*  feeding behaviour | Britannica.com
Vertebrates. Most information on the control of feeding behaviour in vertebrates has come from studies of mammals, but the ... Microorganisms in the intestines of vertebrates may synthesize materials essential for the host, so that the food of the latter ... The brain mechanisms involved in vertebrate feeding motivation consist of a complex network, not yet well understood, ... 1. For seizing and swallowing only (e.g., Hydra, many polychaete worms, many lower vertebrates). ...
https://www.britannica.com/topic/feeding-behaviour
*  endocrine system | anatomy | Britannica.com
... like the vertebrate neurohypophysis). The neurohemal organ of insects may have an endocrine portion (like the vertebrate ... Other vertebrate endocrine glands. The pancreas. The pancreas in nonmammals is an endocrine gland that secretes insulin, ... The pituitary glands of all vertebrates produce essentially the same tropic hormones: thyrotropin (TSH), corticotropin (ACTH), ... Gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary are basically LH-like and/or FSH-like in their actions on vertebrate gonads. In general ...
https://www.britannica.com/science/endocrine-system
*  Neocortex | anatomy | Britannica.com
A neocortex is characteristic of higher vertebrates, such as mammals, which operate under the control of multiple sources of ... A neocortex is characteristic of higher vertebrates, such as mammals, which operate under the control of multiple sources of ...
https://www.britannica.com/science/neocortex
*  Cochlea | anatomy | Britannica.com
In sound reception: Sound reception in vertebrates- auditory mechanisms of fishes and amphibians. …which is usually called a ...
https://www.britannica.com/science/cochlea
*  diaphragm | Definition, Function, & Location | Britannica.com
vertebrate muscles* In muscle: Tetrapod musculature. function in. *breathing regulation* In human respiratory system: Control ...
https://www.britannica.com/science/diaphragm-anatomy
*  Steroid | chemical compound | Britannica.com
In male vertebrates the androgens-steroids secreted by the testes-maintain spermatogenesis and the tissues of the reproductive ... The steroid group includes all the sex hormones, adrenal cortical hormones, bile acids, and sterols of vertebrates, as well as ... The corpus luteum, a modification of vertebrate ovarian tissue that forms following ovulation (release of the mature egg cell ... The bile acids (cholanoic acids, also called cholanic acids) of higher vertebrates form conjugates with the amino acids taurine ...
https://www.britannica.com/science/steroid
*  Ernst Haeckel | German embryologist | Britannica.com
Haeckel, Ernst: Paleontological tree of vertebrates. From Ernst Haeckel's The Evolution of Man: A Popular Scientific Study, 5th ... the presence of gill clefts in the mammalian embryo and also in less highly evolved vertebrates can be understood as a remnant ...
https://www.britannica.com/biography/Ernst-Haeckel
*  Pterosaur | fossil reptile order | Britannica.com
They were also the first vertebrates to fly.. Natural history. Ancestors of pterosaurs tended toward a bipedal gait, which thus ... Jurassic Period: Vertebrates. Pterosaurs were common throughout the Jurassic. With light skeletons and wing structure supported ...
https://www.britannica.com/animal/pterosaur
*  Gnathostome | vertebrate | Britannica.com
The most significant change that occurred during early vertebrate evolution was the appearance of animals that could live and ... advanced vertebrates with jaws (Gnathostomata) has involved both the appearance of new hormones and the further evolution of ... In circulatory system: Circulation in jawed vertebrates. Although clearly related to its mode of life, the blood system of a ... The most significant change that occurred during early vertebrate evolution was the appearance of animals that could live and ...
https://www.britannica.com/animal/gnathostome
*  lizard - Form and function | reptile | Britannica.com
These lizards feed on vertebrates, which they swallow whole, and vertebrate eggs.. Family Lanthanotidae (earless monitor ... 5 Vertebrate Groups How many of you remember the Brady Bunch episode in which Peter was studying for a biology test? He asked ... Marcia for help, and she taught him the mnemonic: "A vertebrate has a back that's straight."... ...
https://www.britannica.com/animal/lizard/Form-and-function
*  motivation - Behavioristic approaches to motivation | behaviour | Britannica.com
feeding behaviour (in feeding behaviour: Vertebrates) *learning (in animal learning: Possible explanations of behavioral ...
https://www.britannica.com/topic/motivation/Behavioristic-approaches-to-motivation
*  reptile - Digestive and urogenital systems | animal | Britannica.com
The digestive system of modern reptiles is similar in general plan to that of all higher vertebrates. It includes the mouth and ... annotated classification (in vertebrate: Annotated classification) *characteristics of chordates (in vertebrate: The tetrapods ... Vertebrates eliminate three kinds of nitrogenous wastes: ammonia, urea, and uric acid. Ammonia and urea are highly soluble in ... In general construction the eyes of reptiles are like those of other vertebrates. Accommodation for near vision in all living ...
https://www.britannica.com/animal/reptile/Digestive-and-urogenital-systems
*  reptile - Hearing | animal | Britannica.com
annotated classification (in vertebrate: Annotated classification) *characteristics of chordates (in vertebrate: The tetrapods ... 5 Vertebrate Groups How many of you remember the Brady Bunch episode in which Peter was studying for a biology test? He asked ... The first land vertebrates, the Tetrapoda, appeared about 397 million years ago, near the middle of the Devonian Period. ... Air-breathing, amniotic vertebrate animals, usually with a body covering of keratinous epidermal scales. The occipital condyle ...
