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*  Voltage-gated potassium channel - Wikipedia
Armstrong CM, Bezanilla F (April 1973). "Currents related to movement of the gating particles of the sodium channels". Nature. ... Murrell-Lagnado RD, Aldrich RW (December 1993). "Energetics of Shaker K channels block by inactivation peptides". J. Gen. ... "Fast Inactivation of Voltage-Gated K(+) Channels: From Cartoon to Structure" (PDF). News Physiol. Sci. 13 (4): 177-182. PMID ... The diameter of the selectivity filter is ideal for the potassium cation, but too big for the smaller sodium cation. Hence the ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voltage-gated_potassium_channel
*  Optically active isomers of quinine and quinidine and their respective biological action - Academic Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
... blocks IKr 12.5 times greater than quinine (L-isomer). The current block for the two isomers is dose dependent with quinidine ... Defects in the fast component of the inactivation of cardiac sodium channels are responsible for idiopathic ventricular ... currents can also be blocked by quinidine, a class I antiarrhythmic agent that also has class III action predominately blocks ... specific stereoisomers of quinine or quinidine could be used as drugs for blocking only cardiac sodium channels or blocking ...
  http://www.freepatentsonline.com/6844355.html
*  BDS-1 - Wikipedia
In addition, BDS-1 enhances the current flowing through several voltage-gated sodium channels. The toxin binds to the S3-S4 ... "Sea anemone peptides with a specific blocking activity against the fast inactivating potassium channel Kv3. 4". Journal of ... BDS-1 brings about a decrease in blood pressure by blocking Kv3 potassium channels. Thus, this protein is named after its ... Liu, Pin; Sooyeon Jo & Bruce P. Bean (2012). "Modulation of neuronal sodium channels by the sea anemone peptide BDS-I". Journal ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BDS-1
*  Plus it
... was added to bath solution to block the fast sodium current. Membrane currents were recorded using a discontinuous (`switching ... Currents were evoked as shown in Fig. 1. Traces are control currents and maximal currents activated by P2Y1 agonist 2-MeSADP (1 ... Activated current was measured as the current after agonist application less the current before agonist application. Values are ... Inhibited current was measured as maximal preactivated current minus current at the end of 100-s agonist application. ...
  http://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/66/3/468
*  Quinidine - Wikipedia
... the block increases, while at lower heart rates, the block decreases. The effect of blocking the fast inward sodium current ... Like all other class I antiarrhythmic agents, quinidine primarily works by blocking the fast inward sodium current (INa). ... tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na current, the slow inward calcium current (ICa), the rapid (IKr) and slow (IKs) components of the ... Quinidine also blocks certain voltage-gated potassium channels (e.g., Kv1.4, Kv4.2, hERG, among others), acts as an ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quinidine
*  Ibutilide - Wikipedia
... blocks delayed rectified potassium current. It does have action on the slow sodium channel and promotes the influx of sodium ... After administration of ibutilide, it is quickly excreted by renal pathway with a half-life of approximately 6 hours. ... nor does it have a sodium-blocking, antiadrenergic, and calcium blocking activity that other Class III agents possess. Thus it ... It exerts its antiarrhythmic effect by induction of slow inward sodium current, which prolongs action potential and refractory ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ibutilide
*  http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0041491/00001
... cardiac troponin T TNNT3 fast skeletal muscle troponin T CLCN1 muscle specific chloride channel SCN4A voltage gated sodium ... second and thi rd atrioventricular blocks (Berul et al., 1999) However, only a first degree atrioventricular block and no ... Current data provides considerable evidence that MBNL1 function is compromised in DM and that this loss of function is the ... Mounsey, J. P., Mis try, D. J., Ai, C. W., Reddy, S., and Moorman, J. R. (2000). Skeletal muscle sodium channel gating in mice ...
  http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0041491/00001
*  Plus it
... a decrease in diastolic membrane potential leading to a decreased availability of fast sodium channels with a lower conduction ... This injury current may bring the normal tissue to threshold earlier than otherwise and generate a premature beat. If properly ... By blocking KATP channels, HMR 1883 may have attenuated both the ischemia-induced increase in automaticity (less heterogeneity ... a decrease in membrane potential leading to a decreased availability of fast sodium channels with a lower conduction velocity, ...
