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*  Clostridium argentinense - Wikipedia
"Clostridium argentinense sp. nov.: A Genetically Homogeneous Group Composed of All Strains of Clostridium botulinum Toxin Type ... botulinum toxin group G, respectively. Like Cl. botulinum, Cl. argentinense produces botulin, a neurotoxin that causes botulism ... "Clostridium argentinense". Catalogue of Life. ITIS. Species 2000. UniProt. "Clostridium argentinense". Retrieved 2011-01-21. ... Clostridium argentinense is an anaerobic, motile, gram-positive bacterium. Some bacilli now identified as Cl. argentinense were ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clostridium_argentinense
*  ASMscience | The Evolution of Bacteri
Evidence for plasmid-mediated toxin and bacteriocin production in Clostridium botulinum type G. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54: ... Interspecies conversion of Clostridium botulinum type C to Clostridium novyi type A by bacteriophage. Science 186:456-458.. ... Eklund, M. W.,, F. T. Poysky, and, S. M. Reed. 1972. Bacteriophage and the toxigenicity of Clostridium botulinum type D. Nat. ... Genetic characterisation of the botulinum toxin complex of Clostridium botulinum strain NCTC 2916. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 140: ...
  http://www.asmscience.org/content/book/10.1128/9781555815622.ch10
*  Clostridium acetobutylicum - microbewiki
Comparison of toxins of Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium botulinum type E. Infection and Immunity 56:926-929. ... Clostridium difficile, Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium tetani, and Clostridium perfringen. In particular, C. botulinum and C ... botulinum. The similarity of the toxins suggest that the normally non-toxigenic Clostridium strain acquired toxin-coding genes ... "Emended descriptions of Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium beijerinckii, and descriptions of Clostridium ...
  https://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php?title=Clostridium_acetobutylicum&oldid=19440
*  ASMscience | Virulence Plasmids of Sp
The major toxins involved in C. perfringens type A-mediated gas gangrene, the α-toxin and perfringolysin O, together with other ... Although other pathogens are mentioned, the focus is on the major human pathogens, Clostridium perfringens and Bacillus ... Toxin-producing strains often carry multiple cry genes and large amounts of the δ-endotoxins are produced in stationary phase, ... Expression of the plasmid-determined toxin genes in Bacillus thuringiensis is coordinately regulated with the sporulation ...
  http://www.asmscience.org/content/book/10.1128/9781555817732.chap19
*  CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM (PIM 858)
Human botulism is primarily caused by Clostridium botulinum that produce toxin type A, B and E. Type F toxin produced by ... Botox® (botulinum toxin type A) (Allergan Pharmaceuticals, USA);. Myobloc (botulinum toxin type B) (Elan Pharmaceuticals, USA) ... In the 13 cases where the toxin was isolated, 11 had type A, one had type B and the type of the toxin was not mentioned in one ... Of the 2622 outbreaks in which the toxin type was determined, 34 % were type A, 52 % type B, and 12 % type E. Two incidents of ...
  http://www.inchem.org/documents/pims/bacteria/pim858.htm
*  Patente US7393537 - Botulinum toxin for treatment of obsessive compulsive finger biting disorder - Google Patentes
Methods for treating obsessions and compulsions by local administration of a Clostridial toxin. The obsessions or compulsions ... The botulinum toxin type A is made from a culture of the Hall strain of Clostridium botulinum grown in a medium containing N-Z ... The botulinum toxin may be a botulinum toxin type A, type B, type C1, type D, type E, type F, or type G. The effects of the ... The botulinum toxin can be selected from the group consisting of botulinum toxin types A, B, C, D, E, F and G. Botulinum toxin ...
