Loading...
*  Elevated Toll-Like Receptor 4 Expression and Signaling in Muscle From Insulin-Resistant Subjects | Diabetes
... whereas unsaturated FFAs do not stimulate this pathway (10). After LPS binds to TLR4, and its co-receptors CD14 and MD-2, the ... The interaction between TLR4 and MyD88 leads to the autophosphorylation of IL-1R-associated kinase (IRAK) (11). When IRAK ... The increase in TLR4 and NFκB signaling was accompanied by elevated expression of the NFκB-regulated genes interleukin (IL)-6 ... Consistent with this hypothesis, FFAs have been shown to bind to toll-like receptor (TLR)4 (4), a transmembrane receptor, and ...
  http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/57/10/2595
*  Frontiers | IL-1β Inhibition in Cardiovascular Complications Associated to Diabetes Mellitus | Pharmacology
... the soluble decoy receptor rilonacept and the monoclonal antibodies canakinumab and gevokizumab. This review will summarize the ... including interleukin (IL)-1ß, which reinforce inflammatory signals thus contributing to the development of complications. In ... the soluble decoy receptor rilonacept and the monoclonal antibodies canakinumab and gevokizumab. This review will summarize the ... The drugs currently used in clinical practice are anakinra, a recombinant form of the naturally occurring IL-1 receptor ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2017.00363/full
*  The Role of IL-1β in the Bone Loss during Rheumatic Diseases
... β binds type I (IL-1RI) and type II (IL-1RII) specific receptors. Both receptors have a single transmembrane domain and an IgG- ... "RANKL-stimulated osteoclast-like cell formation in vitro is partially dependent on endogenous interleukin-1 production," Bone, ... IRAK) 4. Phosphorylation of IRAK4 is followed by phosphorylation of IRAK1, IRAK2, and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated ... the RANKL-RANK interaction stimulates several transcription factors and MAP kinases, induces the expression of c-Fos family ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2015/782382/
*  Pathogen recognition in the innate immune response | Biochemical Journal
TRAF2-associated kinase; TAB, TAK1-binding protein; TAK1, transforming-growth-factor-β-activated kinase 1; TANK, TRAF family ... Toll-like receptor; TNF, tumour necrosis factor; TNFR, TNF receptor; TRADD, TNF-receptor-associated DD; TRAF, TNF-receptor- ... IκB kinase; IL, interleukin; iNOS, inducible NO synthase; IPAF, IL-1β converting enzyme protease activating factor; IPS-1, IFN- ... IFN-stimulated response element; IV, influenza virus; JEV, Japanese-encephalitis virus; JNK, c-jun N-terminal kinase; LBP, LPS- ...
  http://www.biochemj.org/content/420/1/1
*  Neural injury following stroke: are Toll-like receptors the link between the immune system and the CNS? - Downes - 2010 -...
Once MyD88 is bound to the receptor, IL receptor associated kinases (IRAK) 1 and 4 associate with MyD88 through the death ... 2008). Interleukin-10 inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells through ... Li S, Strelow A, Fontana EJ, Wesche H (2002). IRAK-4: a novel member of the IRAK family with the properties of an IRAK-kinase. ... 1996). A novel kinase cascade mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 6 and MKK3. J Biol Chem 271: 13675-13679. * ...
  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00864.x/full
*  IRAK4 - Wikipedia
Cao Z, Henzel WJ, Gao X (February 1996). "IRAK: a kinase associated with the interleukin-1 receptor". Science. 271 (5252): 1128 ... IRAK4 is involved in signal transduction pathways stimulated by the cellular receptors belonging to the Toll/Interleukin-1 ... even within the IRAK family. Situated where the two lobes meet is an ATP binding site, which is covered by a tyrosine ... Li S, Strelow A, Fontana EJ, Wesche H (April 2002). "IRAK-4: a novel member of the IRAK family with the properties of an IRAK- ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IRAK4
*  Innate Immunity | Williams Hematology, 9e | AccessHemOnc | McGraw-Hill Medical
... granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor; IFN, interferon; IκB; inhibitor of κB; IKK, IκB kinase; IL, interleukin; IPAF, ... NOD-like receptor; NOD, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain; PAR-2, proteinase-activated G-protein-coupled receptor; ... IRAK, interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase; IRF, interferon response factor; JAK, Janus kinase; JNK, c-Jun N-terminal ... and it is now known that Toll-like receptors, NOD-like receptors, RIG-I-like helicases, C-type lectin receptors, and cytosolic ...
  http://hemonc.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=1581§ionid=108043306
*  "TLR2- and TLR4-mediated signals determine attenuation or augmentation " by Shilpa A. Oak, Pranoti Mandrekar et al.
