*  Pharmaceutical drug - Wikipedia
In the 1950s new psychiatric drugs, notably the antipsychotic chlorpromazine, were designed in laboratories and slowly came ... and typical antipsychotics for psychosis. As of 2007, thousands of approved drugs have been developed. Increasingly, ... In the inter-war period, the first anti-bacterial agents such as the sulpha antibiotics were developed. The Second World War ... These were drugs that worked chiefly as anti-anxiety agents and muscle relaxants. The first benzodiazepine was Librium. Three ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharmaceutical_drug
*  Atypical Antipsychotics. Antipsychotic effects, sses, side effects. Self Help for Mental Health Disorder
Atypical antipsychotic drugs: effects, uses, side effects. Self help for mental health disorders. Non profit HON Certified ... Atypical antipsychotics such as Zyprexa are less intense in their side effect profiles than that of typical antipsychotics. ... The first atypical anti-psychotic medication, clozapine, was discovered in the 1950s, and introduced in clinical practice in ... but clinical experience with these newer agents is not as developed as that with the older agents.. Children and atypical ...
  http://winmentalhealth.com/atypical_antipsychotics.php
*  Anatomy of an Epidemic - Wikipedia
... "invention of the antipsychotic Thorazine" emptied the asylums. His case begins by showing that during the late 1940s and 1950s ... now typical antipsychotics) due to their induction of "euphoric quietude"; minor tranquilizers (now benzodiazepines) and ... and the anti-tuberculosis agents isoniazid and iproniazid respectively. The psychiatric mechanisms of action of these drugs ... He views the "hyping" of the top-selling atypical antipsychotics as "one of the more embarrassing episodes in psychiatry's ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anatomy_of_an_Epidemic
*  Psychopharmacology revolution - Wikipedia
Blockade of the D2 receptors is thought to underlie the antipsychotic effect of the typical antipsychotics. However, in the ... Minor chemical manipulations in the chemical structure of chlorpromazine was used to create novel antipsychotic agents such as ... Apparently, there was great resistance to the use of medicine in the treatment of mental disorders prior to the 1950s. It is, ... Nevertheless related agents such as phenelzine and isocarboxazid are still on the market. In addition, tranylcypromine is a non ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychopharmacology_revolution
*  Typical antipsychotic - Wikipedia
Typical antipsychotics are a class of antipsychotic drugs first developed in the 1950s and used to treat psychosis (in ... Treatment includes discontinuation of the offending agent and supportive care. The role of typical antipsychotics has come into ... The newer, second-generation antipsychotics, also known as atypical antipsychotics, have replaced the typical antipsychotics ... Typical antipsychotics may also be used for the treatment of acute mania, agitation, and other conditions. The first typical ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Typical_antipsychotic
*  Parasitology Centre Europe | Parasite testing, diagnosis and treatment for Europe and the UK.
In the 1950s new psychiatric drugs, notably the antipsychotic chlorpromazine, were designed in laboratories and slowly came ... General anesthetic agents for surgical purposes are sometimes administered by way of an enema. Occasionally, anesthetic agents ... and typical antipsychotics for psychosis. As of 2008, thousands of approved drugs have been developed. Increasingly, ... It is an orally administered agent with a similar antimicrobial spectrum to the intravenous agents cefalotin and cefazolin. It ...
  https://www.parasitetesting.co.uk/wiki/remedies
*  Menstrual problems for women - Psychiatric Drugs
Some of these medications have been available since the mid-1950's. They are also called conventional "typical" antipsychotics ... Antimanic Agents » Chlorpromazine 25mg, 50mg, 100mg Tablets Chlorpromazine 25mg, 50mg, 100mg Tablets. PACKAGE LEAFLET: ... Antipsychotic medications. Antipsychotic medications have been available since the mid-1950's. The older … ... Antipsychotics » Zyprexa (Olanzapine) What Is ZYPREXA® (olanzapine)?. ZYPREXA is a brand name for a prescription medicine that ...