  http://www.google.es/patents/US7393537?dq=flatulence
*  Systems and methods for delivery of a therapeutic agent - The Foundry, LLC
... of the botulinum toxin (BoNT), such as one of the serotype A, B, C, D, E, F or G botulin ... Expression and purification of catalytically active, non-toxic endopeptidase derivatives of Clostridium botulinum toxin type A ... Many of these companies provide purified preparations of botulinum neurotoxins from Clostridium botulinum types A and B. List ... Botulinum toxin eluting stent. July, 2004. Brooks et al.. 6740321. Method for treating thyroid disorders with a botulinum toxin ...
  http://www.freepatentsonline.com/9498283.html
*  Benign Essential Blepharospasm Medication: Botulinum toxins
Botulinum toxin type A that is free of complexing proteins found in natural toxin from Clostridium botulinum. Acetylcholine ... The use of botulinum toxin type-B in the treatment of patients who have become unresponsive to botulinum toxin type-A -- ... Botulinum toxin in blepharospasm and oromandibular dystonia: comparing different botulinum toxin preparations. Eur J Neurol. ... Botulinum toxin type A injections: adverse events reported to the US Food and Drug Administration in therapeutic and cosmetic ...
  https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1212176-medication
*  AB toxin - Wikipedia
Examples of the "A" component of an AB toxin include C. perfringens iota toxin Ia, C. botulinum C2 toxin CI, and Clostridium ... The AB5 toxins are usually considered a type of AB toxin, characterized by B pentamers. Less commonly, the term "AB toxin" is ... They can be classified as Type III toxins because they interfere with internal cell function. They are named AB toxins due to ... Among the toxins produced by certain Clostridium spp. are the binary exotoxins. These proteins consist of two independent ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AB_toxin
*  Botulism as a Potential Agent of Bioterrorism | SpringerLink
Infant botulism due to Clostridium botulinum type C toxin. Lancet. 336:1449-1450.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Both botulinum and tetanus toxins are relatively simple to produce. The botulinum toxins affect the neuromuscular junction and ... Assays for botulinum and tetanus toxins. In: Simpson, L.L. (ed.), Botulinum Neurotoxin and Tetanus Toxin. Academic Press, San ... Midura, T.F., and Arnon, S.S. (1976). Infant botulism: identification of Clostridium botulinum and its toxin in faeces. Lancet. ...
  https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4419-1266-4_7
*  Extended Shelf Life Refrigerated Foods: Microbiological Quality and Safety - IFT.org
... botulinum types A and B spores and toxin production. The challenge studies indicated that the probability of toxigenesis ... Clostridium botulinum and other clostridia that produce botulinum neurotoxin. In "Clostridium botulinum: Ecology and Control in ... botulinum (I-IV) and some strains of Clostridium baratii and Clostridium butyricum can produce botulinum neurotoxin (Hatheway, ... 1992). C. botulinum type I (proteolytic strains) and C. botulinum type II (nonproteolytic strains) are responsible for human ...
  http://www.ift.org/Knowledge-Center/Read-IFT-Publications/Science-Reports/Scientific-Status-Summaries/Extended-Shelf-Life-Refrigerated-Foods.aspx
*  How to Make Pickled Peppers - Easily! With Step-by-step Photos, Recipe, Directions, Ingredients and Costs
Clostridium botulinum is the bacterium commonly found in vegetables and meats. It is harmless until it finds itself in a moist ... we sell many sizes and types of canners for all types of stoves and needs - see canning supplies ... Under these conditions, the bacterium can grow and produce toxins dangerous to people and animals. ... Clostridium botulinum is the bacterium that causes botulism food poisoning in low-acid foods, such as vegetables. The bacterial ...
  http://www.pickyourown.org/pepperspickled.htm
*  How to Make Your Own Home Canned Peppers (easy, complete directions with photos, ingredients and costs
Clostridium botulinum is the bacterium commonly found in vegetables and meats. It is harmless until it finds itself in a moist ... Ordinary water bath canners can only reach 212 F and cannot to kill the types of bacteria that will grow in low acid foods. ... Under these conditions, the bacterium can grow and produce toxins dangerous to people and animals. ... Pressure canning is the only safe method for home canning (low acid) vegetables. Clostridium botulinum is the bacterium that ...