... plus TLR4-stimulated cells. IRAK-monocyte, an inhibitor of IRAK-1, was induced in TLR4, but it was reduced in TLR2- plus TLR4- ... stimulated monocytes by alcohol. This was supported by decreased IRAK-1:TRAF6 association in TLR4 induced but sustained ... Phosphorylation of MAPKs such as ERK1/2 was selectively inhibited by acute alcohol in TLR4-stimulated cells. In contrast, JNK ... These results suggest that acute alcohol attenuates TLR4-induced inflammation via inhibition of IRAK-1 and ERK1/2 kinases and ...
  https://escholarship.umassmed.edu/oapubs/1085/
*  SIGNAL transduction Flashcards by Lorne Runge | Brainscape
IL-5 receptor is CD125 (IL5RA) and beta subunit CD131 .. These receptors transmit a signal due to ability to bind JAK kinase ... IRAK and TRAF6. MyD88, IRAK and TRAF6 also associate with Toll like receptors. These complexes stimulate NIK which then ... and 3 beta receptors (all GPCR), arginine vasopressin receptors-3, Promiscuous receptors include:. IL1R1 (interleukin 1 ... Tyrosine kinase receptor families including receptors for:. EGF, insulin receptor, PDGF receptor, FGF receptor, HGF (hepatic ...
  https://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/signal-transduction-4207777/packs/4392200
*  ASMscience | Regulation and Antimicro
... interferon-stimulated response element; JAK, Janus kinase; JNK, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase; NF-κB, nuclear factor κB; MAPK, ... transforming-growth-factor-β-activated kinase; TBK1, TRAF-family-member-associated NF-κB activator (TANK)-binding kinase 1; TLR ... kinase (IKKε is also termed inducible IKK or IKKi); IRAK, IL-1 receptor-associated kinase; IRF, interferon regulatory factor; ... Uematsu, S.,, and S. Akira. 2006. Toll-like receptors and innate immunity. J. Mol. Med. 84:712-725.. ...
  http://www.asmscience.org/content/book/10.1128/9781555816650.ch22
*  TRAF6 - Wikipedia
... a novel member of the IRAK family with the properties of an IRAK-kinase". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (8): 5567-72. doi: ... a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor-interleukin 1 receptor signaling". Nat. Immunol. 4 (9): 920-7. doi:10.1038/ni968. ... "The type I TGF-beta receptor engages TRAF6 to activate TAK1 in a receptor kinase-independent manner". Nat. Cell Biol. 10 (10): ... Wesche H, Gao X, Li X, Kirschning CJ, Stark GR, Cao Z (July 1999). "IRAK-M is a novel member of the Pelle/interleukin-1 ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TRAF6
*  Interleukin-18: a therapeutic target in rheumatoid arthritis? | Arthritis Research & Therapy | Full Text
IRAK (interleukin-receptor-associated kinase) to NF-κB. IL-18 mRNA and pro-protein are widely distributed, as are IL-18R ... it has been shown that IL-18 indirectly stimulates osteoclast formation through upregulation of both soluble and membrane bound ... Dai SM, Nishioka K, Yudoh K: Interleukin (IL) 18 stimulates osteoclast formation through synovial T cells in rheumatoid ... High affinity binding by IL-18 binding protein a and c isoforms renders these obvious neutralising agents, and early clinical ...
