losing its ability to repair abasic DNA has been observed and these have baffled many researchers [Tell et al 2005]. We have recently identified ...
*  AP endonuclease paralogues with distinct activities in DNA repair and bacterial pathogenesis. - Oxford Neuroscience
Oxidative stress is a principal cause of DNA damage, and mechanisms to repair this damage are among the most highly conserved of biological processes. Oxidative stress is also used by phagocytes to attack bacterial pathogens in defence of the host. We have identified and characterised two apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease paralogues in the human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis. The presence of multiple versions of DNA repair enzymes in a single organism is usually thought to reflect redundancy in activities that are essential for cellular viability. We demonstrate here that these two AP endonuclease paralogues have distinct activities in DNA repair: one is a typical Neisserial AP endonuclease (NApe), whereas the other is a specialised 3'-phosphodiesterase Neisserial exonuclease (NExo). The lack of AP endonuclease activity of NExo is shown to be attributable to the presence of a histidine side chain, blocking the ...
*  Possible roles of β-elimination and δ-elimination reactions in the repair of DNA containing AP (apurinic/apyrimidinic) sites in...
Histones and polyamines nick the phosphodiester bond 3′ to AP (apurinic/apyrimidinic) sites in DNA by inducing a beta-elimination reaction, which can be followed by delta-elimination. These beta- and delta-elimination reactions might be important for the repair of AP sites in chromatin DNA in either of two ways. In one pathway, after the phosphodiester bond 5′ to the AP site has been hydrolysed with an AP endonuclease, the 5′-terminal base-free sugar 5′-phosphate is released by beta-elimination. The one-nucleotide gap limited by 3′-OH and 5′-phosphate ends is then closed by DNA polymerase-beta and DNA ligase. We have shown in vitro that such a repair is possible. In the other pathway, the nicking 3′ to the AP site by beta-elimination occurs first. We have shown that the 3′-terminal base-free sugar so produced cannot be released by the ...
*  apn-1 - DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase - Caenorhabditis elegans - apn-1 gene & protein
mitochondrion, nucleus, 3'-tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase activity, DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase activity, double-stranded DNA 3'-5' exodeoxyribonuclease activity, phosphoric diester hydrolase activity, base-excision repair
*  APEX1 antibody | pab50070 | Covalab - Covalab Biotechnology
DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase (APE-1) antibody | P27695 | APEX nuclease (APEN), Apurinic-apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (AP endonuclease 1), (APE-1), REF-1, Redox factor-1, APEX1, APE, APE1, APEX, APX, HAP1, REF1
*  Solid-State NMR Literature Blog: ASAP J. Am. Chem. Soc., ASAP Article, 10.1021/ja0776881
Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), a member of the divalent cation-dependent phosphoesterase superfamily of proteins that retain the conserved four-layered α/β-sandwich structural core, is an essential protein that functions as part of base excision repair to remove mutagenic and cytotoxic abasic sites from DNA. Using low-temperature solid-state 25Mg NMR spectroscopy and various mutants of APE1, we demonstrate that Mg2+ binds to APE1 and a functional APE1−substrate DNA complex with an overall stoichiometry of one Mg2+ per mole of APE1 as predicted by the X-ray work of Tainer and co-workers (Mol, C. D.; Kuo, C. F.; Thayer, M. M.; Cunningham, R. P.; Tainer, J. A. Nature 1995, 374, 381−386). However, the NMR spectra show that the single Mg2+ site is disordered. We discuss the probable reasons for the disorder at the Mg2+ binding site. The most likely source of this ...
*  Redox regulation of p53, redox effectors regulated by p53: a subtle balance.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated by cells as side products of biological reactions, function as secondary messengers by impacting a host of cellular networks involved in maintaining normal homeostatic growth as well as pathological disease st
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the 4th leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States. Aggressive treatment regimens have not changed the disease course, and the median survival has just recently reached a year. Several mechanisms are proposed to play a role in PDAC therapeutic resistance, including hypoxia, which creates a more aggressive phenotype with increased metastatic potential and impaired therapeutic efficacy. AP Endonuclease-1/ Redox Effector Factor 1 (APE1/Ref-1) is a multi-functional protein possessing a DNA repair function in base excision repair and the ability to reduce oxidized transcription factors, enabling them to bind to their DNA target sequences. APE1/Ref-1 regulates several transcription factors involved in survival mechanisms, tumor growth, and hypoxia signaling. Here, we explore the mechanisms underlying PDAC cell responses to hypoxia and modulation of APE1/Ref-1 redox signaling activity, which regulates the ...
