*  IJMS | Free Full-Text | Effect of Amphipathic HIV Fusion Inhibitor Peptides on POPC and POPC/Cholesterol Membrane Properties:...
T-20 and T-1249 fusion inhibitor peptides were shown to interact with 1-palmitoyl-2-oleyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) (liquid disordered, ld) and POPC/cholesterol (1:1) (POPC/Chol) (liquid ordered, lo) bilayers, and they do so to different extents. Although they both possess a tryptophan-rich domain (TRD), T-20 lacks a pocket binding domain (PBD), which is present in T-1249. It has been postulated that the PBD domain enhances FI interaction with HIV gp41 protein and with model membranes. Interaction of these fusion inhibitor peptides with both the cell membrane and the viral envelope membrane is important for function, i.e., inhibition of the fusion process. We address this problem with a molecular dynamics approach focusing on lipid properties, trying to ascertain the consequences and the differences in the interaction of T-20 and T-1249 with ld and lo model membranes. T-20 and T-1249 interactions with model membranes are shown to have ...
  http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/14/7/14724/notes
*  HIV Fusion Inhibitors Summary Report | CureHunter
HIV Fusion Inhibitors: Inhibitors of the fusion of HIV to host cells, preventing viral entry. This includes compounds that block attachment of HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 to CD4 RECEPTORS.
  http://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD023581-HIV-Fusion-Inhibitors.do
*  Enfuvirtide - Wikipedia
Enfuvirtide (INN) is an HIV fusion inhibitor, the first of a novel class of antiretroviral drugs used in combination therapy for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. It is marketed under the trade name Fuzeon (Roche). Enfuvirtide therapy costs an estimated US$25,000 per year in the United States. Its cost and inconvenient dosing regimen are factors behind its use as a reserve, for salvage therapy in patients with multi-drug resistant HIV. Ac-Tyr-Thr-Ser-Leu-Ile-His-Ser-Leu-Ile-Glu-Glu-Ser-Gln-Asn-Gln-Gln-Glu-Lys-Asn-Glu-Gln-Glu-Leu-Leu-Glu-Leu-Asp-Lys-Trp-Ala-Ser-Leu-Trp-Asn-Trp-Phe-NH2 Enfuvirtide originated at Duke University, where researchers formed a pharmaceutical company known as Trimeris. Trimeris began development on enfuvirtide in 1996 and initially designated it T-20. In 1999, Trimeris entered into partnership with Hoffmann-La Roche to complete the development of the drug. It was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enfuvirtide
*  Pilot Study Evaluating Interruption of Enfuvirtide (Fuzeon, T20) in Patients With Enfuvirtide Resistance - Full Text View -...
Some patients do not achieve an undetectable HIV viral load with an enfuvirtide (T20, Fuzeon) based antiretroviral regimen. As a consequence, enfuvirtide resistant virus can emerge. It is not yet known if enfuvirtide has continued virologic or immunologic benefit after the drug-resistant variant emerges. Interrupting enfuvirtide may reduce the accumulation of enfuvirtide mutations and may allow for a potent response of enfuvirtide with future regimens.. Subjects must have evidence of viral replication (HIV RNA , 1,000 copies/ml on two consecutive measurements) while on a stable antiretroviral regimen containing enfuvirtide. Patients will then interrupt enfuvirtide while continuing all other antiretroviral agents. Subjects will be seen weekly for four weeks, every two weeks for an additional 8 weeks, and then every four weeks through week 48.. Plasma HIV RNA levels and CD4+/CD8+ T cell counts will be measured in real time at each visit, and provided to the ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00187551?order=407
*  Pilot Study Evaluating Interruption of Enfuvirtide (Fuzeon, T20) in Patients With Enfuvirtide Resistance - Full Text View -...