  https://arthritis-research.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/ar1497
*  Interleukin-1 receptor associated kinase - Wikipedia
The KD is responsible for the kinase activity of IRAK proteins and consists of 12 subdomains. All IRAK KDs have an ATP binding ... IRAK-2a and IRAK-2b positively activate NF-kB/TLR pathway by stimulating LPS. IRAK-M is specific to monomyeloic cells ( ... IRAK-2 has 4 isoforms IRAK-2a, IRAK-2b, IRAK-2c, and IRAK-2d. The latter two have negative feedback in the TLR signaling ... In addition, it has been shown that IRAK-2 is recruited to the TLR3 receptor. IRAK-2 is the only IRAK family member that is ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interleukin-1_receptor_associated_kinase
*  Innate Immune Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase 4 Exacerbates Viral Myocarditis by Reducing CCR5+CD11b+ Monocyte...
Essential role of IRAK-4 protein and its kinase activity in Toll-like receptor-mediated immune responses but not in TCR ... induce TANK-binding kinase 1/IKK-ε-dependent activation of IRFs to produce antiviral type I IFNs.8-10 Several members of the ... A, IRAK4+/+ (black bars) and IRAK4−/− (white bars) bone marrow macrophages were stimulated in vitro with R848. RNA levels of ... IRAK-4 kinase activity is required for interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor- and toll-like receptor 7-mediated signaling and gene ...
  http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/128/14/1542
*  TRAF6 | definition of TRAF6 by Medical dictionary
... macrophage colony-stimulating factor; TRAF6, TNF receptor-associated factor 6; IRAK-1, interleukin 1 receptor associated kinase ... activated kinase; NIK, NF [kappa]B inhibitory kinases; IKK[alpha], activates I[kappa]B[alpha] kinase alpha; I[kappa]B[alpha], ... 2006) Specificity in Toll-like receptor signalling through distinct effector functions of TRAF3 and TRAF6.. Nucleotide-binding ... Diagnostic and Predictive Levels of Calcium-binding Protein A8 and Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-associated Factor 6 in Sepsis ...
  http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/TRAF6
*  Toll-Like Receptors in Secondary Obstructive Cholangiopathy
H. W. Harris, S. E. Brady, and J. H. Rapp, "Hepatic endosomal trafficking of lipoprotein-bound endotoxin in rats," Journal of ... Transepithelial migration of neutrophils can be initiated by stimulation of interleukin-8 (IL-8) as a consequence to host- ... which in turn stimulates transcriptional nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) after production of antiviral interferon-1β (IFN-1β) [1]. ... possible role of Akt and IRAK-M," Journal of Hepatology, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 280-289, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2011/265093/
*  IKBKG - Wikipedia
Binding of IKK-γ to IKK-α and IKK-β subunits activates the IKK complex leading to phosphorylation of IκB kinase, IκBα, and ... RIP and A20 bind to NEMO (IKKgamma) upon receptor stimulation". Immunity. 12 (3): 301-11. doi:10.1016/S1074-7613(00)80183-1. ... Conze DB, Wu CJ, Thomas JA, Landstrom A, Ashwell JD (May 2008). "Lys63-linked polyubiquitination of IRAK-1 is required for ... Windheim M, Stafford M, Peggie M, Cohen P (March 2008). "Interleukin-1 (IL-1) induces the Lys63-linked polyubiquitination of IL ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IKBKG
*  Plus it
... and interleukin-3 require members of the cytosolic tyrosine kinase JAK family for signaling. Ligand binding brings receptor- ... granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor. MAPK. mitogen-activated protein kinase. IL. interleukin. EPOR. erythropoietin ... 1996) IRAK: a kinase associated with the interleukin-1 receptor. Science 271:1128-1131. ... receptor tyrosine kinase. EGF. epidermal growth factor. EGFR. epidermal growth factor receptor. PDGF. platelet-derived growth ...
  http://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/78/1/12
*  Interleukin-18 as a Therapeutic Target in Acute Myocardial Infarction and Heart Failure | SpringerLink
Interleukin 18 (IL-18) is a proinflammatory cytokine in the IL-1 family that has been implicated in a number of disease states ... IRAK) and MyD88, an intracellular adaptor molecule required for IRAK phosphorylation and for IRAK interaction with the receptor ... Wyman TH, et al. (2002) Physiological levels of in-terleukin-18 stimulate multiple neutrophil functions through p38 MAP kinase ... Right: The active IL-18 binds the IL-18Rα-IL-18Rβ receptor dimer or is sequestered by IL-18BP Alternately, IL-37 binds IL-18Rα ...