  https://www.psychiatricdrugs.net/tag/menstrual-problems-for-women/
*  Medication - Wikipedia
In the 1950s new psychiatric drugs, notably the antipsychotic chlorpromazine, were designed in laboratories and slowly came ... and typical antipsychotics for psychosis.[34]:23-24 As of 2007, thousands of approved drugs have been developed. Increasingly, ... antifungal, alkalinizing agents, quinolones, antibiotics, cholinergics, anticholinergics, antispasmodics, 5-alpha reductase ... Drugs increasingly became "the center of medical practice".[34]:22 In the 1950s other drugs emerged including corticosteroids ...
  https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharmaceutical_drug
*  Textbook of Psychiatry/Psychopharmacology - Wikibooks, open books for an open world
First Generation Antipsychotics (FGAs)[edit]. The first antipsychotic, chlorpromazine, was developed in the 1950s.(Meyer and ... Start: 5 mg po bid and increase over several days to typical dose of 30-60 mg total per day, maximum dose 300 mg/day. Potency: ... In adults, other agents with noradrenergic and/or dopaminergic effects may be helpful in the treatment of ADHD symptoms, ... Second Generation Antipsychotics (SGAs)[edit]. Second generation antipsychotics, also known as atypical antipsychotics, are ...
  https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Textbook_of_Psychiatry/Psychopharmacology
*  Antipsychotic - Wikipedia
First-generation antipsychotics, known as typical antipsychotics, were discovered in the 1950s. Most second-generation drugs, ... and second-generation agents. The efficacy of such drugs is suboptimal. Few patients achieve complete resolution of symptoms. ... may be treated with either typical or atypical antipsychotics, although atypical antipsychotics are usually preferred because ... Typical antipsychotics have equal drop-out and symptom relapse rates to atypicals when used at low to moderate dosages. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antipsychotic
*  Phencyclidine - Wikipedia
Typical antipsychotics such as phenothiazines and haloperidol have been used to control psychotic symptoms, but may produce ... PCP was brought to market in the 1950s as an anesthetic pharmaceutical drug but was taken off the market in 1965 due to the ... The role of NMDAR antagonism in the effect of PCP, ketamine, and related dissociative agents was first published in the early ... These effects were not noted in its medicinal use in the 1950s and 1960s however, and reports of physical violence on PCP have ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phencyclidine
*  Anti-psychotics for anxiety - Anxiety - MedHelp
The modern atypical antipsychotics actually are no better or safer than their 1950's Phenothiazine counterparts that they've ... Those three are the hallmark adverse consequences of atypical/typical antipsychotics. However, the atypicals carry additional ... The traditional agents are largely off-patent, are available in generic form, and generate no significant revenue. Chronic ... Anti-psychotics for anxiety Rkk71 Just throwing this out there, not trying to stir up anything if someone takes an anti ...
  https://www.medhelp.org/posts/Anxiety/Anti-psychotics-for-anxiety/show/588084
*  Tardive dyskinesia - Wikipedia
Rates in those on atypical antipsychotics are about 20% while those on typical antipsychotics have rates of about 30%. Risk is ... Tardive dyskinesia was first described in the 1950s shortly after the introduction of chlorpromazine and other antipsychotic ... These agents are associated with fewer neuromotor side effects and a lower risk of developing tardive dyskinesia. Recent ... Some studies suggest that physicians should consider using atypical antipsychotics as a substitute to typical antipsychotics ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tardive_dyskinesia
*  Dopamine - Wikipedia
Psychiatrists in the early 1950s discovered that a class of drugs known as typical antipsychotics (also known as major ... Similar dopamine antagonist drugs are also some of the most effective anti-nausea agents. Restless legs syndrome and attention ... The introduction of the first widely used antipsychotic, chlorpromazine (Thorazine), in the 1950s, led to the release of many ... By the 1970s researchers understood that these typical antipsychotics worked as antagonists on the D2 receptors. This ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dopamine
*  Schizophrenia: Current Therapies | CNS Diseases
The atypical antipsychotics are discussed in greater detail than the typical antipsychotics because the atypical agents are ... Haloperidol was launched in the late 1950s and the drug has years' worth of data and clinical experience demonstrating its ... Schizophrenia: Atypical Antipsychotics. Typical Antipsychotics. The benefits of treatment with typical antipsychotics include a ... Atypical agents offer benefits in terms of efficacy and tolerability over typical antipsychotics. All antipsychotics are ...