Some patients do not achieve an undetectable HIV viral load with an enfuvirtide (T20, Fuzeon) based antiretroviral regimen. As a consequence, enfuvirtide resistant virus can emerge. It is not yet known if enfuvirtide has continued virologic or immunologic benefit after the drug-resistant variant emerges. Interrupting enfuvirtide may reduce the accumulation of enfuvirtide mutations and may allow for a potent response of enfuvirtide with future regimens.. Subjects must have evidence of viral replication (HIV RNA , 1,000 copies/ml on two consecutive measurements) while on a stable antiretroviral regimen containing enfuvirtide. Patients will then interrupt enfuvirtide while continuing all other antiretroviral agents. Subjects will be seen weekly for four weeks, every two weeks for an additional 8 weeks, and then every four weeks through week 48.. Plasma HIV RNA levels and CD4+/CD8+ T cell counts will be measured in real time at each visit, and provided to the ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00187551?order=442
*  Northwest Houston man finds hope in new HIV fusion inhibitor treatment - Houston Chronicle
HIV targets the immune system's CD4, or T-cells, causing them to drop far below a healthy 800 cells per cubic milliliter. As the count gets lower, the body has more and more difficulty fighting off sickness. The virus also replicates itself in the blood; the higher the number of copies in the blood, or viral load, the more likely someone is to get sick.. ...
  http://www.chron.com/neighborhood/article/Northwest-Houston-man-finds-hope-in-new-HIV-9814586.php
*  Effect of an Enfuvirtide-based Anti-HIV Drug Regimen on Latent HIV Reservoirs in Treatment Naive Adults - Full Text View -...
While current HIV treatment with combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has reduced morbidity and mortality, it does not eradicate or cure HIV infection. A possible explanation for this failure is the persistence of virus in long-lived reservoirs. Resting memory CD4 cells have been proposed as providing a cellular reservoir. Most patients who initiate ART during chronic HIV-1 infection do not experience a detectable reduction in HIV in the latent reservoir; this may be due to low levels of ongoing viral replication that maintains the resting CD4 cell reservoir. Increasing the potency of therapy by inhibiting new viral targets may result in a decrease in the number of latently infected cells and clearance of the latent reservoir. Addition of the fusion inhibitor T-20 to ART including reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors (PIs) may help achieve this goal. This study will ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00051831?order=165
*  Effect of an Enfuvirtide-based Anti-HIV Drug Regimen on Latent HIV Reservoirs in Treatment Naive Adults - Full Text View -...
While current HIV treatment with combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has reduced morbidity and mortality, it does not eradicate or cure HIV infection. A possible explanation for this failure is the persistence of virus in long-lived reservoirs. Resting memory CD4 cells have been proposed as providing a cellular reservoir. Most patients who initiate ART during chronic HIV-1 infection do not experience a detectable reduction in HIV in the latent reservoir; this may be due to low levels of ongoing viral replication that maintains the resting CD4 cell reservoir. Increasing the potency of therapy by inhibiting new viral targets may result in a decrease in the number of latently infected cells and clearance of the latent reservoir. Addition of the fusion inhibitor T-20 to ART including reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors (PIs) may help achieve this goal. This study will ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00051831?order=31
*  UPENN Biomedical Graduate Studies | Robert W. Doms
Current projects involve the use of specific inhibitors of virus entry, many of which are now used clinically including the membrane fusion inhibitor enfuvirtide and the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc. By studying the entry process, we hope to characterize why some virus strains are more sensitive to certain classes of entry inhibitors than other virus strains and to determine if these differences correlate with virus tropism or pathogenesis. This information could also be used to help guide clinical therapy. A great deal of our work in this area involves examining viruses obtained from patients who have received these drugs, as we attempt to identify how HIV acquires resistance to entry inhibitors, and the implications this has for viral tropism. Finally, now that the structure of the HIV Env protein is better understood and the receptors with which it interacts have been identified, it is now possible to ...
  http://www.med.upenn.edu/apps/faculty/index.php/g20000320/p9540
*  Viruses | Free Full-Text | Approaches for Identification of HIV-1 Entry Inhibitors Targeting gp41 Pocket
The hydrophobic pocket in the HIV-1 gp41 N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR) domain plays an important role in viral fusion and entry into the host cell, and serves as an attractive target for development of HIV-1 fusion/entry inhibitors. The peptide anti-HIV drug targeting gp41 NHR, T-20 (generic name: enfuvirtide; brand name: Fuzeon), was approved by the U.S. FDA in 2003 as the first HIV fusion/entry inhibitor for treatment of HIV/AIDS patients who fail to respond to the current antiretroviral drugs. However, because T20 lacks the pocket-binding domain (PBD), it exhibits low anti-HIV-1 activity and short half-life. Therefore, several next-generation HIV fusion inhibitory peptides with PBD have been developed. They possess longer half-life and more potent antiviral activity against a broad spectrum of ...
