Limbic Seizures Induced by Systemically Applied Kainic Acid: How Much Kainic Acid Reaches the Brain? | SpringerLink
... in rats induces a limbic seizure and brain damage syndrome, which has been proposed as an experimental animal model for human ... Systemic or intracerebral injection of the neurotoxin kainic acid (KA) ... Oldendorf, W.H., and Szabo, J., 1976,. Amino acid assignment to one of three blood-brain barrier amino acid carriers, Am. J. ... Developmental changes in the pattern of amino acid transport at the blood-brain barrier in rats, Developm. Brain Res. 6:175. ...https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-7971-3_15
γ-Glutamyl Transpeptidase, a Blood-Brain Barrier Associated Membrane Protein | SpringerLink
... the blood circulation not only represents the main transport system of nutrients, gases, ions, water, and metabolic products ... Amino Acid Transport Retrograde Transport Amino Acid Uptake Brain Capillary Mercapturic Acid These keywords were added by ... γ-Glutamyl Transpeptidase, a Blood-Brain Barrier Associated Membrane Protein. Splitting Peptides to Transport Amino Acids ... Molecular Cloning and Structural and Functional Features of a Blood-Brain Barrier Marker Protein" in: The Blood-Brain Barrier: ...https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4757-9613-1_6
Modulatory influence of Acacia hydaspica R. Parker ethyl acetate extract against cisplatin inveigled hepatic injury and...
γ-Glutamyl transpeptidase in brain capillaries: possible site of a blood-brain barrier for amino acids. Science. 1974;184(4132 ... Trunk blood was taken with 23 G1 syringes and collected in sterile falcon tubes. Blood was centrifuged at 500×g for 15 min at 4 ... while gallic acid catechin, rutin, caffeic acid were identified by HPLC analysis of methanol extract. Ethyl acetate fraction of ... Glutathione S-transferases the first enzymatic step in mercapturic acid formation. J Biol Chem. 1974;249(22):7130-9.PubMed ...https://bmccomplementalternmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12906-017-1824-y
Frontiers | Functional Polarity of Microvascular Brain Endothelial Cells Supported by Neurovascular Unit Computational Model of...
... allowing us to evaluate hypotheses concerning LAT1-mediated trans-endothelial transport of LNAAs across the blood brain barrier ... allowing us to evaluate hypotheses concerning LAT1-mediated trans-endothelial transport of LNAAs across the blood brain barrier ... concentration in the brain interstitial fluid (ISF) is essential for proper brain function. LNAA passage into the brain is ... concentration in the brain interstitial fluid (ISF) is essential for proper brain function. LNAA passage into the brain is ...https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2018.00171/full
In Vivo Methods for the Rate of Serotonin Synthesis and Axonal Transport Measurements in the Brain | Springer for Research &...
For more than twenty years researchers have been searching for a method of measuring the rate of brain serotonin synthesis ... Oldendorf, W. H. and Szabo, J. (1976). Amino acid assignment to one of three blood-brain barrier acid carriers. Am. J. Physiol. ... 1987). Kinetics of neutral amino acid transport across the blood-brain barrier. J. Neurochem., 49, 1651-1658PubMedCrossRef ... Miller, L. P., Pardridge, W. M., Braun, L. D. and Oldendorf, W. H. (1985). Kinetic constants for blood-brain barrier amino acid ...https://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-349-12272-1_2
Gadopentetic acid - Wikipedia
It is often used when viewing intracranial lesions with abnormal vascularity or abnormalities in the blood-brain barrier. It is ... when cation A is the protonated form of the amino sugar meglumine the salt goes under the name "gadopentetate dimeglumine". It ... Gadobenic acid Gadoxetic acid Murphy KJ, Brunberg JA, Cohan RH (1996). "Adverse reactions to gadolinium contrast media: a ... It is used to assist imaging of blood vessels and of inflamed or diseased tissue where the blood vessels become "leaky". ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gadopentetic_acid
Glutamine - Wikipedia
... nonessential amino acid in the human body, and one of the few amino acids that can directly cross the blood-brain barrier. ... In human blood, glutamine is the most abundant free amino acid. The dietary sources of glutamine includes especially the ... is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. It contains an α-amino group (which is in the protonated −NH2+ ... as any other of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids Lipid synthesis, especially by cancer cells. Regulation of acid-base balance ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glutamine
Others can enter the bloodstream, but cannot get past certain tissue barriers, such as the protective blood-brain barrier. Food ... In addition to chelating vitamins and minerals, glyphosate disrupts bacteria-manufacturing amino acids ... Brain-Eating Amoeba That Plagued Utilities Returns. The brain-eating amoeba that fatally afflicted several Louisiana residents ... Solar energy generating noise barriers undergo tests in the Netherlands. Highway barriers could deliver more than just noise ...http://arizonaenergy.org/News_15/News_Jul15/News_Jul15.html
Metabolic Regulation in Brain Cells | Springer for Research & Development
