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*  Limbic Seizures Induced by Systemically Applied Kainic Acid: How Much Kainic Acid Reaches the Brain? | SpringerLink
... in rats induces a limbic seizure and brain damage syndrome, which has been proposed as an experimental animal model for human ... Systemic or intracerebral injection of the neurotoxin kainic acid (KA) ... Oldendorf, W.H., and Szabo, J., 1976,. Amino acid assignment to one of three blood-brain barrier amino acid carriers, Am. J. ... Developmental changes in the pattern of amino acid transport at the blood-brain barrier in rats, Developm. Brain Res. 6:175. ...
  https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-7971-3_15
*  The PDE4 inhibitor rolipram reverses object memory impairment induced by acute tryptophan depletion in the rat | SpringerLink
Free TRP is transported into the brain across the blood-brain barrier, but has to compete for entrance with five other large ... OPA amino acids derivates were quantified with fluorescence detection. The concentrations of the total plasma amino acids were ... For the determination of plasma amino acid levels, blood samples were taken at resting values and repeated at several points in ... Differences in plasma amino acid concentrations were analyzed with a general linear model, with main factor 'treatment' and ...
  https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00213-006-0697-4
*  Effect of Theanine, r-Glutamylethylamide, on Brain Monoamines and Striatal Dopamine Release in Conscious Rats | SpringerLink
Effect of theanine on brain amino acids and monoamines, and the striatal release of dopamine (DA)... ... is one of the major components of amino acids in Japanese green tea. ... Amino acid assignment to one of three blood-brain barrier amino acid carriers. Am. J. Physiol. 230:94-98.Google Scholar ... Developments in amino acid transport, illustrated for the blood-brain barrier. Biochem. Pharmacol. 28:1989-1992.Google Scholar ...
  https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1022490806093
*  γ-Glutamyl Transpeptidase, a Blood-Brain Barrier Associated Membrane Protein | SpringerLink
... the blood circulation not only represents the main transport system of nutrients, gases, ions, water, and metabolic products ... Amino Acid Transport Retrograde Transport Amino Acid Uptake Brain Capillary Mercapturic Acid These keywords were added by ... γ-Glutamyl Transpeptidase, a Blood-Brain Barrier Associated Membrane Protein. Splitting Peptides to Transport Amino Acids ... Molecular Cloning and Structural and Functional Features of a Blood-Brain Barrier Marker Protein" in: The Blood-Brain Barrier: ...
  https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4757-9613-1_6
*  Modulatory influence of Acacia hydaspica R. Parker ethyl acetate extract against cisplatin inveigled hepatic injury and...
γ-Glutamyl transpeptidase in brain capillaries: possible site of a blood-brain barrier for amino acids. Science. 1974;184(4132 ... Trunk blood was taken with 23 G1 syringes and collected in sterile falcon tubes. Blood was centrifuged at 500×g for 15 min at 4 ... while gallic acid catechin, rutin, caffeic acid were identified by HPLC analysis of methanol extract. Ethyl acetate fraction of ... Glutathione S-transferases the first enzymatic step in mercapturic acid formation. J Biol Chem. 1974;249(22):7130-9.PubMed ...
  https://bmccomplementalternmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12906-017-1824-y
*  Frontiers | Functional Polarity of Microvascular Brain Endothelial Cells Supported by Neurovascular Unit Computational Model of...
... allowing us to evaluate hypotheses concerning LAT1-mediated trans-endothelial transport of LNAAs across the blood brain barrier ... allowing us to evaluate hypotheses concerning LAT1-mediated trans-endothelial transport of LNAAs across the blood brain barrier ... concentration in the brain interstitial fluid (ISF) is essential for proper brain function. LNAA passage into the brain is ... concentration in the brain interstitial fluid (ISF) is essential for proper brain function. LNAA passage into the brain is ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2018.00171/full
*  In Vivo Methods for the Rate of Serotonin Synthesis and Axonal Transport Measurements in the Brain | Springer for Research &...
For more than twenty years researchers have been searching for a method of measuring the rate of brain serotonin synthesis ... Oldendorf, W. H. and Szabo, J. (1976). Amino acid assignment to one of three blood-brain barrier acid carriers. Am. J. Physiol. ... 1987). Kinetics of neutral amino acid transport across the blood-brain barrier. J. Neurochem., 49, 1651-1658PubMedCrossRef ... Miller, L. P., Pardridge, W. M., Braun, L. D. and Oldendorf, W. H. (1985). Kinetic constants for blood-brain barrier amino acid ...
  https://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-349-12272-1_2
*  Environmental Health Trust Aspartame - Environmental Health Trust
... a free-form amino acid that has the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. Aspartame is not only linked to cancer but also ... Phenylalanine buildup in the blood can prevent other essential chemicals (like amino acids) from getting to the brain. Unless ... Phenylketonuria is a rare genetic disorder in which the body can't break down phenylalanine, an amino acid found in many foods ... In fact consuming aspartame tricks the brain into thinking it has been fed sugar and actually ups the demand for more food ...