  http://mdpi.com/1999-4915/5/1/127
*  "Antimicrobial Peptide Resistance and Immunomodulation by HIV-1 gp41" by Matthew Wood
Fusion inhibitors are a class of antiretroviral drugs used to prevent entry of HIV into host cells. Many of the fusion inhibitors being developed, including the drug enfuvirtide (ENF), are peptides designed to mimic, and thereby competitively inhibit, the viral fusion protein gp41. An exception to this is a class of cyclic, cationic, antimicrobial peptides known as θ-defensins, which are produced by many non-human primates and exhibit broad-spectrum antiviral and antibacterial activity. Currently, the θ-defensin analog RC-101 is being developed as a microbicide to prevent sexual transmission of HIV-1. Understanding potential RC-101 resistance, and how resistance to other fusion inhibitors affects RC-101 susceptibility, is critical for future development. Partial drug resistance due to genetic variability within HIV-1 presents a major hurdle ...
  http://stars.library.ucf.edu/etd/4668/
*  HIV entry inhibitors: mechanisms of action and resistance pathways : Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - oi
Entry inhibitors represent a new generation of antivirals for the treatment of HIV infection. Several compounds which block the attachment of HIV gp120 to either the CD4 T cell receptor or the CCR5/CXCR4 co-receptors are currently in clinical development. Most of these compounds have different molecular structures and specific mechanisms of action. These agents are eagerly awaited by a growing number of patients carrying viruses resistant viruses to many of the current available reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors. For enfuvirtide, the first and, so far, only entry inhibitor approved for clinical use, the main mechanism of resistance is the selection of changes within a 10 amino acid segment encompassing residues 36-45 within the HR1 region of gp41. For other entry inhibitors, multiple changes in different gp120 domains (V1, V2, V3, C2 and C4) have been associated with loss of susceptibility to these agents, ...
  http://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.1093/jac/dkl027
*  Safety and Effectiveness of the Oral HIV Entry Inhibitor Vicriviroc in HIV Infected Patients - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials...
Vicriviroc is an oral HIV-1 entry inhibitor that targets the CCR5 receptor of T cells. Vicriviroc has been shown safe, well-tolerated, and active in Phase I clinical trials in treatment-naive HIV infected patients. The goal of this study is to evaluate the antiretroviral activity of three dose levels of vicriviroc in HIV infected, treatment-experienced patients who are failing their current ritonavir-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART).. The study will last at least 48 weeks, but no more than 5 years. There are 3 steps in this study. Patients will be randomly assigned to one of 4 groups. Group 1 will receive placebo; Group 2 will receive 5 mg vicriviroc daily; Group 3 will receive 10 mg vicriviroc daily; and Group 4 will receive 15 mg vicriviroc daily. If at or after Week 16 a participant's viral load has not met certain criteria, a dose increase of vicriviroc may occur and the participant will enter Step 2. As of 10/12/05, patients in Group 2 and any ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct/show/NCT00082498?order=1
*  Safety and Effectiveness of the Oral HIV Entry Inhibitor Vicriviroc in HIV Infected Patients - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials...
Vicriviroc is an oral HIV-1 entry inhibitor that targets the CCR5 receptor of T cells. Vicriviroc has been shown safe, well-tolerated, and active in Phase I clinical trials in treatment-naive HIV infected patients. The goal of this study is to evaluate the antiretroviral activity of three dose levels of vicriviroc in HIV infected, treatment-experienced patients who are failing their current ritonavir-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART).. The study will last at least 48 weeks, but no more than 5 years. There are 3 steps in this study. Patients will be randomly assigned to one of 4 groups. Group 1 will receive placebo; Group 2 will receive 5 mg vicriviroc daily; Group 3 will receive 10 mg vicriviroc daily; and Group 4 will receive 15 mg vicriviroc daily. If at or after Week 16 a participant's viral load has not met certain criteria, a dose increase of vicriviroc may occur and the participant will enter Step 2. As of 10/12/05, patients in Group 2 and any ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00082498?order=223
*  Safety and Effectiveness of the Oral HIV Entry Inhibitor Vicriviroc in HIV Infected Patients - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials...