  http://pickyourown.org/canningpeppers.htm
*  Frontiers | mADP-RTs: versatile virulence factors from bacterial pathogens of plants and mammals | Plant Science
... pertussis toxin and diphteria toxin are three of the best-known examples of mADP-RTs. They modify host target proteins in order ... pertussis toxin and diphteria toxin are three of the best-known examples of mADP-RTs. They modify host target proteins in order ... For example, 86 Cα atoms of HopU1 can be superimposed onto the structure of the Clostridium botulinum mADP-RT C3bot2 with a ... Fu, Z. Q., Guo, M., Jeong, B. R., Tian, F., Elthon, T. E., Cerny, R. L., Staiger, D., and Alfano, J. R. (2007). A type III ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2012.00142/full
*  Regulatory Role of Arginine-Specific Mono(ADP-Ribosyl)Transferase in Muscle Cells | Springer for Research & Development
Alteration of cytoskeleton of mammalian cells cultured in vitro by Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin and C3 ADP-ribosyltransferase ... Assembly of vimentin in cultured cells varies with cell type. J. Biol. Chem. 264: 17953-17960.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Clostridium perfringens iota toxin ADP-ribosylates skeletal muscle actin in arginine 177. FEBS Lett. 225: 48-52.CrossRefGoogle ... Botulinum C2 toxin ADP-ribosylates cytoplasmic p/y-actin in arginine 177. J. Biol. Chem. 263: 696-700.Google Scholar ...
  https://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4419-8632-0_40
*  Curing and Smoking Meats for Home Food Preservation
Potential Hazards in Cold Smoked Fish: Clostridium botulinum type E. (US FDA 2001c). ... were such that they could potentially permit Clostridium botulinum to develop and produce the toxin (NY State Agriculture ... and produce toxin. Sufficient heat can be used to inactivate the toxin (180°F for 4 min., Kendall 1999). C. botulinum thrives ... However, the most deadly food poisoning organism, Clostridium botulinum requires a low oxygen atmosphere and therefore, vacuum ...
  http://nchfp.uga.edu/publications/nchfp/lit_rev/cure_smoke_fs.html
*  Clostridium sordellii - definition of Clostridium sordellii by The Free Dictionary
Clostridium sordellii synonyms, Clostridium sordellii pronunciation, Clostridium sordellii translation, English dictionary ... clos·trid·i·a Any of various rod-shaped, spore-forming, chiefly anaerobic bacteria of the genus Clostridium, such as certain ... Clostridium botulinum. *Clostridium difficile. *clostridium perfringens. *Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin. *Clostridium ... including Clostridium septicum, Clostridium chauvoei, Clostridium novyi type A, Clostridium perfringens type A, and Clostridium ...
  http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Clostridium+sordellii
*  Ecosystems
Clostridium botulinum ) commonly found in the soil. There are several types of botulism toxin some of which can affect humans ... Birds get their own kind of botulism (Type C in Hawaii) that does not affect humans. Botulism type C is concentrated in aquatic ... Botulism is a natural toxin produced by a bacterium ( ... logstash-usgs-pw:palladium_root_publication_type Select Type. ... The Gulf Coast Joint Venture (GCJV) was established in 1988 as a result of the North American Waterfowl Management Plan, which ...
  https://www.usgs.gov/mission-areas/ecosystems?page=8
*  Ecosystems
Clostridium botulinum ) commonly found in the soil. There are several types of botulism toxin some of which can affect humans ... Birds get their own kind of botulism (Type C in Hawaii) that does not affect humans. Botulism type C is concentrated in aquatic ... Botulism is a natural toxin produced by a bacterium ( ... logstash-usgs-pw:palladium_root_publication_type Select Type. ... 400 biological monitoring stations across coastal Louisiana spanning all coastal habitat types and generating tremendous ...
