*  Investigation into the effects of Trypanosoma congolense infections on the pharmacokinetics of Homidium in Boran cattle
Control of trypanosomosis in cattle, sheep and goats in endemic areas has depended largely on the use of chemotherapeutic or chemoprophylactic agents. One such agent is homidium. The normal use of homidium has been in the treatment of infections due to both Trypanosoma congolense and T. vivax in cattle, sheep and goats at the recommended dose rate of 1.0 mg kg -1 b.w. This paper describes the results of an investigation into the chemotherapeutic activity of homidium against t. congolense infections in cattle. Two groups of five Boran cattle were infected with two populations of T. congolense; one drug-sensitive IL 1180) and one drug-resistant (IL 3330). Parasitaemia was estimated using the methods of Murray et al. (1977); the serum drug levels by the method described by Murilla (1996) and the pharmacokinetic parameters using the formulae described by Baggot (1977). After infection, there was a rapid drop in packed cell volume (PCV) values ...
  https://cgspace.cgiar.org/handle/10568/50757
*  The effects of drug-sensitive and drug-resistant Trypanosoma congolense infections on the pharmacokinetics of homidium in Boran...
Two groups of five Boran (Bos indicus) cattle were infected with one of two populations of Trypanosoma congolense; one drug-sensitive (IL1180), and one drug-resistant (IL3330). The animals were then treated intramuscularly with homidium bromide at a dose rate of 1.0 mg kg - bodyweight 7 days after trypanosomes were detected in the peripheral blood of all the five animals in each grouFollowing treatment of cattle infected with drug-sensitive trypanosomes. parasites could no longer be detected in the bloodstream of four out of five cattle after 24 h, and after 48 h for the fifth animal. The animals remained aparasitaemic up to the end of the observation period of 90 days and serum drug concentrations determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) remained above the detection limit of 0.1 ng ml for the entire period. Following treatment of cattle infected with drug-resistant trypanosomes. parasites did not disappear from the bloodstream in any of the five animals. The ...
  https://cgspace.cgiar.org/handle/10568/29979
*  Comparative chromatin analysis of Trypanosoma congolense
ABSTRACT. The chromatin of Trypanosoma congolense was analyzed by electron microscopy. The chromatin is organized as nucleosome filaments but does not form a 30 nm fiber. There are five groups of histones, including a histone H1-like protein, which has a molecular weight within the range of the core histones, and is extremely hydrophilic. Weak histone-histone interaction, a typical feature of trypanosoma chromatin, was found. These results are similar to those for T. cruzi and T. b. brucei, but differ significantly from those for higher eukaryotes. The results confirm the model of trypanosome chromatin, and support the theory of their early separation from the other eukaryotes during the evolution. T. congolensis is an excellent model for chromatin research on trypanosomes, because it is easy to cultivate and its chromatin has, a relatively high stability, compared to that of other trypanosomes.. Key words: Trypanosoma ...
  http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0074-02761994000200021&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en
*  Expression of resistance to isometamidium and diminazene in Trypanosoma congolense in Boran cattle infected by Glossina...
Expression of resistance to isometamidium and diminazene in Trypanosoma congolense in Boran cattle infected by Glossina morsitans ...
  https://cgspace.cgiar.org/handle/10568/28034
*  Comparative studies on N'Dama and zebu cattle following repeated infections with Trypanosoma congolense
This study is designed to examine the nature of trypanotolerance, in particular to compare the clinical parameters of infected N'Dama with those of infected Zebu cattle and the variability and repeatability within the N'Dama breed of various disease parameters. Twenty N'Dama and light Zebu cattle were inoculated intradermally with bloodstream forms of a cloned strain of Trypanosoma congolense originating from East Africa. All inoculated cattle became parasitaemic. Zebus showed consistently higher levels of parasitaemia and lower PCV percentages than did N'Damas. Three of the eight Zebus required treatment. The variation in PCV values was large between individuals during the early stages of the disease and diminished as infection continued. After trypanocidal drug treatment and a recovery period of 14 months, the same animals were inoculated intradermally with T. congolense blood-stream forms isolated and cloned in the Gambia. Differences in susceptibility to ...
  https://dspacetest.cgiar.org/handle/10568/29575
*  Trypanosoma congolense: Proliferative responses and interleukin production in lymph node cells of infected cattle
T-cell-mediated immune responses to defined antigens of Trypanosoma congolense were measured in cattle undergoing primary infection. The antigens used were the variable surface glycoprotein and two invariant antigens, a 33-kDa cysteine protease (congopain) and a recombinant form of a 69-kDa heat-shock protein. Proliferative responses were highest during the second week postinfection and were detected in cells obtained from the lymph node draining the site of infection but not in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Production of IL-2 and IFN- was measured in supernatants from antigen-stimulated lymph node cell cultures. Expression of IL-2, IL-4, and IFN- mRNA was detected in antigen-stimulated lymph node cells by reverse transcription-polymerase chain amplification ...
  https://dspacetest.cgiar.org/handle/10568/28607
*  Parasite kinetics and cellular responses in goats infected and superinfected with Trypanosoma congolense transmitted by...
Parasite kinetics and cellular responses in goats infected and superinfected with Trypanosoma congolense transmitted by Glossina morsitans ...
  https://dspacetest.cgiar.org/handle/10568/27986
*  Interference between different serodemes of Trypanosoma congolense in the establishment of superinfections in goats following...
