*  Global language system - Wikipedia
They were the dominant countries that had colonized many other nations from the early 15th century to the early 19th century. ... Besides, the world-systems theory also allowed the global language system to expand further. It focuses on the existence of the ... "translations and the manifold activities these imply are embedded in and dependent on a world system of translation, including ... The global language system draws upon the world system theory to account for the relationships between the world's languages ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_language_system
*  Connectionism - Wikipedia
Psychological theories based on knowledge about the human brain were fashionable in the late 19th century. As early as 1869, ... The neural network branch of connectionism suggests that the study of mental activity is really the study of neural systems. ... These tended to be speculative theories. But by the early 20th century, Edward Thorndike was experimenting on learning that ... Many recurrent connectionist models also incorporate dynamical systems theory. Many researchers, such as the connectionist Paul ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Connectionism
*  Systems theory - Wikipedia
... game theory and social network analysis. Sociological systems thinking started earlier, in the 19th century. Stichweh states ... It distinguishes dynamic or active systems from static or passive systems. Active systems are activity structures or components ... Systemography Systems architecture Systems ecology Systems theory in anthropology Systems theory in archaeology Systems theory ... Systems science portal List of types of systems theory Autonomous agency theory Bibliography of sociology Dynamical systems ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Systems_theory
*  Connect the Apocalypse
Again, defending a 19th century single-factor theory for a complex system like climate is absurd and I appreciate the ... Nir Shaviv has written an enlightening piece pointing to solar activity rather than CO2 as the cause of the late 20th century ... But I understand when you are defending an eccentric 19th century scientist's theory of an enormously complex system like ... The only definition of when the LIA ended is in its denomination: Usually the period from mid 16th to mid/late 19th century is ...
  http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/collideascape/2012/04/23/connect-the-apocalypse/
*  The Art of Noises - Wikipedia
Russolo states that "noise" first came into existence as the result of 19th century machines. Before this time the world was a ... The Greek musical theory was based on the tetrachord mathematics of Pythagoras, which did not allow for any harmonies. ... Developments and modifications to the Greek musical system were made during the Middle Ages, which led to music like Gregorian ... With the exception of storms, waterfalls, and tectonic activity, the noise that did punctuate this silence were not loud, ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Art_of_Noises
*  Moral treatment - Wikipedia
... were often scapegoated for the failures of the system. Towards the end of the 19th century, somatic theories, pessimism in ... It is well documented that there was very little therapeutic activity, and medics were little more than administrators who ... By the mid-19th century in England, the Alleged Lunatics' Friend Society was proclaiming that the new moral treatment was a ... Theories of hereditary degeneracy and eugenics took over, and in the 20th century the concepts of mental hygiene and mental ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moral_treatment
*  Chemical Reaction: Biology at the Cosmetics Counter
Metchnikoff's theories are now applied to healing, immune system enhancement, disease prevention and life extension. And, in ... At the turn of the 19th century, biologist Elias Metchnikoff wrote Prolongation of Life. The book promoted the connection ... Henkel KGaA1 screened materials for prebiotic activity using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), which enables the ... They can boost the immune system, and produce lactic and acetic acid that control pH. They also inhibit the growth of other ...
  http://www.gcimagazine.com/business/rd/13685497.html?mobi=y
*  Boston Harbor - Wikipedia
As early as the late 19th century Boston citizens were advised not to swim in any portion of the Harbor. In the 19th century ... river systems, and tidal reservoirs. This interpretation came to be known as the theory of Tidal scour. This understanding of ... The Boston Harbor's unique geography inspired the law that made land reclamation such a widespread activity in Boston. By the ... As the 19th century progressed the acceleration of urban growth dramatically increased the need for more land. The Ordinance of ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boston_Harbor
*  What s so Great about Free Trade?