  http://cnsdiseases.com/schizophrenia-current-therapies
*  Schizophrenia - Wikipedia
Most people on antipsychotics have side effects. People on typical antipsychotics tend to have a higher rate of extrapyramidal ... Various agents have been explored for possible benefits in this area. There have been trials on drugs with anti-inflammatory ... The perception of individuals with psychosis as violent has more than doubled in prevalence since the 1950s, according to one ... It is unclear whether typical or atypical antipsychotics are better. In those who do not improve with other antipsychotics ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schizophrenia
*  Psychiatric medication - Wikipedia
There are two categories of antipsychotics: second-generation antipsychotics and atypical antipsychotics. Most antipsychotics ... Developed in the 1950s onward, benzodiazepines were originally thought to be non-addictive at therapeutic doses, but are now ... Common mood stabilizers:[citation needed] Lithium carbonate (Carbolith), first and typical mood stabilizer Carbamazepine ( ... Antimanic Agent, Stimulant Prescription Drugs. ... Atypical antipsychotics are also used as mood stabilizers in ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychiatric_medication
*  Schizophrenia - Wikipedia
Most people on antipsychotics have side effects. People on typical antipsychotics tend to have a higher rate of extrapyramidal ... Various agents have been explored for possible benefits in this area.[215] There have been trials on drugs with anti- ... Long-term hospitalization is uncommon since deinstitutionalization beginning in the 1950s, although it still occurs.[16] ... It is unclear whether typical or atypical antipsychotics are better.[15] In those who do not improve with other antipsychotics ...
  https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Negative_symptoms
*  Autism therapies - Wikipedia
... and the typical antipsychotic haloperidol may be effective in reducing some behaviors, that haloperidol may be more effective ... Between the 1950s and 1970s LSD was studied, however, has not been studied since. Autism friendly Effects of equine assisted ... Thiamine tetrahydrofurfuryl disulfide (TTFD) is hypothesized to act as a chelating agent in children with autism. A 2002 pilot ... and antipsychotics. Only the antipsychotics have clearly demonstrated efficacy. Research has focused on atypical antipsychotics ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autism_therapies
*  Schizophrenia Daily News Blog: CATIE Results - Perphenazine almost as good as newer drugs
... "typical") antipsychotic medication - or to Geodon (ziprasidone) the newest of the second generation or atypical antipsychotics ... first available in the 1950s) and newer (available since the 1990s) antipsychotic medications used to treat schizophrenia. ... The trial, he wrote, identifies Zyprexa as one of two drugs that appear to be more effective than other agents. The other drug ... Although EPS is associated to some degree with all the older "typical" antipsychotic medications, perphenazine is an effective ...
  http://www.schizophrenia.com/sznews/archives/002424.html
*  Free Pharmacology Flashcards about Pharm III Final
Anti-psychotics: Olanzapine, Risperidone, Quetiapine, Ziprasidone, Aripiprazole. Typical adverse of anti-psychotics? (4). 1) Wt ... Dopamine Hypothesis of 1950s. Problems with it?. Excess dopamine leads to psychosis. Therefore blockade of D2 receptors should ... Generally used only if other agents do not work, effective both for mania and refractory depression in bipolar, onset of action ... T/F: all typical anti-psychotics have some alpha1 receptor antagonism. True, varies greatly. ...
  https://www.studystack.com/flashcard-1943504
*  Autism: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology
No pharmacologic agent is effective in the treatment of the core behavioral manifestations of autistic disorder, but drugs may ... An example of a motion typical in autism occurs when the child places a hand with fingers separately outstretched before the ... In the 1950s and 1960s, Bruno Bettelheim popularized this idea. Since then, careful family studies have disproved the ... Second-generation antipsychotics (eg, risperidone, aripiprazole, ziprasidone) * SSRI antidepressants (eg, fluoxetine, ...