*  FOXL2 gene | Cancer Genetics Web
Understanding of BRCA1/2 interaction with the base excision repair (BER) pathway could improve therapy based on 'synthetic lethality', whose effectiveness is based on homologous recombination deficiency in cells lacking functional BRCA genes. However, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors failed in some patients and for this reason we explored BER key enzyme expression. In this study, the expression of BER enzymes (redox factor 1/apurinic-apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (REF1/APEX1), NTH endonuclease III-like 1 (NTHL1), 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1), PARP1) and of the scaffold protein XRCC1 (X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 1) were investigated in familial (BRCA-related and not) and sporadic breast cancer cases. Furthermore, miR17 expression was measured because of its role in the epigenetic regulation of BRCA1. Gene expression was evaluated in BRCA1-mutated cell lines, SUM149PT and SUM1315MO2, and in a ...
*  Recombinant Human AP1S2 protein (ab108122) | Abcam
Buy our Recombinant Human AP1S2 protein. Ab108122 is a full length protein produced in Escherichia coli and has been validated in SDS-PAGE, MS. Abcam provides…
*  Recombinant Human AP2 alpha protein (ab114726) References
References for Abcam's Recombinant Human AP2 alpha protein (ab114726). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
*  Recombinant Human AP180 protein (ab160702) | Abcam
Buy our Recombinant Human AP180 protein. Ab160702 is a protein fragment produced in Wheat germ and has been validated in WB, ELISA. Abcam provides free…
*  NEIL3 - Endonuclease 8-like 3 - Homo sapiens (Human) - NEIL3 gene & protein
DNA glycosylase which prefers single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), or partially ssDNA structures such as bubble and fork structures, to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). In vitro, displays strong glycosylase activity towards the hydantoin lesions spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp) and guanidinohydantoin (Gh) in both ssDNA and dsDNA; also recognizes FapyA, FapyG, 5-OHU, 5-OHC, 5-OHMH, Tg and 8-oxoA lesions in ssDNA. No activity on 8-oxoG detected. Also shows weak DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase activity. In vivo, appears to be the primary enzyme involved in removing Sp and Gh from ssDNA in neonatal tissues. Seems to be an important facilitator of cell proliferation in certain populations, for example neural stem/progenitor cells and tumor cells, suggesting a role in ...
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DNA damaging agents such as the antitumor drugs bleomycin and neocarzinostatin or those that generate oxygen radicals produce a variety of lesions in DNA. Amongst these is base-loss which forms apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites or strand breaks with atypical 3'termini. DNA repair at the AP sites is initiated by specific endonuclease cleavage of the phosphodiester backbone. Such endonucleases are also generally capable of removing blocking groups from the 3'terminus of DNA strand breaks ...
*  SPR imaging for label-free multiplexed analyses of DNA N-glycosylase interactions with damaged DNA duplexes - Analyst (RSC...
Base excision repair (BER) is the major mechanism for the correction of damaged nucleobases resulting from the alkylation and oxidation of DNA. The first step in the BER pathway consists of excision of the abnormal base by several specific DNA N-glycosylases. A decrease in BER activity was found to
*  Best Videos of Awesome Creatures: mono humano - human ape
*  anti-APE1 antibody [13B8E5C2] | GeneTex
APE1 antibody [13B8E5C2] (APEX nuclease (multifunctional DNA repair enzyme) 1) for ICC/IF, IHC-Fr, IHC-P, IP, WB. Anti-APE1 mAb (GTX20194) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
*  APEX1 Pre-design Chimera RNAi - (H00000328-R03) - Products - Abnova
Homo sapiens APEX nuclease (multifunctional DNA repair enzyme) 1 (APEX1), transcript variant 3, mRNA. (H00000328-R03) - Products - Abnova
*  AP1G2 polyclonal antibody - (PAB31031) - Products - Abnova
Rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against partial recombiant human AP1G2. Recombinant protein corresponding to human AP1G2. (PAB31031) - Products - Abnova
*  Antievolution.org - Antievolution.org Discussion Board -Topic::DI EN&V
Venema's latter posts in the series discuss evidence that could count as weak, or circumstantial, evidence for common descent -- evidence such as high levels of human / ape genetic similarities. At most, however, this evidence shows circumstantial evidence for common ancestry. It says nothing about the information-generative abilities of random mutation and natural selection. Venema would have done well to heed Behe's advice in The Edge of Evolution that 'modern Darwinists point to evidence of common descent and erroneously assume it to be evidence of the power of random mutation.' In fact, if we factor into the analysis the possibility of common design of functional genetic programs, Venema's evidence doesn't even strongly point to common descent. But Venema ignores the possibility of common design ...
Shearman MS, Ragan CI, Iversen LL. Inhibition of PC12 cell redox activity is a specific, early indicator of the mechanism of beta-amyloid-mediated cell death ...
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SOURCE WRITES: K-Swiss has teamed up with A Bathing Ape to release a celebrated AAPE x K-Swiss Classic 66 collaborative release. Fully dressed in the ...