  https://ehtrust.org/key-issues/toxins/aspartame/
*  News 2015
Others can enter the bloodstream, but cannot get past certain tissue barriers, such as the protective blood-brain barrier. Food ... In addition to chelating vitamins and minerals, glyphosate disrupts bacteria-manufacturing amino acids ... Brain-Eating Amoeba That Plagued Utilities Returns. The brain-eating amoeba that fatally afflicted several Louisiana residents ... Solar energy generating noise barriers undergo tests in the Netherlands. Highway barriers could deliver more than just noise ...
  http://arizonaenergy.org/News_15/News_Jul15/News_Jul15.html
*  Glutamine - Wikipedia
... nonessential amino acid in the human body, and one of the few amino acids that can directly cross the blood-brain barrier. ... In human blood, glutamine is the most abundant free amino acid. The dietary sources of glutamine includes especially the ... is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. It contains an α-amino group (which is in the protonated −NH2+ ... as any other of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids Lipid synthesis, especially by cancer cells. Regulation of acid-base balance ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glutamine
*  Gadopentetic acid - Wikipedia
It is often used when viewing intracranial lesions with abnormal vascularity or abnormalities in the blood-brain barrier. It is ... when cation A is the protonated form of the amino sugar meglumine the salt goes under the name "gadopentetate dimeglumine". It ... Gadobenic acid Gadoxetic acid Murphy KJ, Brunberg JA, Cohan RH (1996). "Adverse reactions to gadolinium contrast media: a ... It is used to assist imaging of blood vessels and of inflamed or diseased tissue where the blood vessels become "leaky". ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gadopentetic_acid
*  The Biology of Taurine in Nutrition and Development | Springer for Research & Development
2-aminoethanesulfonic acid, is a simple sulfur-containing compound, molecular weight 125, which is ubiquitous in nature (Fig. 1 ... Sturman, J. A., 1979b, Taurine in developing rat brain: Changes in blood-brain barrier, J. Neurochem. 32:811-816.Google Scholar ... Bile Acid Free Amino Acid Olfactory Bulb Retinal Degeneration Bile Acid Conjugation These keywords were added by machine and ... Yates, R. A., and Keen, P., 1975, The effect of optic stalk section on the amino acid content of rat retina, Brain Res. 99:166- ...
  https://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4757-4448-4_9
*  Ethanol's Effects on Transient Receptor Potential Channel Expression in Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells | SpringerLink
Ethanol Transient receptor potential channels Brain microvascular endothelial cells Blood-brain barrier ... Venkatachalam K, Wong CO, Montell C (2013) Feast or famine: role of TRPML in preventing cellular amino acid starvation. ... In vitro blood-brain barrier models using brain capillary endothelial cells isolated from neonatal and adult rats retain age- ... "Critical role of TRPP2 and TRPC1 channels in stretch-induced injury of blood-brain barrier endothelial cells." Brain Res 1436(0 ...
  https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11481-018-9796-3
*  Metabolic Regulation in Brain Cells | Springer for Research & Development
Recent studies of metabolic regulation in brain have focused on the complexity and fine-tuning involved in the control of ... Pardridge, W.M. (1983) Neuropeptides and the blood brain barrier. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 45:73-82.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... an astrocyte specific enzyme implicated in the replenishment of amino acid neurotransmitter pools. Brain Res. 329:364-367. ... Insulin increases glucose transfer across the blood-brain barrier in man. J. Clin. Invest. 67:597-604.PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
  https://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4613-2037-1_25
*  Design, Synthesis and Brain Uptake of LAT1-Targeted Amino Acid Prodrugs of Dopamine | SpringerLink
... we attempted to enhance the brain uptake of cationic dopamine by utilizing the large amino acid transporter 1... ... Purpose Drug delivery to the brain is impeded by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Here, ... blood-brain barrier brain drug delivery dopamine large amino acid transporter 1 prodrugs ... Drug delivery to the brain is impeded by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Here, we attempted to enhance the brain uptake of ...
