*  Astronomy Definition, Prefix, Suffix, Ologies and Isms, Astronomy Information and Meaning
a form of photography used to record astronomical phenomena. astrophysics the branch of astronomy concerned with the origin, ... the fundamental theoretical basis of modern astronomy, first demonstrated in the early 16th century by Copernicus, who showed ... the study of stars through a telescope in which the star appears as a ring of light, in order to observe the star's ... the astronomical studies of the planet Mars. - areologist, n. - areologic, areological, adj. asterism Rare. a constellation or ...
  http://www.faqs.org/ologies-isms/A-Ath/Astronomy.html
*  Babylonian astrology - Wikipedia
From certain expressions used in astrological texts that are earlier than the 7th century BC it would appear, indeed, that the ... By the 16th century BC, the extensive employment of omen-based astrology can be evidenced in the compilation of a comprehensive ... interpretations were done as the phenomena occurred or slightly before.[citation needed] By the 4th century, however, their ... at which point extensive ephemerides began to appear. The history of Babylonian astrology shows the development of astronomical ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Babylonian_astrology
*  The History of the Native Peoples of the Americas/Mesoamerican Cultures/Maya - Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Published writings of 16th century Bishop Diego de Landa and writings of 18th century Spanish officials spurred serious ... The Dresden Codex contains the highest concentration of astronomical phenomena observations and calculations of any of the ... it appears that the data in this codex is primarily or exclusively of an astronomical nature). Examination and analysis of this ... The use of Maya Blue survived until the 16th century when the technique was lost. Late Preclassic murals of great artistic and ...
  https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/The_History_of_the_Native_Peoples_of_the_Americas/Mesoamerican_Cultures/Maya
*  Neuroscientists Finally Solve Astronomical Optical Illusion That Puzzled Galileo 400 Years Ago - International Science Times
Optometrists and neuroscientists have discovered why Venus appeared larger than Jupiter to Galileo four centuries ago and why ... Neuroscientists have solved an optical riddle that puzzled Galileo in the 16th century about why Venus appeared larger than ... unexplained phenomenon)," the State University of New York College of Optometry said in a news release. The authors were ... To his naked eye, Venus appeared eight to 10 times larger. He struggled to explain it: "Either because their light is refracted ...
  http://www.isciencetimes.com/articles/6816/20140212/neuroscientists-finally-solve-astronomical-optical-illusion-puzzled.htm
*  Astronomical chronology - Wikipedia
The use of descriptions of astronomical phenomena to date historical events began in the 16th century, a time of a renewed ... texts which may describe astronomical events loosely or even as metaphors have led researchers to conclusions that appear ... Here the largest source of error in the date was the uncertainty of 16th-century astronomical calculations. The resulting time ... or astronomical dating, is a technical method of dating events or artifacts that are associated with astronomical phenomena. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astronomical_chronology
*  Lodovico delle Colombe - Wikipedia
Delle Colombe was born in Florence in the second half of the 16th century. A date of January 20, 1565 has been suggested, but ... Galileo appears to have used delle Colombe's arguments as the basis for those of the character Simplicio in his 1632 work ... Galileo was cautious in his views, but did regard the phenomenon as new, and not as a permanent star. A few months after delle ... In support of these arguments, delle Colombe drew not only on astronomical observations but on the authority of Aristotle, and ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lodovico_delle_Colombe
*  Clock - Wikipedia
Spring-driven clocks appeared during the 15th century. During the 15th and 16th centuries, clockmaking flourished. The next ... These clocks helped the 16th-century astronomer Tycho Brahe to observe astronomical events with much greater precision than ... also that one of the many impulses to their development had been the desire of astronomers to investigate celestial phenomena. ... Spring-driven clocks appeared during the 15th century,[25][26][27] although they are often erroneously credited to Nuremberg ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clock
*  ptolemaic
as adorn the manuscript maps of the Middle Ages and many of the printed maps of the 16th century. The illustration shown above ... Many faults appear in Ptolemy's picture of southern Asia, although for more than a century commercial relations between western ... He seems to have studied and made astronomical observations in Tyre, the oldest and largest city of Phoenicia, which, even at ... "a representation in picture of the whole known world together with the phenomena which are contained therein". As he proceeds ...
