*  History of mineralogy - Wikipedia
Aided by Greek mathematics and Islamic mathematics, he discovered the syntheses for hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, ... However, before the more definitive foundational works on mineralogy in the 16th century, the ancients recognized no more than ... There was also the Islamic alchemist and scientist Jābir ibn Hayyān (721-815 AD), who was the first to bring the experimental ... In the early 16th century AD, the writings of the German scientist Georg Bauer, pen-name Georgius Agricola (1494-1555 AD), in ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_mineralogy
*  University of Delaware Library: Perfecting Nature: Medicine, Metallurgy and Mysticism | Medicine
... and realia from the fifteenth century to the present. The collections complement the Library's general collections with ... Woodcut of two alchemists using a distiller.. [Medical, alchemical, and craft materials recipes, 15th and 16th centuries].. MSS ... including the preparation of hydrochloric acid, the formation or nitric acid from potassium nitrate and sulfuric acid, and ... Philippus Ulstadius (c. 16th century) was a professor of medicine at Fribourg University in Switzerland. Coelvm philosophorvm, ...
  http://www.lib.udel.edu/ud/spec/exhibits/alchemy/medicine.html
*  Pseudo-Geber - Wikipedia
... nitric acid, aqua regia, oil of vitriol, silver nitrate...." Aqua regia is a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid. ... a 9th-century Islamic alchemist. In Europe for many centuries from the 14th century onward it was assumed that "Geber" was ... It was not equaled in chemistry until the 16th century writings of chemist Vannoccio Biringuccio, mineralogist Georgius ... Arabic alchemy was held in high esteem by 13th century European alchemists. Pseudo-Geber adopted the name of his illustrious ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pseudo-Geber
*  The Lost History of Women in Chemistry: The First Alchemist - Death/Scent
... and finding hydrochloric acid. Zosimos says she discovered how to partially neutralize polyprotic acids, thus making an acid ... but her very existence has been up for debate since the 16th century. ... Miriam, Alchemist Super Star. Her first biographer, the early 4th-century Neo-Platonic Greek alchemist, Zosimos of Panopolis, ... We have for instance the 8th-century Arab alchemist Jabir Ibn Hayyan, Latinized as Geber, and the 13th-century Italian Pseudo- ...
  https://deathscent.com/2016/03/13/the-lost-history-of-women-in-chemistry-the-first-alchemist/
*  Chemical reaction - Wikipedia
In the 17th century, Johann Rudolph Glauber produced hydrochloric acid and sodium sulfate by reacting sulfuric acid and sodium ... From the 16th century, researchers including Jan Baptist van Helmont, Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton tried to establish theories ... such as the synthesis of sulfuric and nitric acids attributed to the controversial alchemist Jābir ibn Hayyān. The process ... In the Brønsted-Lowry acid-base theory, an acid-base reaction involves a transfer of protons (H+) from one species (the acid) ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemical_reaction
*  Manganese - Wikipedia
First, hydrochloric acid, or a mixture of dilute sulfuric acid and sodium chloride was made to react with manganese dioxide, ... In the 16th century, manganese dioxide was called manganesum (note the two Ns instead of one) by glassmakers, possibly as a ... Because it was used in glassmaking, manganese dioxide was available for experiments by alchemists, the first chemists. Ignatius ... later hydrochloric acid from the Leblanc process was used and the manganese dioxide was recycled by the Weldon process. The ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manganese
*  Chemistry: A Volatile History - Wikipedia
In the 16th century alchemists were busy trying to turn base metals like lead, into gold. It was the Swiss alchemist and ... He added some zinc to spirit of salt (hydrochloric acid) and collected the evanescence given off as bubbles. The gas he ... Finally, adding spirit of salt (hydrochloric acid) draws out a brilliant colour: Prussian blue. Ever since seeing fireworks as ... In 18th century Prussia, Heinrich Diesbach was trying to produce a synthetic red paint. He started by heating potash (potassium ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemistry:_A_Volatile_History
*  Chemical reaction - Wikipedia
In the 17th century, Johann Rudolph Glauber produced hydrochloric acid and sodium sulfate by reacting sulfuric acid and sodium ... From the 16th century, researchers including Jan Baptist van Helmont, Robert Boyle, and Isaac Newton tried to establish ... such as the synthesis of sulfuric and nitric acids attributed to the controversial alchemist Jābir ibn Hayyān. The process ... acid. +. B. base. ↽. −. −. ⇀. A. −. conjugated. base. +. HB. +. conjugated. acid. {\displaystyle {\ce {{\underset {acid}{HA ...
