*  Pilsicainide - Wikipedia
... a new class I antiarrhythmic drug, on ventricular arrhythmias, intraventricular conduction, and the refractory period in canine ... 6. Hattori Y, Inomata N, Aisaka K, Ishihara T. Electrophysiological actions of N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-8-pyrrolizidine-acetamide ... Pilsicainide suppresses atrial conduction velocity but also increases the effective refractory period(18). Its effects on the ... Determination of refractory periods and conduction velocity during atrial fibrillation using atrial capture in dogs: direct ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pilsicainide
*  Cardiac Electrical Alternans and Ventricular Fibrillation During Hypothermia in Non-Hibernating Versus Hibernating Animals:...
Relative changes in myocardial refractory period and conduction velocity. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 51(4):579-584Google Scholar ... Fedorov VV, Glukhov AV et al (2008) Electrophysiological mechanisms of antiarrhythmic protection during hypothermia in winter ... Salama G, Kanai AJ et al (1998) Hypoxia and hypothermia enhance spatial heterogeneities of repolarization in guinea pig hearts ... Koller ML, Riccio ML et al (1998) Dynamic restitution of action potential duration during electrical alternans and ventricular ...
  https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-28678-0_26
*  Amiodarone-IV - Article Summaries
... primary mechanism is to prolong the cardiac action potential and repolarization time leading to an increased refractory period ... Amiodarone is predominantly a Vaughan Williams Class III agent, but also possesses electrophysiological characteristics of the ... Intravenous amiodarone is an effective anti-arrhythmic agent for the acute treatment of life-threatening ventricular ... The efficacy and tolerability of intravenous (IV) amiodarone for acute treatment of recurrent and refractory ventricular ...
  http://amiodaroneiv.com/artsum.asp?callarticle=1
*  Plus it
... by preserving impulse conduction and refractory periods). KATPblockade constitutes the first antiarrhythmic principle that ... 1989) Electrophysiological mechanisms of ventricular arrhythmias resulting from myocardial ischemia and infarction. Physiol Rev ... Because the wavelength of reentry is the product of conduction velocity and refractory period, even a modest favorable change ... and shortening refractory periods in ischemic areas (Coronel, 1994). Occlusion of the LAD resulted in a significant increase in ...
  http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/291/2/474
*  Acceleration of Typical Atrial Flutter Due to Double-Wave Reentry Induced by Programmed Electrical Stimulation | Circulation
A, Early AES with a coupling interval of 120 ms fell in the atrial refractory period. B and C, Late AES was delivered at a ... None were taking antiarrhythmic medications or digitalis before the study.. Electrophysiological Testing. All patients were ... Patients with DWR had a shorter effective refractory period (138.8±13.4 versus 163.8±12.2 ms, P,.015) and larger excitable gap ... CL, Cycle length; ERP, effective refractory period; EG, excitable gap; EG/AFL CL, ratio of excitable gap over atrial flutter ...
  http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/97/16/1589
*  BRL-32872 - Wikipedia
Cellular conduction and refractory periods are also modified to eliminate re-entry depolarization causing arrhythmia. Factors ... 1995). Electrophysiological effect of BRL-32872, a novel antiarrhythmic agent with potassium and calcium channel blocking ... BRL-32872 binding effectively increases the refractory period of the cell and prolongs the action potential. This blockage also ... electrophysiological properties and analysis of structural requirements of a novel class of antiarrhythmic agents with ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BRL-32872
*  Cardiac Na+ Channel Dysfunction in Brugada Syndrome Is Aggravated by β1-Subunit | Circulation
... and mutated channels in the heart of a patient with Brugada syndrome would promote heterogeneity of the refractory period in ... Miyazaki T, Mitamura H, Miyoshi S, Soejima K, Aizawa Y, Ogawa S. Autonomic and antiarrhythmic drug modulation of ST segment ... The present study demonstrates the electrophysiological properties of a cardiac Na+ channel mutation of the Brugada syndrome ( ... Krishnan SC, Antzelevitch C. Sodium channel block produces opposite electrophysiological effects in canine ventricular ...
  http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/101/1/54
*  Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Does Not Reduce Risk of Atrial Fibrillation After Coronary Artery Bypass SurgeryCLINICAL...
... animal models and single ventricular myocytes report that n-3 PUFA result in a shortening of the effective refractory period ... However, studies designed to investigate a direct antiarrhythmic effect have shown mixed results,19-21⇓⇓ with meta-analyses ... n-3 (omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent acute atrial electrophysiological remodeling. Br J Pharmacol. 2007; 150: 281- ... Den Ruijter HM, Berecki G, Opthof T, Verkerk AO, Zock PL, Coronel R. Pro- and antiarrhythmic properties of a diet rich in fish ...
  http://circep.ahajournals.org/content/3/1/46
*  Trials and Travails of Electrogram-Guided Ablation of Chronic Atrial Fibrillation | Circulation
... local vagal stimulation in the atrial myocardium could markedly shorten local refractory periods, resulting in high-frequency ... In contrast, 175 of the 290 patients (60%) in our study were in sinus rhythm without any antiarrhythmic drug after a single ... 10 It is possible that some or all of the above electrophysiological changes are the underlying causes of CFAE. However, ... of their patients were in sinus rhythm without any antiarrhythmic drug after a single procedure (mean follow-up, 14±7 months), ...
