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*  feeding behaviour | Britannica.com
Vertebrates. Most information on the control of feeding behaviour in vertebrates has come from studies of mammals, but the ... Microorganisms in the intestines of vertebrates may synthesize materials essential for the host, so that the food of the latter ... The brain mechanisms involved in vertebrate feeding motivation consist of a complex network, not yet well understood, ... 1. For seizing and swallowing only (e.g., Hydra, many polychaete worms, many lower vertebrates). ...
https://www.britannica.com/topic/feeding-behaviour
*  Blood - Plasma | Britannica.com
In vertebrates blood and lymph (the circulating fluids) have an essential role in maintaining homeostasis (the constancy of the ... The first blood cells in vertebrate embryos form in association with the intestinal endoderm on the yolk sac. Groups of ... Insects that feed on vertebrate blood, such as mosquitoes and tsetse flies, employ similar responses when locating and ...
https://www.britannica.com/science/blood-biochemistry/Plasma
*  thermoreception | Definition & Facts | Britannica.com
Thermoreceptors in vertebrates. Fish. Many species of modern bony fish (teleosts) are sensitive to very small temperature ... and thermoreception in invertebrates and vertebrates. For general information on sensory reception, see the article sensory ...
https://www.britannica.com/science/thermoreception
*  hormone | Definition, Function, & Types | Britannica.com
The hormones of vertebrates. Hormones of the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland, or hypophysis, which dominates the ... All vertebrates undoubtedly have gonadotropic activity in their pituitary glands; but, although FSH-like and LH-like effects ... The hormones of vertebrates*Hormones of the pituitary gland*Adenohypophysis*Growth hormone (somatotropin) ... The other route of chemical communication to the pars distalis is found in many fishes and in all terrestrial vertebrates; it ...
https://www.britannica.com/science/hormone
*  endocrine system | anatomy | Britannica.com
... like the vertebrate neurohypophysis). The neurohemal organ of insects may have an endocrine portion (like the vertebrate ... Other vertebrate endocrine glands. The pancreas. The pancreas in nonmammals is an endocrine gland that secretes insulin, ... The pituitary glands of all vertebrates produce essentially the same tropic hormones: thyrotropin (TSH), corticotropin (ACTH), ... Gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary are basically LH-like and/or FSH-like in their actions on vertebrate gonads. In general ...
https://www.britannica.com/science/endocrine-system
*  Neocortex | anatomy | Britannica.com
A neocortex is characteristic of higher vertebrates, such as mammals, which operate under the control of multiple sources of ... A neocortex is characteristic of higher vertebrates, such as mammals, which operate under the control of multiple sources of ...
https://www.britannica.com/science/neocortex
*  Cochlea | anatomy | Britannica.com
In sound reception: Sound reception in vertebrates- auditory mechanisms of fishes and amphibians. …which is usually called a ...
https://www.britannica.com/science/cochlea
*  diaphragm | Definition, Function, & Location | Britannica.com
vertebrate muscles* In muscle: Tetrapod musculature. function in. *breathing regulation* In human respiratory system: Control ...
https://www.britannica.com/science/diaphragm-anatomy
*  evolution | Theory, Examples, & Facts | Britannica.com
excretory system of vertebrates* In excretion: Evolution of the vertebrate excretory system ... Vertebrates, from fishes through lizards to humans, develop in ways that are remarkably similar during early stages, but they ... See Cambrian Period.) The first vertebrates, animals with backbones, appeared about 400 million years ago; the first mammals, ... The embryos of humans and other nonaquatic vertebrates exhibit gill slits even though they never breathe through gills. These ...
https://www.britannica.com/science/evolution-scientific-theory?source=NEWS1210
*  Ernst Haeckel | German embryologist | Britannica.com
Haeckel, Ernst: Paleontological tree of vertebrates. From Ernst Haeckel's The Evolution of Man: A Popular Scientific Study, 5th ... the presence of gill clefts in the mammalian embryo and also in less highly evolved vertebrates can be understood as a remnant ...
https://www.britannica.com/biography/Ernst-Haeckel
*  Animal development - Reptiles, birds, and mammals | Britannica.com
Such is not the case, however, in the higher vertebrates that possess eggs with enormous amounts of yolk, as do the reptiles, ... which are found in higher vertebrates and in insects. Vertebrates have three embryonic membranes: the amnion, the chorion, and ... Such is not the case, however, in the higher vertebrates that possess eggs with enormous amounts of yolk, as do the reptiles, ... and in reptiles and birds among the terrestrial vertebrates. ...
https://www.britannica.com/science/animal-development/Reptiles-birds-and-mammals
*  Pterosaur | fossil reptile order | Britannica.com
They were also the first vertebrates to fly.. Natural history. Ancestors of pterosaurs tended toward a bipedal gait, which thus ... Jurassic Period: Vertebrates. Pterosaurs were common throughout the Jurassic. With light skeletons and wing structure supported ...
https://www.britannica.com/animal/pterosaur
*  Gnathostome | vertebrate | Britannica.com
The most significant change that occurred during early vertebrate evolution was the appearance of animals that could live and ... advanced vertebrates with jaws (Gnathostomata) has involved both the appearance of new hormones and the further evolution of ... In circulatory system: Circulation in jawed vertebrates. Although clearly related to its mode of life, the blood system of a ... The most significant change that occurred during early vertebrate evolution was the appearance of animals that could live and ...