Recent studies of metabolic regulation in brain have focused on the complexity and fine-tuning involved in the control of ... Pardridge, W.M. (1983) Neuropeptides and the blood brain barrier. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 45:73-82.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... an astrocyte specific enzyme implicated in the replenishment of amino acid neurotransmitter pools. Brain Res. 329:364-367. ... Insulin increases glucose transfer across the blood-brain barrier in man. J. Clin. Invest. 67:597-604.PubMedGoogle Scholar ...https://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4613-2037-1_25
The Biology of Taurine in Nutrition and Development | Springer for Research & Development
2-aminoethanesulfonic acid, is a simple sulfur-containing compound, molecular weight 125, which is ubiquitous in nature (Fig. 1 ... Sturman, J. A., 1979b, Taurine in developing rat brain: Changes in blood-brain barrier, J. Neurochem. 32:811-816.Google Scholar ... Bile Acid Free Amino Acid Olfactory Bulb Retinal Degeneration Bile Acid Conjugation These keywords were added by machine and ... Yates, R. A., and Keen, P., 1975, The effect of optic stalk section on the amino acid content of rat retina, Brain Res. 99:166- ...https://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4757-4448-4_9
Ethanol's Effects on Transient Receptor Potential Channel Expression in Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells | SpringerLink
Ethanol Transient receptor potential channels Brain microvascular endothelial cells Blood-brain barrier ... Venkatachalam K, Wong CO, Montell C (2013) Feast or famine: role of TRPML in preventing cellular amino acid starvation. ... In vitro blood-brain barrier models using brain capillary endothelial cells isolated from neonatal and adult rats retain age- ... "Critical role of TRPP2 and TRPC1 channels in stretch-induced injury of blood-brain barrier endothelial cells." Brain Res 1436(0 ...https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11481-018-9796-3
Glutamic acid - Wikipedia
Smith, Quentin R. (April 2000). "Transport of glutamate and other amino acids at the blood-brain barrier". The Journal of ... A key process in amino acid degradation is transamination, in which the amino group of an amino acid is transferred to an α- ... R1-amino acid + R2-α-ketoacid ⇌ R1-α-ketoacid + R2-amino acid A very common α-keto acid is α-ketoglutarate, an intermediate in ... Glutamic acid is an α-amino acid with formula C 5H 9O 4N. It is usually abbreviated as Glu or E in biochemistry. Its molecular ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glutamic_acid
Gamma-Amino-beta-hydroxybutyric acid - Wikipedia
... perhaps due to its greater capacity to cross the blood-brain barrier. However, GABOB is of relatively low potency as an ... γ-Amino-β-hydroxybutyric acid (GABOB), also known as β-hydroxy-γ-aminobutyric acid (β-hydroxy-GABA), and sold under the brand ... De Maio, D.; Pasquariello, G. (1963). "Gamma-amino-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (GABOB) and brain serotonin". Psychopharmacologia. ... Effect of gamma-amino-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (GABHB) on experimentally-induced epileptic activity]" [Effect of γ-amino-β- ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gamma-Amino-beta-hydroxybutyric_acid
Aprotinin - Wikipedia
One scientific study in rats reported that treatment with aprotinin prevents disruption of the blood-brain barrier during the C ... The amino acid sequence for bovine BPTI is RPDFC LEPPY TGPCK ARIIR YFYNA KAGLC QTFVY GGCRA KRNNF KSAED CMRTC GGA. There are 10 ... ISBN 978-0-7167-7027-5. Xu CY (Feb 2014). "permeability of blood-brain barrier is mediated by serine protease during ... It has a molecular weight of 6512 and consists of 16 different amino acid types arranged in a chain 58 residues long that folds ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aprotinin
Design, Synthesis and Brain Uptake of LAT1-Targeted Amino Acid Prodrugs of Dopamine | SpringerLink
... we attempted to enhance the brain uptake of cationic dopamine by utilizing the large amino acid transporter 1... ... Purpose Drug delivery to the brain is impeded by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Here, ... blood-brain barrier brain drug delivery dopamine large amino acid transporter 1 prodrugs ... Drug delivery to the brain is impeded by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Here, we attempted to enhance the brain uptake of ...https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11095-012-0966-3
Metkefamide - Wikipedia
Despite its peptidic nature, upon systemic administration, metkefamide rapidly penetrates the blood-brain-barrier and disperses ... Met]Enkephalin Frakefamide J S Davies; Royal Soc of Chem (8 November 2000). Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins. Royal Society ... enkephalin with the amino acid sequence Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-Phe-(N-Me)-Met-NH2. It behaves as a potent agonist of the δ- and μ-opioid ... Frederickson RC, Smithwick EL, Shuman R, Bemis KG (February 1981). "Metkephamid, a systemically active analog of methionine ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metkefamide
Piet Borst - Wikipedia