Vicriviroc is an oral HIV-1 entry inhibitor that targets the CCR5 receptor of T cells. Vicriviroc has been shown safe, well-tolerated, and active in Phase I clinical trials in treatment-naive HIV infected patients. The goal of this study is to evaluate the antiretroviral activity of three dose levels of vicriviroc in HIV infected, treatment-experienced patients who are failing their current ritonavir-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART).. The study will last at least 48 weeks, but no more than 5 years. There are 3 steps in this study. Patients will be randomly assigned to one of 4 groups. Group 1 will receive placebo; Group 2 will receive 5 mg vicriviroc daily; Group 3 will receive 10 mg vicriviroc daily; and Group 4 will receive 15 mg vicriviroc daily. If at or after Week 16 a participant's viral load has not met certain criteria, a dose increase of vicriviroc may occur and the participant will enter Step 2. As of 10/12/05, patients in Group 2 and any ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00082498?order=279
*  Safety and Effectiveness of the Oral HIV Entry Inhibitor Vicriviroc in HIV Infected Patients - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials...
Vicriviroc is an oral HIV-1 entry inhibitor that targets the CCR5 receptor of T cells. Vicriviroc has been shown safe, well-tolerated, and active in Phase I clinical trials in treatment-naive HIV infected patients. The goal of this study is to evaluate the antiretroviral activity of three dose levels of vicriviroc in HIV infected, treatment-experienced patients who are failing their current ritonavir-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART).. The study will last at least 48 weeks, but no more than 5 years. There are 3 steps in this study. Patients will be randomly assigned to one of 4 groups. Group 1 will receive placebo; Group 2 will receive 5 mg vicriviroc daily; Group 3 will receive 10 mg vicriviroc daily; and Group 4 will receive 15 mg vicriviroc daily. If at or after Week 16 a participant's viral load has not met certain criteria, a dose increase of vicriviroc may occur and the participant will enter Step 2. As of 10/12/05, patients in Group 2 and any ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00082498?order=33
*  QUALITE Study - A Study of Fuzeon (Enfuvirtide) in Treatment-Experienced Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1)...
This study will evaluate patient quality of life and tolerability of a HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) regimen containing twice-daily subcutaneous injections of Fuzeon in clinically stable, treatment-experienced patients with HIV-1 infection. All patients will use a 31-gauge thin-walled 8mm needle to administer Fuzeon. The anticipated time on study treatment is 3-12 months, and the target sample size is 100-500 individuals ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT00232908?show_locs=Y
*  Evaluating the Effect of CHanging EnfuvirtidE to Raltegravir in HIV Infected Subjects - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
This is a single-arm, open-label, non-randomized pilot study in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) positive patients who have an undetectable viral load on their current enfuvirtide containing medication regimen. The treatment regimen will consist of replacing enfuvirtide with MK-0518 400 mg twice a day given as part of the patient's HIV medication regimen. The study regimen will be administered for 24 weeks, with patients given the option of continuing on the study medication past that time if they wish to. Patients serve as their own control as they have viral control (HIV ribonucleic acid (RNA) below limits of quantification) for at least 6 months with enfuvirtide prior to switch to raltegravir ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00529243
*  Evaluating the Effect of CHanging EnfuvirtidE to Raltegravir in HIV Infected Subjects - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
This is a single-arm, open-label, non-randomized pilot study in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) positive patients who have an undetectable viral load on their current enfuvirtide containing medication regimen. The treatment regimen will consist of replacing enfuvirtide with MK-0518 400 mg twice a day given as part of the patient's HIV medication regimen. The study regimen will be administered for 24 weeks, with patients given the option of continuing on the study medication past that time if they wish to. Patients serve as their own control as they have viral control (HIV ribonucleic acid (RNA) below limits of quantification) for at least 6 months with enfuvirtide prior to switch to raltegravir ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00529243?order=71
*  Intensification With Enfuvirtide in Naive HIV-infected Patients (ANRS130) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