https://www.britannica.com/animal/gnathostome
*  Entamoeba histolytica | protozoan | Britannica.com
of many vertebrates, including humans; E. histolytica is the cause of human amebic dysentery. The cell nucleus, which is ...
https://www.britannica.com/science/Entamoeba-histolytica
*  lizard - Form and function | reptile | Britannica.com
These lizards feed on vertebrates, which they swallow whole, and vertebrate eggs.. Family Lanthanotidae (earless monitor ... 5 Vertebrate Groups How many of you remember the Brady Bunch episode in which Peter was studying for a biology test? He asked ... Marcia for help, and she taught him the mnemonic: "A vertebrate has a back that's straight."... ...
https://www.britannica.com/animal/lizard/Form-and-function
*  motivation - Behavioristic approaches to motivation | behaviour | Britannica.com
feeding behaviour (in feeding behaviour: Vertebrates) *learning (in animal learning: Possible explanations of behavioral ...
https://www.britannica.com/topic/motivation/Behavioristic-approaches-to-motivation
*  Central nervous system | Britannica.com
In nervous system: The vertebrate system. … has two main divisions: the central nervous system, consisting of the brain and ... In vertebrates and in crustaceans, spontaneous activity of the left statocyst affects the central… ...
https://www.britannica.com/science/central-nervous-system
*  Medulla oblongata | anatomy | Britannica.com
vertebrate nervous systems* In nervous system: Encephalization. structure of. *brainstem* In brainstem ...
https://www.britannica.com/science/medulla-oblongata
*  Cephalaspis | fossil vertebrate genus | Britannica.com
Cephalaspis, one of an early group of vertebrates called ostracoderms, possessed an external bony ... fishlike vertebrates found in Lower Devonian rocks (the Devonian Period lasted from 416 to 359.2 million years ago) in Europe ... an archaic and informal term for a member of the group of armoured, jawless, fishlike vertebrates that emerged during the early ... Cephalaspis, one of an early group of vertebrates called ostracoderms, possessed an external bony head shield, but probably its ...
https://www.britannica.com/animal/Cephalaspis
*  reptile - Digestive and urogenital systems | animal | Britannica.com
The digestive system of modern reptiles is similar in general plan to that of all higher vertebrates. It includes the mouth and ... annotated classification (in vertebrate: Annotated classification) *characteristics of chordates (in vertebrate: The tetrapods ... Vertebrates eliminate three kinds of nitrogenous wastes: ammonia, urea, and uric acid. Ammonia and urea are highly soluble in ... In general construction the eyes of reptiles are like those of other vertebrates. Accommodation for near vision in all living ...
https://www.britannica.com/animal/reptile/Digestive-and-urogenital-systems
*  reptile - Hearing | animal | Britannica.com
annotated classification (in vertebrate: Annotated classification) *characteristics of chordates (in vertebrate: The tetrapods ... 5 Vertebrate Groups How many of you remember the Brady Bunch episode in which Peter was studying for a biology test? He asked ... The first land vertebrates, the Tetrapoda, appeared about 397 million years ago, near the middle of the Devonian Period. ... Air-breathing, amniotic vertebrate animals, usually with a body covering of keratinous epidermal scales. The occipital condyle ...
https://www.britannica.com/animal/reptile/Hearing
*  hormone | Definition, Function, & Types - Hormones of the thyroid gland | Britannica.com
The vertebrate pancreas contains, in addition to the zymogen cells that secrete digestive enzymes, groups of endocrine cells ... Many steroids have been isolated from the adrenal cortex, but in most vertebrate groups only three of them are active as ... Its actual source is the ultimobranchial tissue, represented in vertebrates from fishes upward by the ultimobranchial gland, ... Little is known of the action of calcitonin in the lower vertebrates, but its presence in fish raises interesting functional ...
https://www.britannica.com/science/hormone/Hormones-of-the-thyroid-gland
*  reptile - Feeding habits | animal | Britannica.com
annotated classification (in vertebrate: Annotated classification) *characteristics of chordates (in vertebrate: The tetrapods ... 5 Vertebrate Groups How many of you remember the Brady Bunch episode in which Peter was studying for a biology test? He asked ... Reptiles are distinguished from other vertebrates by the fact that they have dry scales covering their bodies. Reptiles are ... further distinguished from vertebrates lower on the evolutionary scale by their ability to perform internal fertilization, ...
https://www.britannica.com/animal/reptile/Feeding-habits
*  amphioxus | cephalochordate group | Britannica.com
Although there is no brain or cranium, growing evidence suggests that the vertebrate brain evolved from a portion of the nerve ... The endostyle corresponds to the thyroid in vertebrates, since it seems to produce iodinated, tyrosine molecules, which may ... integumentary system (in integument: Variations among vertebrates) *nervous system (in nervous system: The primitive condition ... Both morphological and molecular evidence show them to be close relatives of the vertebrates. A brief treatment of amphioxi ...
https://www.britannica.com/animal/amphioxus
*  reptile | animal | Britannica.com
... the group of air-breathing vertebrates that have internal fertilization, amniotic development, and epidermal scales covering ... annotated classification (in vertebrate: Annotated classification) *characteristics of chordates (in vertebrate: The tetrapods ... Reptile, any member of the class Reptilia, the group of air-breathing vertebrates that have internal fertilization, amniotic ... A monetary value is often not assigned to any vertebrate that provides pest control. Nonetheless, many lizards control insect ...
https://www.britannica.com/animal/reptile