  http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00maplinks/early/ptolemaic/ptolemaic.html
*  The 2018 Podcast | RASC
We are heirs to Tycho Brahe acquiring Copernicus' instruments for his Kunstkammer in the 16th century, and the Royal Society ... Rare, but striking, phenomena such as solar eclipses, grand naked eye comets, and meteor storms and fireballs had suitable ... From our perspective they can be read as a mirror of their times, revealing the good, the bad, and the ugly of astronomical ... When the official history of the RASC appeared in 1994, it was noted that the high point of female membership in the Society ...
  https://www.rasc.ca/node/53449
*  Second - Wikipedia
The earliest clocks to display seconds appeared during the last half of the 16th century. The second became accurately ... Radiation of this kind is one of the most stable and reproducible phenomena of nature. The current generation of atomic clocks ... Sexagesimal divisions of the day from a calendar based on astronomical observation have existed since the third millennium BC, ... During the 3rd quarter of the 16th century, Taqi al-Din built a clock with marks every 1/5 minute. In 1579, Jost Bürgi built a ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second
*  Geocentric model - Wikipedia
His main astronomical work, the Almagest, was the culmination of centuries of work by Hellenic, Hellenistic and Babylonian ... The geocentric model held sway into the early modern age, but from the late 16th century onward, it was gradually superseded by ... Muslim astronomers generally accepted the Ptolemaic system and the geocentric model, but by the 10th century texts appeared ... Atmospheric explanations for many phenomena were preferred because the Eudoxan-Aristotelian model based on perfectly concentric ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geocentric_model
*  Nicolaus Copernicus - Wikipedia
Doctor Copernicus, a 1975 novel by John Banville, sketches the life of Copernicus and the 16th-century world in which he lived. ... during which Copernicus's astronomical instruments were probably destroyed. Copernicus conducted astronomical observations in ... 6. What appear to us as motions of the sun arise not from its motion but from the motion of the earth and our sphere, with ... He held that Copernicus had come up with his idea and then sought phenomena that would support it, rather than observing ...
  https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copernicus
*  Ancient Chinese Science and Technology
In the 16th century BC (Shang Dynasty), woven pattern technology and "Braid embroidery" appeared. After the 2nd Century BC ( ... China is one of the first countries in the world to have done astronomical research. Documents indicate that astronomical ... The ancient Chinese scientists were the first to observe the sunspots, they researched magnetic phenomena, but also calculated ... There are written records dating from the 16th century BC about sunspots, comets, meteors, novas, the sun, the moon and five of ...
  http://www.chinese-chamber.gr/en/press-office/news/item/271-ancient-chinese-science-and-technology
*  William Gilbert (astronomer) - Wikipedia
2, p. 217 Hallam, Henry (1854) Introduction to the Literature of Europe in the 15th, 16th, and 17th Centuries. Vol.2. Little, ... Besides Gilbert's De Magnete, there appeared at Amsterdam in 1651 a quarto volume of 316 pages entitled De Mundo Nostro ... University of Illinois Astronomical Society Gilbert (1893) p. xxv Whewell, William (1859) History of the Inductive Sciences. D ... He relied on the analogy of terrestrial phenomena to those exhibited by what he calls a terrella, or artificial spherical ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Gilbert_(astronomer)
*  History of mathematics - Wikipedia
3rd century bce); the 2, 4, 6, 7, and 9 appear in the Nana Ghat inscriptions about a century later; and the 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, ... The Mayas used mathematics to create the Maya calendar as well as to predict astronomical phenomena in their native Maya ... In the 15th century, Ghiyath al-Kashi computed the value of π to the 16th decimal place. Kashi also had an algorithm for ... In the 16th century, Jyesthadeva consolidated many of the Kerala School's developments and theorems in the Yukti-bhāṣā. However ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_mathematics
*  Maya codices - Wikipedia
Most of the codices were destroyed by conquistadors and Catholic priests in the 16th century. The codices have been named for ... At the top of each page is a number, and down the left of each page is what appears to be a list of dates. The pages are much ... 61-69, is an ephemeris of these phenomena that uses a base date of 1.18.1.8.0.16 in the prior era (5,482,096 days). The Codex ... The codex also contains astronomical tables, although less than are found in the other two generally accepted surviving Maya ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maya_codices
*  History of science in early cultures - Wikipedia