  https://link.springer.com/article/10.2119%2Fmolmed.2014.00034
*  Pancreatic Beta Cell Death: Novel Potential Mechanisms in Diabetes Therapy
... and clinical studies related to type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The journal welcomes submissions focusing on the epidemiology, ... TNF receptor-associated factor 2; RIP1: receptor-interacting protein kinase 1; RIP1: receptor-interacting protein kinase 3; ROS ... Once TNF-α binds to its receptor, it has the capability of forming two opposing signaling complexes: DISC or IIa, which induces ... α also stimulates ROS production through ferritin degradation mediated by the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). Therefore, it ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2018/9601801/
*  Selective IRAK4 Inhibition Attenuates Disease in Murine Lupus Models and Demonstrates Steroid Sparing Activity | The Journal of...
Interleukin-1R-associated kinase (IRAK)4 is a serine/threonine kinase required for signal transduction downstream of the IL-1 ... Ligand binding to the receptor induces dimerization and recruitment of adaptor molecules to a conserved cytoplasmic motif in ... and used the complex to stimulate PBMCs from three different donors. The autoantibody complex stimulated robust expression of ... Essential role of IRAK-4 protein and its kinase activity in Toll-like receptor-mediated immune responses but not in TCR ...
  http://www.jimmunol.org/content/198/3/1308
*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols
It mediates its function by binding to and activating the estrogen receptors (ERs), ERα, and ERβ. ERα is frequently upregulated ... This DNA can also be used to stimulate innate immunity in vivo by intradermal injection into the ear pinna of a mouse, for ... Here, we present detailed NCM protocols based on the Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y-27632. We also provide new ... Specifically, microRNA-146a (miR-146a) plays a key role in endotoxin tolerance by downregulating interleukin-1 receptor- ...
  https://www.jove.com/visualize/abstract/23638011/microrna-146a-is-upregulated-negatively-regulates-tlr2
*  Interleukin-1 family - Wikipedia
IL-33 is synthesized as a 31-kDa precursor form and binds the ST2 receptor and IL-1RAcP coreceptor, which stimulates signaling ... IRAK) 4. Phosphorylation of IRAK4 is followed by phosphorylation of IRAK1, IRAK2 and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated ... c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK. IL-1α precursor and mature IL-1β lack a signal peptide which should direct them ... Liu N, Li X, Liu C, Zhao Y, Cui B, Ning G (2010). "The association of interleukin-1alpha and interleukin-1beta polymorphisms ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interleukin-1_family
*  Neurotrophins in the Regulation of Cellular Survival and Death | SpringerLink
Regulation of interleukin receptor-associated kinase (IRAK) phosphorylation and signaling by iota protein kinase C. J Biol Chem ... Barker PA, Shooter EM (1994) Disruption of NGF binding to the low affinity neurotrophin receptor p75LNTR reduces NGF binding to ... deleted on chromosome 10 phosphatase by nerve growth factor/p75NTR inhibit glycogen synthase kinase-3beta and stimulate axonal ... IRAK) RIP2 Receptor-interacting serine/Threonine-protein kinase 2 (RIP2) Neurotrophin receptor interacting factor (NRIF) ...
  https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-642-45106-5_8
*  Frontiers | Role of Translocator 18 KDa Ligands in the Activation of Leukotriene B4 Activated G-Protein Coupled Receptor and...
... and further stimulated with lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli (LPS), a binding for Toll-Like Receptor-4 (TLR4), or ... a binding for Toll-Like Receptor-4 (TLR4), or leukotriene B4 (LTB4), a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) ligand. LPS treatment ... leukotriene B4 (LTB4), a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) ligand. LPS treatment did not lead to overexpression of TSPO on ... and further stimulated with lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli (LPS), ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2017.00766/full