  http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/291/2/474
*  Antagonism of Lidocaine Inhibition by Open-Channel Blockers That Generate Resurgent Na Current | Journal of Neuroscience
2005) Open-channel block by the cytoplasmic tail of sodium channel β4 as a mechanism for resurgent sodium current. Neuron 45: ... ATX increased steady-state current at potentials ,0 mV (Fig. 7G-J). A faster rise of resurgent current in ATX was not evident ... Because the ionic composition of the solutions blocked K currents, Ca currents, and HCN currents, it was not necessary to ... also bind and block current through Na channels. Among these are the use-dependent blockers, which inhibit Na currents by ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/33/11/4976
*  Experts and Doctors on sodium channels in United States
Locale about Experts and Doctors on sodium channels in United States ... The outward current that remains when sodium and calcium currents are blocked is reduced by 5-HT. Thus, 5-HT enhances two ... Saxena S, Quick M, Tousson A, Oh Y, Warnock D. Interaction of syntaxins with the amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel ... Albrieux M, Platel J, Dupuis A, Villaz M, Moody W. Early expression of sodium channel transcripts and sodium current by cajal- ...
  http://www.labome.org/locale/experts-and-doctors-on-sodium-channels-in-united-states-108733.html
*  Patch Clamp Recordings on Intact Dorsal Root Ganglia from Adult Rats | Protocol
The inward current was blocked by the selective TRPA1 antagonist 10 µM HC 030031 (data not shown), confirming the currents was ... Cummins, T. R., et al. A novel persistent tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium current in SNS-null and wild-type small primary sensory ... Prepare 200 ml of cold aCSF (about 4 oC). To cool the aCSF quickly place it into a beaker, seal with plastic wrap and place in ... Note: In the current report, we used 100 µM glutamate and 100 µM AITC to induce the currents mediated by glutamate receptors ...
  https://www.jove.com/video/54287/patch-clamp-recordings-on-intact-dorsal-root-ganglia-from-adult-rats
*  Standardized Measurement of Nasal Membrane Transepithelial Potential Difference (NPD) | Protocol
Demonstration of Proteolytic Activation of the Epithelial Sodium Channel (ENaC) by Combining Current Measurements with ... The field of CFTR modulator therapies broadens quickly and we urgently need tests in vivo that are able to quickly decipher ... its changes after blocking the ENaC related Na+ absorption and driving Cl- secretion via different apical Cl- transporters ... ENaC: epithelial sodium channel, Na+: sodium, CFTR: cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator, CL-: chloride, mV: millivolts, PD ...
  https://www.jove.com/video/57006/standardized-measurement-nasal-membrane-transepithelial-potential
*  Lamotrigine - Wikipedia
... and voltage-dependent modulation of fast voltage-dependent sodium currents. However, lamotrigine has a broader clinical ... It is generally accepted to be a member of the sodium channel blocking class of antiepileptic drugs, but it could have ... Lamotrigine is a member of the sodium channel blocking class of antiepileptic drugs. This may suppress the release of glutamate ... In cultured hippocampal neurons, lamotrigine reduced sodium currents in a voltage-dependent manner, and at depolarised ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lamotrigine
*  Burning pain: axonal dysfunction in erythromelalgia
A novel persistent tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium current in SNS-null and wild-type small primary sensory neurons. J Neurosci ... This nonselective partial block of voltage-gated Na+ channels targets segment 6 of domain IV of the alpha subunit.63 Clinical ... Heterogeneous distribution of fast and slow potassium channels in myelinated rat nerve fibres. J Physiol 1989;416:93-110. [ ... Inhibition of oxidative metabolism increases persistent sodium current in rat CA1 hippocampal neurons. J Physiol 1998;510(pt 3 ...
  http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC5402712/
*  Frontiers | Developmental Profile of Ion Channel Specializations in the Avian Nucleus Magnocellularis | Frontiers in Cellular...
... generate fast APs that reliably phase lock to sinusoidal inputs at 75 Hz. In contrast, early developing neurons (E19) contained ... generate fast APs that reliably phase lock to sinusoidal inputs at 75 Hz. In contrast, early developing neurons (E19) contained ... indicate that the refinement of passive and active ion channel properties operate differentially in order to develop fast and ... indicate that the refinement of passive and active ion channel properties operate differentially in order to develop fast and ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fncel.2016.00080/full
*  Plus it
1995) showed that sodium channel blocking agents (i.e., mexiletine) shorten the QTc in patients with LQT3, while exogenous ... Current Issue. *Fast Forward by date. *Fast Forward by section. *Latest Articles ... slowly activating potassium current. HERG. human ether-a-go-go-related gene. IKr. delayed rectifier potassium current. ... These authors coexpressed the mutant with human sodium channel β1-subunits, which did not affect the persistent current, ...
