*  Clostridium argentinense - Wikipedia
"Clostridium argentinense sp. nov.: A Genetically Homogeneous Group Composed of All Strains of Clostridium botulinum Toxin Type ... botulinum toxin group G, respectively. Like Cl. botulinum, Cl. argentinense produces botulin, a neurotoxin that causes botulism ... "Clostridium argentinense". Catalogue of Life. ITIS. Species 2000. UniProt. "Clostridium argentinense". Retrieved 2011-01-21. ... Clostridium argentinense is an anaerobic, motile, gram-positive bacterium. Some bacilli now identified as Cl. argentinense were ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clostridium_argentinense
*  ASMscience | The Evolution of Bacteri
Evidence for plasmid-mediated toxin and bacteriocin production in Clostridium botulinum type G. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54: ... Interspecies conversion of Clostridium botulinum type C to Clostridium novyi type A by bacteriophage. Science 186:456-458.. ... Eklund, M. W.,, F. T. Poysky, and, S. M. Reed. 1972. Bacteriophage and the toxigenicity of Clostridium botulinum type D. Nat. ... Genetic characterisation of the botulinum toxin complex of Clostridium botulinum strain NCTC 2916. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 140: ...
  http://www.asmscience.org/content/book/10.1128/9781555815622.ch10
*  ASMscience | Virulence Plasmids of Sp
The major toxins involved in C. perfringens type A-mediated gas gangrene, the α-toxin and perfringolysin O, together with other ... Although other pathogens are mentioned, the focus is on the major human pathogens, Clostridium perfringens and Bacillus ... Toxin-producing strains often carry multiple cry genes and large amounts of the δ-endotoxins are produced in stationary phase, ... Expression of the plasmid-determined toxin genes in Bacillus thuringiensis is coordinately regulated with the sporulation ...
  http://www.asmscience.org/content/book/10.1128/9781555817732.chap19
*  Patente US7393537 - Botulinum toxin for treatment of obsessive compulsive finger biting disorder - Google Patentes
Methods for treating obsessions and compulsions by local administration of a Clostridial toxin. The obsessions or compulsions ... The botulinum toxin type A is made from a culture of the Hall strain of Clostridium botulinum grown in a medium containing N-Z ... The botulinum toxin may be a botulinum toxin type A, type B, type C1, type D, type E, type F, or type G. The effects of the ... The botulinum toxin can be selected from the group consisting of botulinum toxin types A, B, C, D, E, F and G. Botulinum toxin ...
  http://www.google.es/patents/US7393537?dq=flatulence
*  Benign Essential Blepharospasm Medication: Botulinum toxins
Botulinum toxin type A that is free of complexing proteins found in natural toxin from Clostridium botulinum. Acetylcholine ... The use of botulinum toxin type-B in the treatment of patients who have become unresponsive to botulinum toxin type-A -- ... Botulinum toxin in blepharospasm and oromandibular dystonia: comparing different botulinum toxin preparations. Eur J Neurol. ... Botulinum toxin type A injections: adverse events reported to the US Food and Drug Administration in therapeutic and cosmetic ...
  https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1212176-medication
*  AB toxin - Wikipedia
Examples of the "A" component of an AB toxin include C. perfringens iota toxin Ia, C. botulinum C2 toxin CI, and Clostridium ... The AB5 toxins are usually considered a type of AB toxin, characterized by B pentamers. Less commonly, the term "AB toxin" is ... They can be classified as Type III toxins because they interfere with internal cell function. They are named AB toxins due to ... Among the toxins produced by certain Clostridium spp. are the binary exotoxins. These proteins consist of two independent ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AB_toxin
*  Botulism as a Potential Agent of Bioterrorism | SpringerLink
Infant botulism due to Clostridium botulinum type C toxin. Lancet. 336:1449-1450.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Both botulinum and tetanus toxins are relatively simple to produce. The botulinum toxins affect the neuromuscular junction and ... Assays for botulinum and tetanus toxins. In: Simpson, L.L. (ed.), Botulinum Neurotoxin and Tetanus Toxin. Academic Press, San ... Midura, T.F., and Arnon, S.S. (1976). Infant botulism: identification of Clostridium botulinum and its toxin in faeces. Lancet. ...
  https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4419-1266-4_7
*  Extended Shelf Life Refrigerated Foods: Microbiological Quality and Safety - IFT.org
... botulinum types A and B spores and toxin production. The challenge studies indicated that the probability of toxigenesis ... Clostridium botulinum and other clostridia that produce botulinum neurotoxin. In "Clostridium botulinum: Ecology and Control in ... botulinum (I-IV) and some strains of Clostridium baratii and Clostridium butyricum can produce botulinum neurotoxin (Hatheway, ... 1992). C. botulinum type I (proteolytic strains) and C. botulinum type II (nonproteolytic strains) are responsible for human ...
  http://www.ift.org/Knowledge-Center/Read-IFT-Publications/Science-Reports/Scientific-Status-Summaries/Extended-Shelf-Life-Refrigerated-Foods.aspx
*  How to Make Home-canned Soups, Broths and Chowders - Easily! With Step-by-step Photos, Recipe, Directions, Ingredients and...