https://www.britannica.com/animal/reptile/Hearing
*  hormone | Definition, Function, & Types - Hormones of the thyroid gland | Britannica.com
The vertebrate pancreas contains, in addition to the zymogen cells that secrete digestive enzymes, groups of endocrine cells ... Many steroids have been isolated from the adrenal cortex, but in most vertebrate groups only three of them are active as ... Its actual source is the ultimobranchial tissue, represented in vertebrates from fishes upward by the ultimobranchial gland, ... Little is known of the action of calcitonin in the lower vertebrates, but its presence in fish raises interesting functional ...
https://www.britannica.com/science/hormone/Hormones-of-the-thyroid-gland
*  reptile - Feeding habits | animal | Britannica.com
annotated classification (in vertebrate: Annotated classification) *characteristics of chordates (in vertebrate: The tetrapods ... 5 Vertebrate Groups How many of you remember the Brady Bunch episode in which Peter was studying for a biology test? He asked ... Reptiles are distinguished from other vertebrates by the fact that they have dry scales covering their bodies. Reptiles are ... further distinguished from vertebrates lower on the evolutionary scale by their ability to perform internal fertilization, ...
https://www.britannica.com/animal/reptile/Feeding-habits
*  amphioxus | cephalochordate group | Britannica.com
Although there is no brain or cranium, growing evidence suggests that the vertebrate brain evolved from a portion of the nerve ... The endostyle corresponds to the thyroid in vertebrates, since it seems to produce iodinated, tyrosine molecules, which may ... integumentary system (in integument: Variations among vertebrates) *nervous system (in nervous system: The primitive condition ... Both morphological and molecular evidence show them to be close relatives of the vertebrates. A brief treatment of amphioxi ...
https://www.britannica.com/animal/amphioxus
*  reptile | animal | Britannica.com
... the group of air-breathing vertebrates that have internal fertilization, amniotic development, and epidermal scales covering ... annotated classification (in vertebrate: Annotated classification) *characteristics of chordates (in vertebrate: The tetrapods ... Reptile, any member of the class Reptilia, the group of air-breathing vertebrates that have internal fertilization, amniotic ... A monetary value is often not assigned to any vertebrate that provides pest control. Nonetheless, many lizards control insect ...
https://www.britannica.com/animal/reptile
*  Shark | fish | Britannica.com
Fossil sharklike fish appeared in the Middle Devonian Epoch and became the dominant vertebrates of the Carboniferous Period ( ...
https://www.britannica.com/animal/shark?oasmId=195788
*  Bird - Muscles and organs | Britannica.com
The avian lung differs from the type found in other land vertebrates in that several pairs of nonvascular air sacs are ... 10,100 living species of vertebrate (backboned) animals primarily adapted for flight with feathers. Warm-blooded with a 4- ... Such is not the case, however, in the higher vertebrates that possess eggs with enormous… ... Otherwise, the digestive system does not vary markedly from the general vertebrate type. ...
https://www.britannica.com/animal/bird-animal/Muscles-and-organs
*  hibernation | zoology | Britannica.com
Dormancy, hibernation, and estivation in warm-blooded vertebrates. READ MORE Among mammals, true hibernators are found only in ... The term hibernation is commonly applied to all types of winter dormancy in vertebrate animals. Thus defined, hibernators ... dormancy: Dormancy, hibernation, and estivation in warm-blooded vertebrates. state of reduced metabolic activity adopted by ... major reference (in dormancy: Dormancy, hibernation, and estivation in warm-blooded vertebrates) ...
https://www.britannica.com/science/hibernation
*  Skeleton | Britannica.com
The more complex skeletal system of vertebrates is internal and is composed of several different types of tissues that ... The bones of the vertebrate skull protect the brain. In the more advanced vertebrates and invertebrates, many skeletal ... In vertebrates they may be closely associated with or form part of the auditory apparatus. A chain of auditory ossicles in ... The bones of vertebrates and the exoskeletal and endoskeletal units of the cuticle of arthropods (e.g., insects, spiders, crabs ...
https://www.britannica.com/science/skeleton
*  Enterovirus | virus | Britannica.com
... which infect the tissues in the vertebrate nose; and the virus agent of foot-and-mouth disease. Among the enteroviruses are ... which attack the vertebrate intestinal tract and often invade the central nervous system as well; rhinoviruses, ... This group includes enteroviruses, which attack the vertebrate intestinal tract and often invade the central nervous system as ... well; rhinoviruses, which infect the tissues in the vertebrate nose; and the virus agent of foot-and-mouth disease. Among the ...
https://www.britannica.com/science/enterovirus
*  Parvovirus -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia
Parvoviruses fall into two subfamilies: Parvovirinae, which infect vertebrates, and Densovirinae, which infect insects. Type ...
https://www.britannica.com/print/article/445337
*  Blastema | biology | Britannica.com
In lower vertebrates the blastema is particularly important in the regeneration of severed limbs. In the salamander, for ... In lower vertebrates the blastema is particularly important in the regeneration of severed limbs. In the salamander, for ... In vertebrates, dedifferentiated skin and muscle cells at the site of a wound constitute the developing blastema. If for any ... skeleton: Embryology of vertebrate skeletons. …to form the forerunner, or blastema, of the centrum of the future vertebra. From ...
https://www.britannica.com/science/blastema
*  circulatory system | anatomy | Britannica.com
In vertebrates blood and lymph (the circulating fluids) have an essential role in maintaining homeostasis (the constancy of the ... All vertebrates, however, have a closed system-that is, their circulatory system transmits fluid through an intricate network ... This myogenic contraction is found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. In the second, the heart is stimulated by nerve ... The closed circulatory system found in vertebrates is not universal; a number of invertebrate phyla have an "open" system. In ...
https://www.britannica.com/science/circulatory-system