  http://dmd.aspetjournals.org/content/29/4/574
*  Ball and chain inactivation - Wikipedia
The β3 subunit can increase persistent current in certain sodium channels. Differences in persistent and resurgent currents ... This creates a current caused by the flow of ions through the channel. Shortly after opening, the channel is blocked by the ... "A sodium channel mutation causing epilepsy in man exhibits subtle defects in fast inactivation and activation in vitro". The ... "Persistent sodium current and its role in epilepsy". Epilepsy Currents. Wiley Online Library. 7 (1): 15-22. doi:10.1111/j.1535- ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ball_and_chain_inactivation
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Current Opinion in Pharmacology, 1, 17 - 21.. *Baker MD, Wood JN (2001). Involvement of sodium channels in pain pathways. ... mu O-conotoxin MrVIB selectively blocks Na(v)1.8 sensory neuron specific sodium channels and chronic pain behavior without ... Quick K, Zhao J, Eijkelkamp N, Linley JE, Rugiero F, Cox JJ, Raouf R, Gringhuis M, Sexton J, Abramowitz J, Taylor R, Forge A, ... Wood JN (2001). Sodium channels in primary sensory neurons; relationship to pain states (in "Sodium Channels and neuronal ...
  http://www.ucl.ac.uk/molecular-nociception-group/
*  Slow Closed-State Inactivation: A Novel Mechanism Underlying Ramp Currents in Cells Expressing the hNE/PN1 Sodium Channel |...
Although CNS sodium currents seem to have predominantly fast repriming kinetics, slowly repriming sodium currents have been ... in studies of sodium currents because at 0.1-0.5 mm concentrations it blocks calcium channels but not neuronal sodium currents ... A, The ramp current recorded in a small DRG neuron expressing predominantly TTX-S sodium current. The ramp current is plotted ... To confirm that the ramp currents recorded in hNE cells were sodium currents, we tested the pharmacology of the ramp currents ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/18/23/9607
*  Safinamide - Wikipedia
Additionally, it blocks sodium and calcium channels, the relevance of which for its antiparkinson action is however unknown. ... Safinamide is absorbed quickly and nearly completely from the gut and reaches highest blood plasma concentrations after 1.8 to ... Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs. 8 (7): 570-579. PMID 17659477. ... Pevarello, P; Bonsignori, A; Caccia, C; Amici, R; Salvati, P; Fariello, RG; McArthur, RA; Varasi, M (1999). "Sodium channel ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Safinamide
*  Effects of the Sodium Channel Blocker Tetrodotoxin on Acute White Matter Pathology After Experimental Contusive Spinal Cord...
... we would expect to see enhanced glial survival in the current study because Na+ channels are blocked with TTX (Sontheimer et al ... Sparing large-diameter, fast-conducting axons may be especially important.. Comparison of TTX and VEH-treated groups found WM ... Spinal cord astrocytes display a switch from TTX-sensitive to TTX-resistant sodium currents after injury-induced gliosis in ... Sections were blocked for 1 hr with 3% serum in 0.1 m Tris buffer. The serum was removed and the tissue exposed overnight at 4° ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/19/14/6122
*  Balloon light - Wikipedia
Intended to semi-block the sun. Used by grips. Tungsten HMI Metal halide Mercury vapor Sodium vapor Light Emitting Diodes ... direct current) and AC (alternating current) systems, Powermoon® decided to introduce a shift in paradigm by offering high- ... Quickly becoming a real alternative and eventually market leader in the European market, Powermoon® [3] Enterprises Ltd ... In 1998 German based Noelle IUT GmbH developed (next to its air-inflated systems) a patented spring-loaded 'umbrella-style' ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balloon_light
*  National School Lunch Act - Wikipedia
"We simply are not giving our kids in schools the same level of quality and safety as you get when you go to many fast-food ... The current challenges of the NSLP can be broken down into three major categories: caloric and nutritional needs, food waste, ... These new provisions for competitive food and drinks included limits on specific nutrients in the food, such as sodium and fats ... Building Blocks For Healthy Children. This report reviews and provides recommendations to update the nutrition standard and the ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_School_Lunch_Act
*  Plus it
Brains were removed quickly and transferred to a 1°C-4°C oxygenated, low sodium sucrose dissecting solution (in mm: 194 sucrose ... Ih current can be seen at hyperpolarized potentials (C1). Stepwise current injection into a PBN-inhibited cell; no Ih current ... have a faster rise time than PBN-inhibited cells (bottom) (C3). D, Kynurenic acid (4 mm) blocks the feedforward IPSP generated ... Progressive 10 pA current steps current were then delivered to the cell from which we determined input resistance. By visual ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/34/28/9319
*  Plus it
Current Issue. *Fast Forward by date. *Fast Forward by section. *Latest Articles ... However, block of IKr or IKs could be beneficial under special conditions and highly selective blockade of HERG/KCNE2- or KCNQ1 ... one sodium channel activator (BDF 9148/analogs), and several L-type Ca-channel activators of dihydropyridine type (Bay K 8644, ... The block of HERG channels is regarded as a severe problem for pharmaceutical compounds intended for clinical trials. Therefore ...
  http://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/67/3/585