  https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemical_reaction
*  Philosopher's stone - Wikipedia
The 16th-century Swiss alchemist Paracelsus (Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim) believed in the existence ... Jabir himself is believed to be the inventor of aqua regia, a mixture of muriatic (hydrochloric) and nitric acids, one of the ... unknown date, possibly 16th century) Theophrastus Paracelsus. Of the Nature of Things. 16th century Salomon Glass, Johann ... 17th Century. Anonymous. On the Philosophers' Stone. (unknown date, possibly 16th century) Eirenaeus Philalethes. A Brief Guide ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philosopher's_stone
*  S)-dihydroorotate:NAD+ oxidoreductase - WikiVisually
In the 17th century, Johann Rudolph Glauber produced hydrochloric acid and sodium sulfate by reacting sulfuric acid, further ... From the 16th century, researchers including Jan Baptist van Helmont, Robert Boyle, the phlogiston theory was proposed in 1667 ... Oxygen was discovered by the Polish alchemist Sendivogius, who considered it the philosophers stone. In the late 17th century, ... Orotate - Orotic acid is a heterocyclic compound and an acid, it is also known as pyrimidinecarboxylic acid. Historically it ...
  https://wikivisually.com/wiki/%28S%29-dihydroorotate%3ANAD%2B_oxidoreductase
*  1,4-alpha-D-glucan maltotriohydrolase - WikiVisually
In the 17th century, Johann Rudolph Glauber produced hydrochloric acid and sodium sulfate by reacting sulfuric acid, further ... From the 16th century, researchers including Jan Baptist van Helmont, Robert Boyle, the phlogiston theory was proposed in 1667 ... chemical transformations were studied by Alchemists. They attempted, in particular, to lead into gold, for which purpose they ... These acids and bases are amino acid chains in the active site of the enzyme. A scheme for the mechanism is shown in the figure ...
  https://wikivisually.com/wiki/1%2C4-alpha-D-glucan_maltotriohydrolase
*  S)-dihydroorotate:fumarate oxidoreductase - WikiVisually
In the 17th century, Johann Rudolph Glauber produced hydrochloric acid and sodium sulfate by reacting sulfuric acid, further ... From the 16th century, researchers including Jan Baptist van Helmont, Robert Boyle, the phlogiston theory was proposed in 1667 ... Oxygen was discovered by the Polish alchemist Sendivogius, who considered it the philosophers stone. In the late 17th century, ... the other being maleic acid, in fumaric acid the carboxylic acid groups are trans and in maleic acid they are cis. Fumaric acid ...
  https://wikivisually.com/wiki/%28S%29-dihydroorotate%3Afumarate_oxidoreductase
*  BRENDA - WikiVisually
In the 17th century, Johann Rudolph Glauber produced hydrochloric acid and sodium sulfate by reacting sulfuric acid, further ... From the 16th century, researchers including Jan Baptist van Helmont, Robert Boyle, the phlogiston theory was proposed in 1667 ... chemical transformations were studied by Alchemists. They attempted, in particular, to lead into gold, for which purpose they ... Braunschweig in the 16th century, from the Civitates orbis terrarum by Georg Braun and Frans Hogenberg. ...