HIV infection is diagnosed late in a substantial proportion of patients having an increased risk of clinical progression (AIDS, new AIDS-defining event or death). The currently recommended antiretroviral therapy has suboptimal activity in this setting and potent quadruple-drug therapy has not been sufficiently evaluated. Enfuvirtide may be an appropriate candidate as the fourth antiretroviral agent, regarding its activity, its parenteral administration avoiding gastrointestinal symptoms that often lead to interruption of treatment, the lack of pharmacokinetic interactions and the absence of systemic toxicity.. The aim of this study is to investigate, in a comparative intensification trial, the immunological benefit of adding enfuvirtide for 6 months to a conventional antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1 infected and severely immunosuppressed patients, naïve of any antiretroviral treatment.. We postulate that addition of enfuvirtide to a first-line antiretroviral therapy ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00302822?order=105
*  Intensification With Enfuvirtide in Naive HIV-infected Patients (ANRS130) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
HIV infection is diagnosed late in a substantial proportion of patients having an increased risk of clinical progression (AIDS, new AIDS-defining event or death). The currently recommended antiretroviral therapy has suboptimal activity in this setting and potent quadruple-drug therapy has not been sufficiently evaluated. Enfuvirtide may be an appropriate candidate as the fourth antiretroviral agent, regarding its activity, its parenteral administration avoiding gastrointestinal symptoms that often lead to interruption of treatment, the lack of pharmacokinetic interactions and the absence of systemic toxicity.. The aim of this study is to investigate, in a comparative intensification trial, the immunological benefit of adding enfuvirtide for 6 months to a conventional antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1 infected and severely immunosuppressed patients, naïve of any antiretroviral treatment.. We postulate that addition of enfuvirtide to a first-line antiretroviral therapy ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00302822?order=45
*  Intensification With Enfuvirtide in Naive HIV-infected Patients (ANRS130) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
HIV infection is diagnosed late in a substantial proportion of patients having an increased risk of clinical progression (AIDS, new AIDS-defining event or death). The currently recommended antiretroviral therapy has suboptimal activity in this setting and potent quadruple-drug therapy has not been sufficiently evaluated. Enfuvirtide may be an appropriate candidate as the fourth antiretroviral agent, regarding its activity, its parenteral administration avoiding gastrointestinal symptoms that often lead to interruption of treatment, the lack of pharmacokinetic interactions and the absence of systemic toxicity.. The aim of this study is to investigate, in a comparative intensification trial, the immunological benefit of adding enfuvirtide for 6 months to a conventional antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1 infected and severely immunosuppressed patients, naïve of any antiretroviral treatment.. We postulate that addition of enfuvirtide to a first-line antiretroviral therapy ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00302822?order=578
*  Enfuvirtide - Creative Peptides
Enfuvirtide is a 36 amino acid peptide corresponding to a region of gp41, the transmembrane subunit of HIV-1 envelope protein. It belongs to the therapeutic class of fusion inhibitors and acts by binding to gp41 and impeding the conformational changes in gp41 necessary for fusion of the virus with the cell.
  https://www.creative-peptides.com/product/enfuvirtide-item-10-101-14-47.html
*  Cohort Study for Patients Using Fuzeon (Enfuvirtide) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
The Radata-Fuzeon cohort is an observational cohort study to gain a better understanding of Fuzeon (Enfuvirtide) in daily clinical practice. Patients planned to take this drug in a new antiretroviral combination therapy (ART) are eligible to participate in this observation.. Physicians may register patients online via the internet. They are offered to get an expert advice suggesting therapeutics for a new ART.. Observation interval is every three month. However physicians are allowed to initiate new diagnostics, expert advice and therapeutic changes independently from these intervals if necessary.. Total observation time for each patients is planned for two years. ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00216359?order=543
*  Update to Fuzeon (Enfuvirtide) Label Regarding Incidence of Bacterial Pneumonia - TheBody.com
Updates to the Warnings and Precautions, Pneumonia subsection of the Fuzeon (enfuvirtide) package insert were approved on April 28, 2011 in response to ...
  http://www.thebody.com/content/art61848.html?nxtprv