Clostridium botulinum is the bacterium commonly found in vegetables and meats. It is harmless until it finds itself in a moist ... Ordinary water bath canners can only reach 212 F and cannot to kill the types of bacteria that will grow in low acid foods. ... Under these conditions, the bacterium can grow and produce toxins dangerous to people and animals. ... "Pressure canning is the only safe method for home canning vegetables [and meats]. Clostridium botulinum is the bacterium that ...
  http://pickyourown.org/canningsoups.htm
*  How to Make Pickled Peppers - Easily! With Step-by-step Photos, Recipe, Directions, Ingredients and Costs
Clostridium botulinum is the bacterium commonly found in vegetables and meats. It is harmless until it finds itself in a moist ... we sell many sizes and types of canners for all types of stoves and needs - see canning supplies ... Under these conditions, the bacterium can grow and produce toxins dangerous to people and animals. ... Clostridium botulinum is the bacterium that causes botulism food poisoning in low-acid foods, such as vegetables. The bacterial ...
  http://www.pickyourown.org/pepperspickled.htm
*  Botulism | Encyclopedia.com
... a natural poison produced by the spore-forming bacteria Clostridium botulinum. ... The paralysis produced by type B toxin is less severe than with type A toxin. Type E botulism toxin is found more in the ... Botulinum Toxin World of Forensic Science COPYRIGHT 2005 Thomson Gale. Botulinum Toxin. Clostridium botulinum is a spore- ... Botulinum toxin. Definition. Botulinum toxin is the purified form of a poison created by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. ...
  https://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/diseases-and-conditions/pathology/botulism
*  Frontiers | mADP-RTs: versatile virulence factors from bacterial pathogens of plants and mammals | Plant Science
... pertussis toxin and diphteria toxin are three of the best-known examples of mADP-RTs. They modify host target proteins in order ... pertussis toxin and diphteria toxin are three of the best-known examples of mADP-RTs. They modify host target proteins in order ... For example, 86 Cα atoms of HopU1 can be superimposed onto the structure of the Clostridium botulinum mADP-RT C3bot2 with a ... Fu, Z. Q., Guo, M., Jeong, B. R., Tian, F., Elthon, T. E., Cerny, R. L., Staiger, D., and Alfano, J. R. (2007). A type III ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2012.00142/full
*  Regulatory Role of Arginine-Specific Mono(ADP-Ribosyl)Transferase in Muscle Cells | Springer for Research & Development
Alteration of cytoskeleton of mammalian cells cultured in vitro by Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin and C3 ADP-ribosyltransferase ... Assembly of vimentin in cultured cells varies with cell type. J. Biol. Chem. 264: 17953-17960.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Clostridium perfringens iota toxin ADP-ribosylates skeletal muscle actin in arginine 177. FEBS Lett. 225: 48-52.CrossRefGoogle ... Botulinum C2 toxin ADP-ribosylates cytoplasmic p/y-actin in arginine 177. J. Biol. Chem. 263: 696-700.Google Scholar ...
  https://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4419-8632-0_40
*  Curing and Smoking Meats for Home Food Preservation
Potential Hazards in Cold Smoked Fish: Clostridium botulinum type E. (US FDA 2001c). ... were such that they could potentially permit Clostridium botulinum to develop and produce the toxin (NY State Agriculture ... and produce toxin. Sufficient heat can be used to inactivate the toxin (180°F for 4 min., Kendall 1999). C. botulinum thrives ... However, the most deadly food poisoning organism, Clostridium botulinum requires a low oxygen atmosphere and therefore, vacuum ...
  http://nchfp.uga.edu/publications/nchfp/lit_rev/cure_smoke_fs.html
*  Ecosystems
Clostridium botulinum ) commonly found in the soil. There are several types of botulism toxin some of which can affect humans ... Birds get their own kind of botulism (Type C in Hawaii) that does not affect humans. Botulism type C is concentrated in aquatic ... Botulism is a natural toxin produced by a bacterium ( ... logstash-usgs-pw:palladium_root_publication_type Select Type. ... 400 biological monitoring stations across coastal Louisiana spanning all coastal habitat types and generating tremendous ...
  https://www.usgs.gov/science/mission-areas/ecosystems?field_project_status_value=All&field_state_science=All&field_release_date_value_science%5Bvalue%5D&sort_science_objects=field_release_date_value%20DESC&sort_order=DESC&sort_by=field_release_date_value&page=4
*  Development of a flow cytometric bead immunoassay and its assessment as a possible aid to potency evaluation of enterotoxaemia...