  http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/115/20/2592
*  Do Anti-Ischemic Medications Have a Role in the Treatment of Ventricular Tachyarrhythmias? - American College of Cardiology
Antiarrhythmic and electrophysiological effects of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch ... arrhythmic characteristics due to decreasing the AP conduction velocity and decreasing refractory periods. Thus, although VTA ... Electrophysiological Effects of Ranolazine, a Novel Antianginal Agent With Antiarrhythmic Properties. Circulation 2004;110:904- ... Statins as antiarrhythmics: a systematic review part I: effects on risk of atrial fibrillation. Clin Cardiol 2009; 32:544-8. ...
  http://www.acc.org/latest-in-cardiology/articles/2016/02/26/13/08/do-anti-ischemic-medications-have-a-role-in-the-treatment-of-ventricular-tachyarrhythmias
*  Threshold potential - Wikipedia
Hyperpolarization by the delayed-rectifier potassium channels causes a relative refractory period that makes it much more ... Tracking threshold has advantages over other electrophysiological techniques, like the constant stimulus method. This technique ... antiarrhythmic agents. The use of such agents is particularly frequent in intensive care units, and special care must be ... Bostock, Hugh; Cikurel, Katia; Burke, David (1998). "Threshold tracking techniques in the study of human peripheral nerve". ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Threshold_potential
*  Angiotensin II Antagonist Prevents Electrical Remodeling in Atrial Fibrillation | Circulation
Methods and Results-In 24 dogs, the atrial effective refractory period (AERP) was measured before, during, and after rapid ... Electrophysiological Measurements. A cardiac stimulator (Fukuda Denshi BC02A) was used to deliver square-wave impulses of 1-ms ... The AT1 receptor antagonist and ACEI are not antiarrhythmic in the conventional sense; however, the results of the present ... To minimize confounding effects caused by electrode polarization, all refractory period measurements were made with the pacing ...
  http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/101/22/2612
*  Patente US4561442 - Implantable cardiac pacer with discontinuous microprocessor programmable ... - Google Patentes
For telemetry, the pacer collects the following monitored pacing data over a programmable period of time: percent pacing, ... If the refractory period is less than the minimum rate interval the pacer timer is set to refractory period less the elapsed ... By electrophysiological evaluation the physician can refine the tachycardia respose mode identify the single most effective ... Other Antiarrhythmic Agents 11. Anticoagulant/Antiplatelet Agents 12. Coronary Vasodilators 13. OtherVIII. Capture 1. Atrial ...
  http://www.google.es/patents/US4561442
*  Initiation of Ventricular Fibrillation by a Single Ectopic Beat in Three Dimensional Numerical Models of Ischemic Heart Disease...
... τ equals or exceeds the assigned refractory period for the node, then the node is reset to the inactive, non-refractory state. ... Specifying the exact electrophysiological mechanisms leading to VT/VF remains an open problem that has problem fascinated ... a new approach to antiarrhythmic drug evaluation. Circulation 99: 2819-2826. ... The local refractory period is 0.5 times normal and the local conduction velocity is 0.3 times normal. A single stimulus ...
  https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/initiation-of-ventricular-fibrillation-by-a-single-ectopic-beat-in-three-dimensional-2155-9880-5-346.php?aid=33168
*  Atrial Fibrillation Begets Atrial Fibrillation in the Pulmonary Veins | JACC: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
... that patients with AF have distinct electrophysiological characteristics of the PVs with shorter effective refractory periods ( ... No patient has had a prior history of AF, and no patient received antiarrhythmic drugs before the procedure. Patients with ... effective refractory period. LA. left atrium. LAA. left atrial appendage. PV. pulmonary vein. RA. right atrium. RAA. right ... Statistical comparison of the effective refractory periods (ERPs) of the atria and the pulmonary veins (PVs) (n = 139) before ( ...
  http://www.onlinejacc.org/content/51/22/2153
*  Cardiac Arrhythmia - Scholarpedia
... with a rapid velocity but relatively long refractory period, and the other slow, with a slower velocity but shorter refractory ... It also has been documented that even short bouts of atrial fibrillation lead to electrophysiological changes that over time ... AF can be treated by direct cardioversion but more frequently is treated with antiarrhythmic and/or anti-coagulation drug ... where \(k\) is the smallest integer such that \(k SP , \theta\ ,\) and \(\theta\) is the refractory period of the AV node. ...
  http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Defibrillation
*  Effect of Right Atrial Isthmus Ablation on the Occurrence of Atrial Fibrillation | Circulation
Rate-dependent prolongation of the atrial refractory period by class IC agents effected an increase in the wavelength and ... Undoubtedly, the electrophysiological basis of the interrelation between AF and AFL needs further elucidation. On the other ... Patients with therapy-resistant AF and no previous documentation of AFL but who developed AFL on oral class IC antiarrhythmic ... Both the ablation protocol and the criteria of procedural success evolved during the study period between November 1994 and ...