5th century BCE) to the Mughal (such as the 16th century Kerala school) periods. The first named authors writing treatises on ... "the first and highly successful attempt at giving a refined mathematical description of astronomical phenomena." According to ... The first printed versions of the Elements appeared at Venice in 1482, one of the very earliest of mathematical books to be set ... Astronomical tables-such as the Shahryar Tables-date to this period, and Sassanid observatories were later imitated by Muslim ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_science_in_early_cultures
*  Cacaxtla - Wikipedia
The term "Olmeca-Xicalanca" was first mentioned by Tlaxcalan historian Diego Muñoz Camargo at the end of the 16th century. This ... of the figures and their representation around both of them indicate that the murals allude to some astronomical phenomenon or ... Warriors from Cacaxtla appear to have taken over Cholula for a time, but they were ultimately expelled by the Toltecs. Its ... As further figures appeared on the mural, the area of excavation had to be enlarged and several constructive stages were ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cacaxtla
*  Sun - Wikipedia
For example, in the 17th century, the solar cycle appeared to have stopped entirely for several decades; few sunspots were ... This view was developed in a more detailed mathematical model of a heliocentric system in the 16th century by Nicolaus ... An optical phenomenon, known as a green flash, can sometimes be seen shortly after sunset or before sunrise. The flash is ... Arabic astronomical contributions include Albatenius' discovery that the direction of the Sun's apogee (the place in the Sun's ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sun
*  History of astronomy - Wikipedia
Ancient astronomical records of phenomena like supernovae and comets are sometimes used in modern astronomical studies. The ... This basic cosmological model prevailed, in various forms, until the 16th century. In the 3rd century BC Aristarchus of Samos ... Indian astronomers by the 6th century believed that comets were celestial bodies that re-appeared periodically. This was the ... by Ibn al-Shatir in the 14th century, and Qushji in the 15th century, leading to the development of an astronomical physics. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_astronomy
*  Celestial spheres - Wikipedia
The late-16th-century Portuguese epic The Lusiads vividly portrays the celestial spheres as a "great machine of the universe" ... Both astronomical scholars and popular writers considered the implications of the nested sphere model for the dimensions of the ... antiquity the ideas of celestial spheres and rings first appeared in the cosmology of Anaximander in the early 6th century BC. ... G. E. R. Lloyd, "Saving the Phenomena," Classical Quarterly, 28 (1978): 202-222, at p. 219. Aristotle, Metaphysics 1073b1- ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Celestial_spheres
*  Video Biographies
Two anthologies of his essays have appeared, The Great Copernicus Chase and Other Adventures in Astronomical History from ... and he has now seen over 550 16th-century copies in libraries scattered throughout Europe and North America, as well as those ... and Phenomena (New York: Garland Publishing, 1998), pp. 291-294, 294-297 ... the 16th-century cosmologist who proposed the heliocentric system. The Harvard- Smithsonian astronomer has undertaken a ...
  http://www.asa3.org/ASA/ASATempleton/Videos/video_biographies.html
*  Vedic Astrology - critically examined - Astrodienst
The word brahmarāśiḥ also appears in Parāśarasaṃhitā, a pre-Hellenistic astronomical text that is only known in fragments. The ... because this would be in accordance with the zodiac of the 16th century astronomer Ganeśa Daivajña.[66] In Indian sources, the ... this phenomenon seems to appear with several other zodiac signs, too. To Sagittarius Raman attributes qualities that in Western ... In other depictions the Pleiades appear in the neck of the bull in the form of an ear of corn.[34] The cuneiform astronomical ...
  http://www.astro.com/astrology/in_vedic2_e.htm?cid=uj8filenCOimy-u1353285209
*  Planetshine - Wikipedia
Leonardo da Vinci explained the phenomenon in the early 16th century when he realized that both Earth and the Moon reflect ... The night side appears to glow faintly and the entire orb of the Moon is dimly visible. ... Unlike many traditional astronomical challenges, the most serious challenge for these missions is not gathering enough photons ... The full Moon therefore appears brighter, when seen from Earth, than it would if it diffused light uniformly in all directions ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planetshine
*  Aniconism - Wikipedia
Extreme rarities are an illustrated Qur'an depicting Muhammad and, in a Spanish-Muslim manuscript datable from the 16th century ... The phenomenon is generally codified by the religious traditions and as such becomes a taboo. When enforced by the physical ... Similar injunctions appear in Numbers 33:52, Deuteronomy 4:16, and 27:15; in all cases, the creation of the image is associated ... Astronomical models for scientific purposes are permitted under the category of "study.") Although the prohibition applies ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aniconism