... in the blood-brain barrier (23) and in the gut (oral availability of drugs) (24) (25). Proof that the Mdr2/MDR3 (ABCB4) P- ... N-lactoyl-amino acids are ubiquitous metabolites that originate from CNDP2-mediated reverse proteolysis of lactate and amino ... Disruption of the mouse mdr1a P-glycoprotein gene leads to a deficiency in the blood-brain barrier and to increased sensitivity ... N-lactoyl-amino acids, a novel metabolites of mammals (42), and glutamate-conjugates (43). The first mouse tumor model suitable ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piet_Borst
Postprandial somnolence - Wikipedia
... making tryptophan preferentially available to the large neutral amino acid transporter at the blood-brain barrier. Uptake of ... This lowers the ratio of these branched-chain amino acids in the bloodstream relative to tryptophan (an aromatic amino acid), ... The LNAA Transport at the Blood Brain Barrier". Retrieved 2008-06-12. Fernstrom JD, Wurtman RJ (1971). "Brain serotonin content ... Increased brain serotonin and melatonin levels result in sleepiness. Evidence suggests that the small rise in blood glucose ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Postprandial_somnolence
5-Hydroxytryptophan - Wikipedia
May 2008). "Augmented brain 5-HT crosses the blood-brain barrier through the 5-HT transporter in rat". Eur. J. Neurosci. 27: ... 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), also known as oxitriptan, is a naturally occurring amino acid and chemical precursor as well as a ... 5-HTP crosses the blood-brain barrier, while 5-HT does not. Excess 5-HTP, especially when administered with vitamin B6, is ... 5-HTP is decarboxylated to serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) by the enzyme aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase with the ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/5-Hydroxytryptophan
Levonantradol - Wikipedia
Synthetic cannabinoids like Levonantradol readily cross the blood-brain barrier because they are highly lipophilic and have low ... The amino group is protected by rxn with ethyl chloroformate, the ester group is saponified, and then cyclodehydration with ... polyphosphoric acid leads to the dihydroquinoline ring system (2). Deblocking with HBr is followed by etherification of the ... It can cause an increase in heart rate and decrease in blood pressure. Euphoric symptoms rarely occurred in subjects. Dane salt ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Levonantradol
Mediation of Highly Concentrative Uptake of Pregabalin by L-Type Amino Acid Transport in Chinese Hamster Ovary and Caco-2 Cells...
Wang Y and Welty DF (1996) The simultaneous estimation of the influx and efflux blood-brain barrier permeabilities of ... L-type amino acid transport system is an ubiquitous Na+-independent transport system for large, neutral amino acids across ... 2003) Identification of a novel system L amino acid transporter structurally distinct from heterodimeric amino acid ... amino acid transport on substrate affinity of the heteromeric b(0,+) amino acid transporter. J Biol Chem 275: 14331-14335. ...http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/313/3/1406.long
The concentrations of free amino acids and other electrolytes in cerebrospinal fluid, in vivo dialysate of brain, and blood ... 1988) The glucose transporter of the human brain and blood-brain barrier. Ann. Neurol. 24:757-764. ... 1984) Neutral amino acid transport by plasma membrane vesicles of rabbit choroid plexus. Brain Res. 295:155-160. ... The extracellular fluid of the central nervous system is physically isolated from the plasma by the blood-brain barrier (i.e., ...http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/282/2/1109
Controlled release of dopamine from a polymeric brain implant In vivo characterization.
Neocortical transplants in the mammalian brain lack a blood-brain barrier to macromolecules. Science 1987; 235~772-774 29. ... Aromatic amino acids and modification of parkinsonism. N Engl J Med 1967; 276:374-379 4. Yahr MD, Duvoisin RC, Schear MJ, et al ... dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA), was measured by in vivo dialysis 133-35) on the third, tenth, ... Brain Res 1979;177:555-560 27. Madrazo I, Leon V, Torres C, et al. Transplantation of fetal substantia nigra and adrenal m e d ...https://www.docme.ru/doc/1918334/controlled-release-of-dopamine-from-a-polymeric-brain-imp..
SLC3A2 - Wikipedia
... amino acids. LAT is highly expressed in brain capillaries (which form the blood brain barrier) relative to other tissues. A ... "Selective expression of the large neutral amino acid transporter at the blood-brain barrier". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96 ... Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Amino Acid ... "Amino acid transport of y+L-type by heterodimers of 4F2hc/CD98 and members of the glycoprotein-associated amino acid ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SLC3A2
Patent US5182107 - Transferrin receptor specific antibody-neuropharmaceutical or diagnostic ... - Google Patents
The present invention pertains to a method for delivering a neuropharmaceutical or diagnostic agent across the blood brain ... barrier to the brain of a host. The method comprises administering to the host a therapeutically effective amount of an ... The levels of various substances in the blood, such as hormones, amino acids and ions, undergo frequent, small fluctuations ... The capillaries that supply blood to the tissues of the brain constitute the blood brain barrier (Goldstein et al. (1986) ...http://www.google.com/patents/US5182107?dq=5,381,459