  https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/912781-overview
*  Schizoaffective Disorder Tests, Treatment & Symptoms
The typical treatment for schizoaffective disorder involves the individual taking an antipsychotic drug and possibly a mood ... They have been available since the mid-1950s, and although antipsychotics do not cure the illness, they greatly reduce the ... Most patients experience substantial improvement when receiving antipsychotic agents. Some patients, however, do not respond to ... Since 1989, a new class of antipsychotics (atypical antipsychotics) has been introduced. At clinically effective doses, very ...
  https://www.medicinenet.com/schizoaffective_disorder/article.htm
*  Patent US6517869 - Positively charged poly(alpha-(omega-aminoalkyl)lycolic acid) for the ... - Google Patents
... positively-charged aminoalkyl polyester polymer for the delivery of bioactive agents, such as DNA, RNA, oligonucleotides is ... fusogenic agents such as polymixin B and hemaglutinin HA2, lysosomotrophic agents, nucleus localization signals (NLS) such as T ... Since the early efforts to identify methods for delivery of nucleic acids in tissue culture cells in the mid 1950's, H. E. ... Typical of peptides that can be utilized are those selected from group consisting of oxytocin, vasopressin, ...
  http://www.google.com/patents/US6517869
*  Inverse Agonist Actions of Typical and Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs at the Human 5-Hydroxytryptamine2C Receptor | Journal of...
The major finding of this study is that inverse agonism at the h5-HT2C-INI receptor is not a reliable predictor of atypical antipsychotic activity. Additionally, several potent 5-HT2-family antagonists with equivocal (e.g., M100907, ritanserin) or no (isoclozapine, mianserin, amitriptyline) antipsychotic activity were found to be potent and effective inverse agonists at the h5-HT2C-INI receptor. These results indicate that inverse agonist activity at the h5-HT2C-INI receptor does not, by itself, reliably distinguish between typical and ...
  http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/299/1/83.full
*  Inverse Agonist Actions of Typical and Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs at the Human 5-Hydroxytryptamine2C Receptor | Journal of...
The major finding of this study is that inverse agonism at the h5-HT2C-INI receptor is not a reliable predictor of atypical antipsychotic activity. Additionally, several potent 5-HT2-family antagonists with equivocal (e.g., M100907, ritanserin) or no (isoclozapine, mianserin, amitriptyline) antipsychotic activity were found to be potent and effective inverse agonists at the h5-HT2C-INI receptor. These results indicate that inverse agonist activity at the h5-HT2C-INI receptor does not, by itself, reliably distinguish between typical and ...
  http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/299/1/83.long
*  J Clin Psychiatry/All-Cause Mortality Associated With Atypical and Conventional Antipsychotics Among Nursing Home ...
Objective: A recent meta-analysis has indicated that, in patients with dementia, the use of atypical antipsychotics is associated with an excess mortality. Later observational studies have suggested that conventional antipsychotics may pose an even greater risk of death. None of these studies could evaluate the risk associated with single antipsychotics nor could they provide any conclusive evidence concerning the risk among nursing home ...
  http://www.psychiatrist.com/jcp/article/pages/2009/v70n10/v70n1001.aspx
*  Anti-Psychotic Drugs Linked To Weight Gain In Children - Redorbit
A new study has shown that antipsychotic drugs may be linked to weight gain in kids.. Writing in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), researchers studied the use of name-brand second-generation anti-psychotic drugs, including Abilify, Risperdal, Seroquel and Zyprexa, in 272 kids aged 4 to 19 years.. Children involved in the study had not been previously treated with anti-psychotic drugs.. "First-time second-generation antipsychotic medication use was associated with ...