  https://www.usgs.gov/science/mission-areas/ecosystems?field_project_status_value=All&field_state_science=All&field_release_date_value_science%5Bvalue%5D&sort_science_objects=field_release_date_value%20DESC&sort_order=DESC&sort_by=field_release_date_value&page=4
*  Clostridium botulinum - Wikipedia
The toxin type has been designated Bf as the type B toxin was found in excess to the type F. Similarly, strains producing Ab ... Historical notes on botulism, Clostridium botulinum, botulinum toxin, and the idea of the therapeutic use of the toxin. ... botulinum acquired the toxin genes quite far in the evolutionary past. Only botulinum toxin types A, B, E, and F cause disease ... butyricum has produced type E toxin and C. baratii had produced type F toxin. The ability of C. botulinum to naturally transfer ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clostridium_botulinum
*  Development of a flow cytometric bead immunoassay and its assessment as a possible aid to potency evaluation of enterotoxaemia...
... for the detection of Clostridium perfringens type B toxin', Japanese Journal of Medical Science and Biology 32, 199-205. PMid: ... antigen contents of Clostridium botulinum types C and D cultures as determined by mouse bioassay and ELISA', Japanese Journal ... effects of the epsilon toxin produced by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium perfringens type D. The only practical means of ... Lambda-toxin of Clostridium perfringens activates the precursor of epsilon-toxin by releasing its N- and C-terminal peptides', ...
  http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100008&lang=en
*  Industrial processing of canned beans
In this range, the most harmful spore-forming microorganism that is resistant to heat is Clostridium botulinum, which may ... produce the botulinum toxin, and its elimination is a minimal requirement for sterilization (FELLOWS, 2006; SPOTO, 2006; MISHRA ... Canned-type processing. According to SIDDIQ & UEBERSAX (2013), there are several ways of adding value to beans through ... In this type of processing, beans are usually prepared by hydration operations, grain blanching in hot water, canning, brine ...
  http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-84782017000500780
*  Detailed analysis of metagenome datasets obtained from biogas-producing microbial communities residing in biogas reactors does...
In vitro reconstitution of the Clostridium botulinum type D progenitor toxin.. Kouguchi H, Watanabe T, Sagane Y, Sunagawa H, ... Fate of Clostridium botulinum and incidence of pathogenic clostridia in biogas processes.. Fröschle B, Messelhäusser U, Höller ... Detection of Clostridium botulinum in liquid manure and biogas plant wastes.. Neuhaus J, Schrödl W, Shehata AA, Krüger M., ... Structural basis of Clostridium perfringens toxin complex formation.. Adams JJ, Gregg K, Bayer EA, Boraston AB, Smith SP., Proc ...
  https://pub.uni-bielefeld.de/publication/2605193
*  About Botulism - An Updated Resource - Botulism Blog | Marler Blog
... botulinum toxin type A was detected by mouse bioassay in the man's serum sample. Botulinum toxin was also detected by mouse ... which would have allowed for growth of Clostridium botulinum and subsequent production of botulinum toxin. Based on the CDC ... botulinum toxin testing. On July 16 the CDC detected botulinum toxin type A by mouse bioassay in the chili mixture. Empty, well ... On September 28, botulinum toxin type A was identified in the patient's serum. Circulating toxin persisted more than 10 days ...
  http://www.marlerblog.com/legal-cases/about-botulism---an-updated-resource---botulism-blog/
*  US7048927B2 - Botulinum neurotoxin eluting stent - Google Patents
The methods include a step of administering an effective amount of a botulinum toxin directly to a blood vessel of a mammal ... Shone, C., et al., A 50-kDa fragment from the NH2-terminus of the heavy subunit of clostridium botulinum type A neurotoxin ... The botulinum toxin may be any botulinum toxin including botulinum toxin type A, B, C, D, E, F, G or combinations thereof or ... In accordance with the present invention, the botulinum toxin may be any botulinum toxin including botulinum toxin types A, B, ...
  https://patents.google.com/patent/US7048927