  http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/99/11/1441
*  Brugada Syndrome | MedCrave
Ventricular effective refractory period (ERP) o200 ms recorded during electrophysiological study (EPS) and HV interval 460 ms ... the use of quinidine is limited because of its side effects and the presence of more safe and effective modern antiarrhythmic ... Brugada syndrome developed symptomatic ventricular arrhythmias at the same time on quinidine therapy during a follow-up period ... Antzelevitch C (1998) The Brugada syndrome. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 9: 513-516. ...
  http://googlescholar.medcraveonline.com/scholars/article_fulltext/5275
*  Frontiers | Mouse Models of SCN5A-Related Cardiac Arrhythmias | Physiology
2010) showed that atrial action potential duration and effective refractory period were prolonged in Scn5aΔ/+ mice. Short runs ... Electrophysiological studies performed on Langendorff-perfused whole hearts confirmed the anti-arrhythmic properties of ... and refractory period and increased incidence of arrhythmias under programmed electrical stimulation in ex vivo Langendorff- ... and increased transmural and regional heterogeneity of MAP duration and refractory periods in the right ventricle with the ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2012.00210/full
*  Frontiers | Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Atrial Fibrillation: Looking for the Proper Candidates | Physiology
Heterogeneous distribution of IK,ACh channels in the atria generate non-uniform distribution of refractory periods and make the ... The antiarrhythmic effects of PUFAs have been observed in non-tachypaced models of AF as well. Accumulating evidence indicates ... Structural, functional, and electrophysiological characteristics of a new model of sustained atrial fibrillation. Circulation ... Before the operation, there were no significant differences in conduction time, atrial effective refractory period (AERP; ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2012.00370/full
*  Relevance of Electrical Remodeling in Human Atrial FibrillationClinical Perspective | Circulation: Arrhythmia and...
Conclusions-Prolonged P-wave duration, but not differences in atrial effective refractory periods, was associated with the ... Noninvasive electrophysiological measurement of (A) sensed P-wave duration of 141 ms; (B) sinus node recovery time at 90 bpm of ... None of the patients in this substudy was receiving antiarrhythmic medications at baseline. EP testing was conducted in the ... This process, termed electrical remodeling, includes changes, such as shortening of the atrial refractory period and slowing of ...
  http://circep.ahajournals.org/content/5/4/626?ijkey=aa716f9adfe18a374647065ce03de3981b106f9b&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
*  Comparison of Atrial Fibrillation in the Young versus That in the Elderly: A Review
5.4.1. Effective Refractory Period (ERP) Whilst conflicting results have been noted when analysing the effects of ageing on ... 5. Electrophysiological and Structural Alterations in Aged Atria. 5.1. Initiation of AF in the Aged Atria. A number of studies ... Catheter ablation versus antiarrhythmic drugs for atrial fibrillation: the A4 study. Circulation. 2008;118(24):2498-2505. [ ... longer effective refractory period, longer conduction time along linear catheters, longer bi-atrial activation time, slower ...
  http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC3564268/?lang=en-ca
*  Left Atrial Tachycardia Originating From the Mitral Annulus-Aorta Junction | Circulation
Electrophysiological Study. Patients discontinued antiarrhythmic medications 2 weeks before undergoing electrophysiological ... They had documented paroxysmal atrial tachycardia for a mean of 7±5 years, refractory to a mean of 3±2 antiarrhythmic drugs. ... During a follow-up period of 24±19 months on no antiarrhythmic medications, no patients had recurrent tachycardia. ... Some patients with atrial tachycardia are refractory to antiarrhythmic agents and require catheter ablation to eliminate the ...
  http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/110/20/3187
*  Patent US6887238 - Suction stabilized epicardial ablation devices - Google Patents
Administration of a calcium channel blocker, e.g., verapamil, generally prolongs the effective refractory period within the AV ... Antiarrhythmic agents that inhibit or block the sodium channel are known as class I antiarrhythmics, examples include, but are ... Intrapericardial electrophysiological procedures. US6237605. 21 Sep 1998. 29 May 2001. Epicor, Inc.. Methods of epicardial ... For example, a beeping tone or flashing light that increases in frequency as the ablation period ends or begins may be used. ...
  http://www.google.co.uk/patents/US6887238
*  Atrioventricular Conduction Disturbance Revealing Cardiac Amyloidosis in Young Adults: A Report of Two Cases | SciFed Journal...
... refractory period of the atrioventricular node=1000ms). Atropine administration did not change the heart rate beating and the ... The electrophysiological exploration was in favor of a nodal block: (AH=253 ms, HV=54 ms, Wenckebach point = 60 beats / min; ... Drugs affecting impulse formation and conduction (for example: digitalis, antiarrhythmic agents, and also carbamazepine) may ... The electrophysiological exploration was in favor of a nodal block. She was implanted by a dual chamber pacemaker. She ...
  http://scifed.com/fulltext/atrioventricular-conduction-disturbance-revealing-cardiac-amyloidosis-in-young-adults-a-report-of-two-cases/21568