  https://wikivisually.com/wiki/BRENDA
*  24R)-cholest-5-ene-3beta,24-diol,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase - WikiVisually
In the 17th century, Johann Rudolph Glauber produced hydrochloric acid and sodium sulfate by reacting sulfuric acid, further ... From the 16th century, researchers including Jan Baptist van Helmont, Robert Boyle, the phlogiston theory was proposed in 1667 ... Oxygen was discovered by the Polish alchemist Sendivogius, who considered it the philosophers stone. In the late 17th century, ... In the liver, bile acids bound to FXR induce Small heterodimer partner, SHP which binds to LRH-1, in the intestine, bile acids/ ...
  https://wikivisually.com/wiki/%2824R%29-cholest-5-ene-3beta%2C24-diol%2CNADPH%3Aoxygen_oxidoreductase
*  Animal Symbolism in alchemy
Nitric acid when mixed with the acid derived from common salt, hydrochloric acid, produced aqua regia, a greenish tinged liquid ... The Rosarium Philosophorum, a key work of the mid 16th century, shows the coupling of the male and female as a central facet of ... Thus to the alchemists the dragon appeared at the beginning and at the end of the work. The alchemists paralleled these ... In some alchemical illustrations, such as that of the late 16th century Book of Lambspring, the Stag and Unicorn meet in the ...
  http://www.levity.com/alchemy/animal.html
*  Zinc - Wikipedia
The free zinc ion is a powerful Lewis acid up to the point of being corrosive. Stomach acid contains hydrochloric acid, in ... The Chinese did not learn of the technique until the 17th century. Alchemists burned zinc metal in air and collected the ... in the 16th century. The word is probably derived from the German zinke, and supposedly meant "tooth-like, pointed or jagged" ( ... Extremely pure zinc reacts only slowly at room temperature with acids. Strong acids, such as hydrochloric or sulfuric acid, can ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zinc
*  Aurous | Article about aurous by The Free Dictionary
Its place was taken by amalgamation (known as early as the first century B.C. and used in America beginning in the 16th century ... Gold dissolves in a mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acids to give chloroauric acid H[AuCl4]. In solutions of sodium cyanide ... The alchemists called gold the king of metals and designated it by the symbol for the sun . The chief object of alchemy was to ... Aqua regia (a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids that liberates chlorine) is so named for its ability to dissolve gold, ...
  https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/aurous
*  Chemistries | Article about chemistries by The Free Dictionary
... hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, ammonia, alkali bases, soda, and several other products, all of which make up the basic ... Alchemy arose in the third or fourth century A.D. in Alexandria (seeALCHEMY). Alchemists believed that the conversion of ... These two trends were characteristic of chemistry of the 16th and first half of the 17th centuries and were instrumental in the ... Chemistry of the 19th century was characterized by the development of atomism (seeATOMISM). In the 17th and 18th centuries, the ...
  http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/chemistries
*  Chemistry: Facts, Discussion Forum, and Encyclopedia Article
Pseudo-Geber is the name assigned by modern scholars to an anonymous European alchemist born in the 13th century, sometimes ... The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and can also be called chlorides. The chloride ion, and its salts such ... The Scientific Revolution is an era associated primarily with the 16th and 17th centuries during which new ideas and knowledge ... Acid-base reaction theories. An acid-base reaction is a chemical reaction that occurs between an acid and a base. Several ...
  http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Chemistry
*  Gold (mineral) | Article about Gold (mineral) by The Free Dictionary
Its place was taken by amalgamation (known as early as the first century B.C. and used in America beginning in the 16th century ... Gold dissolves in a mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acids to give chloroauric acid H[AuCl4]. In solutions of sodium cyanide ... The alchemists called gold the king of metals and designated it by the symbol for the sun . The chief object of alchemy was to ... Aqua regia (a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids that liberates chlorine) is so named for its ability to dissolve gold, ...
  https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Gold+