... for the detection of Clostridium perfringens type B toxin', Japanese Journal of Medical Science and Biology 32, 199-205. PMid: ... antigen contents of Clostridium botulinum types C and D cultures as determined by mouse bioassay and ELISA', Japanese Journal ... effects of the epsilon toxin produced by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium perfringens type D. The only practical means of ... Lambda-toxin of Clostridium perfringens activates the precursor of epsilon-toxin by releasing its N- and C-terminal peptides', ...
  http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100008&lang=en
*  Clostridium botulinum - Wikipedia
The toxin type has been designated Bf as the type B toxin was found in excess to the type F. Similarly, strains producing Ab ... Historical notes on botulism, Clostridium botulinum, botulinum toxin, and the idea of the therapeutic use of the toxin. ... botulinum acquired the toxin genes quite far in the evolutionary past. Only botulinum toxin types A, B, E, and F cause disease ... butyricum has produced type E toxin and C. baratii had produced type F toxin. The ability of C. botulinum to naturally transfer ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clostridium_botulinum
*  About Botulism - An Updated Resource - Botulism Blog | Marler Blog
... botulinum toxin type A was detected by mouse bioassay in the man's serum sample. Botulinum toxin was also detected by mouse ... which would have allowed for growth of Clostridium botulinum and subsequent production of botulinum toxin. Based on the CDC ... botulinum toxin testing. On July 16 the CDC detected botulinum toxin type A by mouse bioassay in the chili mixture. Empty, well ... On September 28, botulinum toxin type A was identified in the patient's serum. Circulating toxin persisted more than 10 days ...
  http://www.marlerblog.com/legal-cases/about-botulism---an-updated-resource---botulism-blog/
*  US7048927B2 - Botulinum neurotoxin eluting stent - Google Patents
The methods include a step of administering an effective amount of a botulinum toxin directly to a blood vessel of a mammal ... Shone, C., et al., A 50-kDa fragment from the NH2-terminus of the heavy subunit of clostridium botulinum type A neurotoxin ... The botulinum toxin may be any botulinum toxin including botulinum toxin type A, B, C, D, E, F, G or combinations thereof or ... In accordance with the present invention, the botulinum toxin may be any botulinum toxin including botulinum toxin types A, B, ...
  https://patents.google.com/patent/US7048927
*  Botulism - Wikipedia
Clostridium botulinum type C toxin has been incriminated as the cause of grass sickness, a condition in horses which occurs in ... Clostridium botulinum is an anaerobic, Gram positive, spore-forming rod. Botulinum toxin is one of the most powerful known ... However, further studies showed type H to be a chimeric toxin composed of parts of types F and A (FA). Some types produce a ... Botulinum toxin is broken into 8 neurotoxins (labeled as types A, B, C [C1, C2], D, E, F, and G), which are antigenically and ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Botulism
*  Nutrients | Free Full-Text | Reducing Sodium in Foods: The Effect on Flavor | HTML
... in processed meats and cheeses sodium chloride limits the growth and production of toxin by Clostridium Botulinum [77]. ... Most taste receptor cells are components of taste buds, which are clustered on three types of papillae (i.e., fungiform, ... The sense of taste presumably evolved to detect both toxins and nutrients in foods. To perform this task the taste system is ... Figure 1. Percentage contribution of food types to average daily intake of sodium [15,24]. ...
  http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/3/6/694/htm
*  Cytolysin - Wikipedia
Representative cytolysins of this type of include C. perfringens α-toxin (phospholipase C), S. aureus β-toxin (shingomyelinase ... Bacterial protein toxins can be highly poisonous to human. For example, Botulinum is 3x105 more toxic than snake venom to human ... Examples of this type include perfringiolysin O from Clostridium perfringens bacteria, hemolysin from Escherichia coli, and ... These types of cytolysin are also known as pore-forming toxins (PFTs) and comprise the largest portion of all cytolysins. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytolysin
*  Frontiers | Into the Intracellular Logistics of Cross-Presentation | Immunology
The host cell chaperone Hsp90 is essential for translocation of the binary Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin into the cytosol. J. ... Although the DC types have been profiled by a series of techniques including microarray and mass spectrometry, a clear "cross- ... Hsp90 is required for transfer of the cholera toxin A1 subunit from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cytosol. J. Biol. Chem. ... This mechanism is used by some toxins to enter the cytosol, but is poorly - if at all - used by most proteins (Neefjes et al., ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2012.00031/full
*  DiVA - Search result
The effect of temperature on toxin formation and toxin stability of clostridium botulinum, type E, in different environments ... Toxin production by Clostridium botulinum, type E, in vacuumpacked, irradiated fresh fish in relation to changes of the ... Effect of various chemicals on production of toxin by Clostridium botulinum, type E1964Report (Refereed). fulltext ... Studies on the effect of different chemical inhibitors on the toxinproduction of Clostridium botulinum type E1964Report ( ...
  http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/resultList.jsf?searchType=SUBJECT&language=en&onlyFullText=false&af=%5B%5D&aq=%5B%5B%7B%22categoryId%22%3A%2211713%22%7D%5D%5D
*  Gas Peddled | Village Voice
Botulism, a food-borne illness caused by a family of toxins produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, is also often ... an airplane or handheld spray tank with something so poisonous that the same types of spills stand a good chance of chemically ... Botulinum toxin gets a lot of press for being more lethal than sarin, but using it as a weapon for killing thousands-as opposed ... Saddam Hussein used his air force on March 16, 1988, to bomb the Kurd town of Halabja with poison gases-an incident in which ...
  https://www.villagevoice.com/2001/10/02/gas-peddled/