  http://www.redorbit.com/news/health/1777485/antipsychotic_drugs_linked_to_weight_gain_in_children/
*  A Critical Review of Atypical Antipsychotic Utilization: Comparin...: Ingenta Connect
The atypical antipsychotics risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole have become first-line treatment for schizophrenia because they reduce the positive symptoms of psychosis but do not have a high incidence of extrapyramidal symptoms. However, these agents, like other antipsychotics, may take as long as 16 or more weeks to produce a response, and even with prolonged treatment are unlikely to evoke responses greater than 50% improvement in symptoms. This ...
  http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/ben/cmc/2004/00000011/00000003/art00005
*  The Maudsley Prescribing Guidelines in Psychiatry, 11th Edition | Psychiatry | Medicine, Nursing & Dentistry | ...
Preface ix Acknowledgements x. Notes on using The Maudsley Prescribing Guidelines xi. Notes on inclusion of drugs xi. List of abbreviations xii. Chapter 1 Plasma level monitoring of psychotropic drugs and anticonvulsants 1. Interpreting sample results 2. Chapter 2 Schizophrenia 11. Antipsychotic drugs 11. Antipsychotic drugs: equivalent doses 13. Antipsychotic drugs: minimum effective doses 14. Antipsychotic drugs: licensed maximum ...
  https://www.wiley.com/en-us/The+Maudsley+Prescribing+Guidelines+in+Psychiatry%2C+11th+Edition-p-9780470979488
*  Pfizer/IVGTT/Ziprasidone/Olanzapine - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
This proposal aims to use a well-characterized procedure, the modified Frequently Sampled Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test (FSIGTT), to characterize the glucoregulatory effects of the two most commonly prescribed atypical antipsychotic medications, ziprasidone and olanzapine, in comparison to the conventional antipsychotic haloperidol. Abnormalities in peripheral glucose regulation and type 2 diabetes can occur more commonly in individuals with schizophrenia than in healthy subjects or in other psychiatric conditions. While abnormalities ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00205725?term=%22High+Blood+Pressure%22&lup_s=04%2F06%2F2013&lup_d=14&show_rss=Y&sel_rss=mod14
*  Study of the Effectiveness of Three Different Doses of OPC-34712 in the Treatment of Adults With Acute Schizophrenia - Full...
Schizophrenia is a severely debilitating mental illness that affects approximately 1% of the world population. Hallucinations and delusions are the most striking characteristic positive symptoms of schizophrenia; however, more subtle negative symptoms (eg, social withdrawal and lack of emotion, energy, and motivation) may also be present. The first antipsychotics developed for the treatment of schizophrenia were effective against positive symptoms, but showed little efficacy for negative ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01396421
*  "Olanzapine-activated AMPK signaling in the dorsal vagal complex is att" by Meng He, Qingsheng Zhang et al.
Weight gain and its related metabolic disorders are major side-effects associated with second generation antipsychotic drug (SGA) treatment. The dorsal vagal complex (DVC) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) are implicated in the regulation of food intake and body weight. Blocking the histamine H1 receptor (H1R) contributes to antipsychotic-induced weight gain. The present study investigated the time-dependent effect of olanzapine treatment (8, 16 and 36 days) on DVC AMPK signaling in olanzapine-induced weight gain, and whether these changes are associated with olanzapine-induced H1 receptor ...
  http://ro.uow.edu.au/smhpapers/2460/
*  Glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs against antipsychotic-induced weight gain: potential physiological benefits | BMC Medicine |...
Schizophrenia is a severe and heterogeneous brain disease with a prevalence of approximately 0.5% in the world population [1]. Antipsychotics constitute the cornerstone in the treatment of schizophrenia. At the same time, much of the excess mortality in patients with schizophrenia may be attributed to metabolic side effects induced by antipsychotics [2]. The prevalence of overweight (body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) has been estimated at approximately 60% among schizophrenia patients [3] compared to ...
  https://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1741-7015-10-92
*  Restricted antipsychotic drug use may have caused extra deaths among schizophrenics
... - Thousands of extra deaths among schizophrenia patients worldwide may have resulted because of the restrictions imposed by authorities on the use of antipsychotic drug clozapine over safety concerns, suggests a new piece of research. - AndhraNews.net
  http://www.andhranews.net/Health/2009/July/13-Restricted-antipsychotic-drug-16924.asp
*  Anti-Psychotic Drugs: 10 Things You Should Know About Pills for Delusions and Hallucinations | ...