Furthermore, late 19th-century and 20th century economists have created a set of false assumptions and theorems with no basis ... policies will transform economic activities and relations in ways that universally benefit working people are based on theories ... This is what List wrote (National System): It is a very common clever device that when anyone has attained the summit of ... My own opinion is that anything written by academic economists from the latter half of the 19th century to the present can be ...
  http://www.softpanorama.org/Skeptics/Political_skeptic/Neoliberalism/Myths_propagated_by_neoliberalism/free_trade.shtml
*  University of California, Irvine academics - Wikipedia
19th- and 20th century literature (22), psychology - cognitive science (22), sociology (27), aerospace engineering (29), ... UCI employs the traditional A-F grading scale and GPA system, modified for use with the quarter system. Students may elect to ... "English Specialty Rankings: Literary Criticism and Theory". US News & World Report. 2009. "Today@UCI: Quick Facts: Statistics ... This certificate program offers courses, lectures, seminars, and extracurricular activities related to the legal profession. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_California,_Irvine_academics
*  Naturphilosophie - Wikipedia
For most of the 19th and early 20th centuries, it was poorly understood in Anglophone countries. Over the years, it has been ... Criticism of Naturphilosophie has been widespread, over two centuries. Schelling's theories, however influential in terms of ... The Darstellung meines Systems, and the expanded treatment in the lectures on a System der gesamten Philosophie und der ... Nature as the sum of what is objective, and intelligence as the complex of all the activities making up self-consciousness, ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naturphilosophie
*  List of Russian scientists - Wikipedia
... founder of activity theory in psychology Peter Lesgaft, founder of the modern system of physical education in Russia Alexander ... leading mid-19th-century Russian historian, proponent of the Normanist theory Boris Polevoy, major historian of the Russian Far ... 17th-century historian of the Time of Troubles Evgeny Pashukanis, legal historian, wrote The General Theory of Law and Marxism ... prominent 19th-century field surgeon Victor Skumin, the first to describe a previously unknown disease, now called Skumin ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Russian_scientists
*  List of Russian physicians and psychologists - Wikipedia
... founder of activity theory in psychology Peter Lesgaft, founder of the modern system of physical education in Russia Andrey ... prominent 19th-century field surgeon Victor Skumin, first to describe a previously unknown disease, now called Skumin syndrome ... co-developer of activity theory and cultural-historical psychology, major researcher of aphasia Ilya Mechnikov, pioneer ... a disorder of the central nervous system of some patients after a prosthetic heart valve) Lina Stern, pioneer researcher of ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Russian_physicians_and_psychologists
*  Philosophy of culture - Wikipedia
In the 19th century, humanists such as English poet and essayist Matthew Arnold (1822-1888) used the word "culture" to refer to ... This contrast led to Herbert Spencer's theory of Social Darwinism and Lewis Henry Morgan's theory of cultural evolution. Just ... In the process, he redefined culture as a diverse set of activities characteristic of all human societies. This view paved the ... uncomplicated and uncorrupted by the highly stratified capitalist systems of the West. In 1870 the anthropologist Edward Tylor ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philosophy_of_culture
*  Development theory - Wikipedia
Classical economics was developed in the 18th and 19th centuries and dealt with the value of products and on which production ... In addition to its structuralist roots, dependency theory has much overlap with Neo-Marxism and World Systems Theory, which is ... Basic needs theory does not focus on investing in economically productive activities. Basic needs can be used as an indicator ... Development theory is a collection of theories about how desirable change in society is best achieved. Such theories draw on a ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Development_theory
*  Mercantilism - Wikipedia
... thus stretching the system into the 19th century. However, many British writers, including Mun and Misselden, were merchants, ... The first school to completely reject mercantilism was the physiocrats, who developed their theories in France. Their theories ... "the volume of merchant activity itself". Prior to mercantilism, the most important economic work done in Europe was by the ... Mercantilist regulations were steadily removed over the course of the 18th century in Britain, and during the 19th century the ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mercantilism
*  19th-century history of the Catholic Church in the United States - Wikipedia
As of March 2009, no state school system had changed its laws to allow state funds to be used for this purpose. In the latter ... Leo's pronouncements effectively ended the Americanist movement and curtailed the activities of American progressive Catholics ... and Pope Leo XIII issued an encyclical denouncing Americanism in theory. In Longinqua oceani (1895; "Wide Expanse of the Ocean ... During the 19th century, a wave of immigrants from Ireland, Germany, Italy, Eastern Europe and elsewhere swelled the number of ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/19th-century_history_of_the_Catholic_Church_in_the_United_States
*  Economy of India under Company rule - Wikipedia
... in the early 19th century and gradually fell afterwards. However, in spite of the appeal of the ryotwari system's abstract ... At the heart of the ryotwari system was a particular theory of economic rent-and based on David Ricardo's Law of Rent-promoted ... or diwan supervised their activities. In this system, the assortment of rights associated with land were not possessed by a " ... In the early 19th century demand for Chinese tea had greatly increased in Britain; since the money supply in India was ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy_of_India_under_Company_rule
*  Academy of Europe: Areas of Activity
Completely Integrable Systems and Solitons, Magnetoresistance in Metals, Field Theory, Quantum Theory and Spectral Theory of ... History of science (particularly Irish 19th century mathematics and theoretical physics) Go to ... Interacting particle systems and Brownian motions Go to *Interaction of representation theory with the modern theory of ... Functional Analysis, Ergodic theory, Representation theory, Dynamical systems, Optimization, Stochastic processes Go to ...