  https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11095-012-0966-3
*  Glutamic acid - Wikipedia
Smith, Quentin R. (April 2000). "Transport of glutamate and other amino acids at the blood-brain barrier". The Journal of ... A key process in amino acid degradation is transamination, in which the amino group of an amino acid is transferred to an α- ... R1-amino acid + R2-α-ketoacid ⇌ R1-α-ketoacid + R2-amino acid A very common α-keto acid is α-ketoglutarate, an intermediate in ... Glutamic acid is an α-amino acid with formula C 5H 9O 4N. It is usually abbreviated as Glu or E in biochemistry. Its molecular ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glutamic_acid
*  Aprotinin - Wikipedia
One scientific study in rats reported that treatment with aprotinin prevents disruption of the blood-brain barrier during the C ... The amino acid sequence for bovine BPTI is RPDFC LEPPY TGPCK ARIIR YFYNA KAGLC QTFVY GGCRA KRNNF KSAED CMRTC GGA. There are 10 ... ISBN 978-0-7167-7027-5. Xu CY (Feb 2014). "permeability of blood-brain barrier is mediated by serine protease during ... It has a molecular weight of 6512 and consists of 16 different amino acid types arranged in a chain 58 residues long that folds ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aprotinin
*  Gamma-Amino-beta-hydroxybutyric acid - Wikipedia
... perhaps due to its greater capacity to cross the blood-brain barrier. However, GABOB is of relatively low potency as an ... γ-Amino-β-hydroxybutyric acid (GABOB), also known as β-hydroxy-γ-aminobutyric acid (β-hydroxy-GABA), and sold under the brand ... De Maio, D.; Pasquariello, G. (1963). "Gamma-amino-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (GABOB) and brain serotonin". Psychopharmacologia. ... Effect of gamma-amino-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (GABHB) on experimentally-induced epileptic activity]" [Effect of γ-amino-β- ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gamma-Amino-beta-hydroxybutyric_acid
*  Glutamate: its role in learning, memory, and the aging brain | SpringerLink
l-Glutamate is the most abundant of a group of endogenous amino acids in the mammalian central nervous system which presumably ... Mooradian AD (1988) Effect of aging on the blood-brain barrier. Neurobiol Aging 9:31-39PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Changes with ageing in the levels of amino acids in rat CNS structural elements. I. Glutamate and related amino acids. ... Aprikyan GV, Gekchyan KG (1988) Release of neurotransmitter amino acids from rat brain synaptosomes. Gerontology 34:35-40PubMed ...
  https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF02253527
*  Postprandial somnolence - Wikipedia
... making tryptophan preferentially available to the large neutral amino acid transporter at the blood-brain barrier. Uptake of ... This lowers the ratio of these branched-chain amino acids in the bloodstream relative to tryptophan (an aromatic amino acid), ... The LNAA Transport at the Blood Brain Barrier". Retrieved 2008-06-12. Fernstrom JD, Wurtman RJ (1971). "Brain serotonin content ... Increased brain serotonin and melatonin levels result in sleepiness. Evidence suggests that the small rise in blood glucose ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Postprandial_somnolence
*  Metkefamide - Wikipedia
Despite its peptidic nature, upon systemic administration, metkefamide rapidly penetrates the blood-brain-barrier and disperses ... Met]Enkephalin Frakefamide J S Davies; Royal Soc of Chem (8 November 2000). Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins. Royal Society ... enkephalin with the amino acid sequence Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-Phe-(N-Me)-Met-NH2. It behaves as a potent agonist of the δ- and μ-opioid ... Frederickson RC, Smithwick EL, Shuman R, Bemis KG (February 1981). "Metkephamid, a systemically active analog of methionine ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metkefamide
*  5-HTP (5-Hydroxytryptophan) vs. Prozac (SSRIs) | Nutrition Review
... such as amino acids needed by the brain, are limited by this barrier. ... Since the blood-brain barrier prevents serotonin from being 'imported' from outside the brain, all serotonin used by our brain ... Normally the blood-brain barrier serves as a protective device to prevent toxins from entering the brain. But this protection ... 1 in its competition to secure its transport through the blood-brain barrier into the brain. Eating a high-protein diet in an ...
  https://nutritionreview.org/2013/04/5htp-5hydroxytryptophan-prozac-ssris/
*  Mediation of Highly Concentrative Uptake of Pregabalin by L-Type Amino Acid Transport in Chinese Hamster Ovary and Caco-2 Cells...
Wang Y and Welty DF (1996) The simultaneous estimation of the influx and efflux blood-brain barrier permeabilities of ... L-type amino acid transport system is an ubiquitous Na+-independent transport system for large, neutral amino acids across ... 2003) Identification of a novel system L amino acid transporter structurally distinct from heterodimeric amino acid ... amino acid transport on substrate affinity of the heteromeric b(0,+) amino acid transporter. J Biol Chem 275: 14331-14335. ...
  http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/313/3/1406.long
*  Piet Borst - Wikipedia
... in the blood-brain barrier (23) and in the gut (oral availability of drugs) (24) (25). Proof that the Mdr2/MDR3 (ABCB4) P- ... N-lactoyl-amino acids are ubiquitous metabolites that originate from CNDP2-mediated reverse proteolysis of lactate and amino ... Disruption of the mouse mdr1a P-glycoprotein gene leads to a deficiency in the blood-brain barrier and to increased sensitivity ... N-lactoyl-amino acids, a novel metabolites of mammals (42), and glutamate-conjugates (43). The first mouse tumor model suitable ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piet_Borst
*  Plus it
The concentrations of free amino acids and other electrolytes in cerebrospinal fluid, in vivo dialysate of brain, and blood ... 1988) The glucose transporter of the human brain and blood-brain barrier. Ann. Neurol. 24:757-764. ... 1984) Neutral amino acid transport by plasma membrane vesicles of rabbit choroid plexus. Brain Res. 295:155-160. ... The extracellular fluid of the central nervous system is physically isolated from the plasma by the blood-brain barrier (i.e., ...
  http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/282/2/1109