Anti-psychotic drugs are widely used within psychiatric services as a first-line treatment of schizophrenia. A review is presented of the short-term and long-term effectiveness of anti-psychotics in reducing the distress associated with hallucinations and delusions, together with a discussion about the means by which they achieve their outcomes. The wide range of negative side-effects is also listed. It is concluded that ...
  https://hubpages.com/health/anti-psychotic-drugs-10-things-you-should-know
*  Use of atypical antipsychotic drugs in old age psychiatry | BJPsych Advances
Risperidone is a benzisoxazole derivative with antagonistic activity, primarily at dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors. The higher binding affinity of risperidone for 5-HT2A than for D2 receptors, along with the mesolimbic specificity of action, is thought to account for the reduced incidence of EPS relative to conventional antipsychotic drugs. It also has affinity for α1-adenergic receptors and lower affinity for α2-adrenergic and H1-histaminergic receptors. Unlike clozapine, it has no affinity for cholinergic receptors. The first two large, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials examining the efficacy and ...
  http://apt.rcpsych.org/content/8/1/49.full
*  Prescriptions for anti-psychotic drugs skyrocket among children / LJWorld.com
Chicago Soaring numbers of American children are being prescribed anti-psychotic drugs. And in many cases, they're being prescribed for attention deficit disorder or other behavioral problems for which these medications have not been proven to work, a study found.. The annual number of children prescribed anti-psychotic drugs jumped fivefold between 1995 and 2002, to an estimated 2.5 million, the study said. That is an increase from 8.6 out of every 1,000 children in the mid-1990s to nearly 40 out of 1,000.. But more than half of the prescriptions were for attention deficit and other ...
  http://www2.ljworld.com/news/2006/mar/17/prescriptions_antipsychotic_drugs_skyrocket_among_/
*  The Use of Metformin in the Treatment of Antipsychotic-Induced Weight Gain in Schizophrenia (The METS Study) - Full Text View -...
Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disorder that is characterized, in part, by psychotic symptoms. Psychotic symptoms include hallucinations and delusions, in which a person has abnormal experiences or beliefs, and are commonly treated with antipsychotic medications. Unfortunately, a side effect of many antipsychotics is unwanted weight gain, which can lead to physical illness. Use of the drug metformin has resulted in weight loss among diabetics. Metformin ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT00816907?sect=X3015&view=results
*  The Use of Metformin in the Treatment of Antipsychotic-Induced Weight Gain in Schizophrenia (The METS Study) - Full Text View -...
Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disorder that is characterized, in part, by psychotic symptoms. Psychotic symptoms include hallucinations and delusions, in which a person has abnormal experiences or beliefs, and are commonly treated with antipsychotic medications. Unfortunately, a side effect of many antipsychotics is unwanted weight gain, which can lead to physical illness. Use of the drug metformin has resulted in weight loss among diabetics. Metformin ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT00816907?view=results
*  Antipsychotic drugs may contribute to brain tissue loss in schizophrenia - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.com
The findings, which are published in the February issue of the Archives of General Psychiatry, suggest that physicians should consider using the lowest effective dose of antipsychotics when treating patients with schizophrenia. However, lead study author Beng-Choon Ho, M.D., associate professor of psychiatry in the UI Carver College of Medicine, notes that the study does not mean that patients with schizophrenia should not be treated with antipsychotic ...
  https://www.healthcanal.com/mental-health-behavior/14403-antipsychotic-drugs-may-contribute-to-brain-tissue-loss-in-schizophrenia.html
*  "Breakthrough" Dopamine Supersensitivity during Ongoing Antipsychotic Treatment Leads to Treatment Failure over Time | Journal...