  https://www.ae-info.org/ae/Acad_Main/Sections/Mathematics/Areas_of_Activity
*  School of Restoration Arts at Willowbank - Wikipedia
Willowbank was created from the rescue of a 19th-century estate which today forms the centre of its campus, and it is one of a ... zoning bylaws Energy systems - traditional and alternative theory and practice, sustainable design, theoretical and empirical ... The transfer is designed to house school activities while also returning the building and lands to community use and creating ... The landscape of the estate includes a ravine and a hill upon which sits a 19th-century stone mansion. Newly built and re-built ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/School_of_Restoration_Arts_at_Willowbank
*  Thackray Medical Museum - Wikipedia
Activity zone for children Entrance to feature on the digestive system Slum street in Victorian Leeds Tableau of a 19th-century ... Red wine and germ theory The Thackray Medical Museum houses a collection of over 50,000 objects from medical history which date ... By the end of the 19th century, the buildings had become largely used for medical care of the poor, rather than workhouse and ... In less than a century the corner shop grew into one of Britain's principal medical companies, Chas F Thackray Limited, ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thackray_Medical_Museum
*  Base-cation saturation ratio - Wikipedia
Balancing soil nutrients in organic vegetable production systems: Testing Albrecht's base saturation theory in southeastern ... exchange principle was discovered by Thomas Way and John Bennet Lawes at Rothamsted Experimental Station in the 19th century. ... The reduction of weeds and pests can be directly attributed to an increase in soil biological activity and subsequent crop ... Balancing soil nutrients in organic vegetable production systems: Testing Albrecht's base saturation theory in southeastern ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Base-cation_saturation_ratio
*  History of science - Wikipedia
Advances in astronomy and in optical systems in the 19th century resulted in the first observation of an asteroid (1 Ceres) in ... The 20th century saw a rejection of Freud's theories as being too unscientific, and a reaction against Edward Titchener's ... New methods of visualizing the activity of the brain, such as PET scans and CAT scans, began to exert their influence as well, ... and 19th-century anthropology is now classed as scientific racism. During the late 19th-century, battles over the "study of man ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_science
*  EcoHealth - Wikipedia
The approach was prominent among many scientists in the 18th and 19th centuries, but fell into disfavour in the twentieth ... Data from powerful geographical information systems enabled them to conclude that mosquitoes do not travel very much. "If you ... One medicine, as championed by scholars and practitioners such as Calvin Schwabe, was largely considered a marginal activity. ... What differentiates these approaches from earlier integrative attempts is a firm grounding in complexity theories and post- ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EcoHealth
*  History of macroeconomic thought - Wikipedia
... business cycle theory and monetary theory. Monetary theory dates back to the 16th century and the work of Martín de Azpilcueta ... Growth had been of interest to 18th-century classical economists like Adam Smith, but work tapered off during the 19th and ... Some Keynesians opposed the synthesis method of combining Keynes's theory with an equilibrium system and advocated ... Most classical theories, including Fisher's, held that velocity was stable and independent of economic activity. Cambridge ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_macroeconomic_thought