Previous work has shown that withdrawal from chronic antipsychotic treatment leads to a supersensitive psychomotor response to dopamine agonists (Gianutsos et al., 1974; Sayers et al., 1975; Smith and Davis, 1975, 1976; Clow et al., 1979; Montanaro et al., 1982; Rebec et al., 1982; Meng et al., 1998). We show here that behavioral dopamine supersensitivity is not just evident on withdrawal, but develops early during antipsychotic exposure and significantly undermines the efficacy of ongoing treatment. The ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/27/11/2979.long
*  Low-Dose Adjunctive Aripiprazole in the Treatment of Bipolar Depression: Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study - Full...
Aripiprazole is a new antipsychotic agent which possesses unique capabilities compared to other antipsychotic agents, especially because of its partial dopaminergic agonistic activity. Moreover, like the other atypical agents, aripiprazole is an antagonist of the 5-HT2a receptor, and an agonist of the 5-HT1a receptor. These pharmacological properties should enable this molecule to provide antidepressant potentiating capabilities based on what has been observed with other compounds sharing ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01520350
*  Assessment of the impact of second-generation antipscyhotics in Medi-Cal patients with bipolar ...
While the comparative efficacy of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) vs. first generation antipsychotics (FGAs) has been well documented, the treatment effect of SGAs in bipolar disorder has not been directly evaluated in a real-world setting. Panel data fixed effects models provide a simple yet powerful tool in measuring treatment effects. The objectives of this study were to investigate the treatment effect of SGAs in bipolar patients enrolled in the fee-for-service (FFS) Medi-Cal program ...
  http://digitallibrary.usc.edu/cdm/compoundobject/collection/p15799coll127/id/562590/rec/11
*  Treatment of Alcohol Dependence and Comorbid Bipolar Disorder - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Prescribed daily use of first generation antipsychotic agents including chlorpromazine, fluphenazine, or haloperidol or their injectible depot (decanoate) equivalents at a dose adequate to maintain clinical stability as documented by the subject's outpatient psychiatric provider c) Prescribed daily use of second generation antipsychotic agents including olanzapine, risperidone, paliperidone, quetiapine, aripiprazole, or ziprasidone or their injectible depot equivalent at a dose adequate to maintain clinical stability as documented by the subject's outpatient psychiatric ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01015586
*  Typical antipsychotic - Wikipedia
Side effects vary among the various agents in this class of medications, but common side effects include: dry mouth, muscle stiffness, muscle cramping, tremors, EPS and weight gain. EPS refers to a cluster of symptoms consisting of akathisia, parkinsonism, and dystonia. Anticholinergics such as benztropine and diphenhydramine are commonly prescribed to treat the EPS. 4% of patients develop the Rabbit syndrome while on ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First-generation_antipsychotic
*  Iloperidone - Wikipedia
Iloperidone, also known as Fanapt, Fanapta, and previously known as Zomaril, is an atypical antipsychotic for the treatment of schizophrenia. Iloperidone is used for the treatment of schizophrenia. In a 2013 study in a comparison of 15 antipsychotic drugs in effectivity in treating schizophrenic symptoms, iloperidone was found to be almost as effective as ziprasidone, chlorpromazine, and asenapine, and as effective as lurasidone. It was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iloperidone
*  Antipsychotic Medication
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Antipsychotic Medication, Antipsychotic, Anti-Psychotic, Neuroleptic, Atypical Antipsychotic.
  http://www.fpnotebook.com/Psych/Pharm/AntpsychtcMdctn.htm
*  eScholarship@UMMS - UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat: Prescribing ...
Introduction: In spite of recent pharmacologic advances, psychopharmacological treatment of patients with severe mental illness has remained a challenging task. Despite limited supporting evidence, the use of polypharmacy (prescription of more than one antipsychotic drug for an individual patient) has become a frequent approach. Polypharmacy has been associated with an increased incidence of adverse effects. Objective: To explore patterns of prescribing antipsychotic agents in a long-term inpatient facility. To examine the prevalence of polypharmacy and its ...
  http://escholarship.umassmed.edu/cts_retreat/2014/posters/64/