Interference between different serodemes of Trypanosoma congolense in the establishment of superinfections in goats following transmission by ...
  https://cgspace.cgiar.org/handle/10568/29341
*  Derivation and characterisation of a quinapyramine-resistant clone of Trypanosoma Congolense.
Ndoutamia, G. 1996. Derivation and characterisation of a quinapyramine-resistant clone of Trypanosoma Congolense. PhD thesis. Brunel University ...
  https://dspacetest.cgiar.org/handle/10568/79490
*  Patterns of Trypanosoma vivax and T. Congolense infection differ in young N'Dama cattle and their dams
Trypanosome infection was detected by the dark ground/phase contrast buffy coat microscopic technique in N'Dama cattle in a high natural tsetse challenge situation in Zaire. The data were used to compare the pattern of infection in very young animals and in their dams, and to evaluate how the pattern evolved in calves from birth to maturity, and thereafter in the different age groups represented by their dams. Five hundred and fourteen calves were evaluated at 3 week intervals for an average of 26 months each, over varying periods between birth and 42 months of age. Two hundred and sixty nine dams had matching records from parturition to calf weaning at 10 months. One month after weaning, animals were equally infected with Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma congolense. From then until 42 months, the proportion of time an animal was infected with T.vivax relative to T. congolense gradually decreased. In the dams this trend continued from 4 ...
  https://dspacetest.cgiar.org/handle/10568/29880
*  Vector competence of Glossina austeni and Glossina brevipalpis for Trypanosoma congolense in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
Discussion. In the present study, only 1% of T. congolense infections were found in the midgut of G. brevipalpis. In contrast, the infection rate in the midgut and the proboscis of G. austeni was significantly higher, with 8% detected in both organs. The age structure of the two Glossina species had not been determined in the field-collected flies. It has been reported that older flies are more likely to be infected than younger flies (Harley 1966; Jordan 1976; Woolhouse et al. 1994). The factors affecting the trypanosome infection rate in flies and contributing to their being refractory to infection have been detailed and discussed by several authors (Jordan 1976; Roditi & Lehane 2008; Welburn & Maudlin 1999). Factors such as age may influence the readiness with which flies can be infected. According to Harley (1967), the longer the female of some fly species, such as G. brevipalpis, lives, the more likely she is to be infected with T. congolense. In contrast, species such ...
  http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0030-24652012000100004
*  Complement receptor 2 (CR2/CD21) in experimental African trypanosomiasis
African trypanosomes are protozoan blood parasites that infect both humans and livestock. BALB/c mice are highly susceptible to experimental infections by Trypanosoma congolense while C57BL/6 mice are relatively resistant, as measured by degree and pattern of parasitemia and survival time. Rapid death observed in highly susceptible BALB/c mice is due to a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). A small subset of pathogenic, MHC class II-restricted CD4+ T cells, activated during the course of T. congolense infections, mediates early mortality in infected highly susceptible BALB/c mice via excessive synthesis of the cytokine IFN-gamma. Since these pathogenic T cells are matrix-adherent, they could be distinguished from conventional Th1 cells. There is a possibility that this subpopulation of T cells has unique surface markers. The complement system is highly activated in African trypanosomiasis, leading to persistent hypocomplementemia. Amplification ...
  https://ecommons.usask.ca/handle/10388/etd-04232009-123902
*  subject:(Biochemistry) - OATD
African animal trypanosomiasis is a major threat to African agriculture causing a loss estimated to 4.5 billion US$ per annum. Trypanosoma congolense is the major causative agent in African animal trypanosomiasis and is transmitted by tsetse flies of the Glossina spp. Congopain, a major cathepsin L-like cysteine peptidase in T. congolense is associated with trypanotolerance in N'Dama cattle and is a target for an anti-disease vaccine. It is suggested that trypanotolerant cattle control the disease by antibody mediated neutralisation of congopain, and that immunisation of cattle against congopain can mimic trypanotolerance resulting in minimised disease pathology. Susceptible cattle immunised with recombinant catalytic domain of congopain, C2, produced high levels of anti-congopain IgG specific antibodies against congopain, maintained weight and exhibited less severe anaemia. However, there was no effect on the establishment of T. congolense ...
  https://oatd.org/oatd/search?q=subject%3A%28Biochemistry%29&pagesize=30&language.facet=en
*  Fertility of the small East African goat following pre-pubertal infection with Trypanosoma congolense.
22 female and 20 male goats were infected with T. congolense, then treated with isometamidium chloride 5 or 7 weeks after infection. The goats were aged about 15 months at the time of treatment. Progesterone or testosterone was measured 3 times a week until puberty or until 18 months of age, when they were killed for histological examination of genital and endocrine organs. In comparison with 20 uninfected goats, trypanosomiasis reduced body weight gain and delayed the onset of puberty. Pathological changes in the gonads were evidently prevented by early trypanocidal treatment ...
  http://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke:8080/xmlui/handle/11295/88322
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  http://www.alibaba.com/showroom/diminazene-aceturate.html
*  Trypanosoma congolense: Re-expression of a deleted metacyclic variable antigen type in vivo and in vitro - GOV.UK
The expression of variable antigen types (VATs) was determined among dividing populations of T. congolense growing in vivo in rabbit chancres and in vitro on bovine aorta endothelial cell monolayers. Experiments were performed in which a single metacyclic VAT (M-VAT) was deleted from a cultured metacyclic population by neutralisation with a monoclonal antibody and complement. Subsequent expression of the deleted M-VAT and two unrelated M-VATs was determined by an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. The deleted M-VAT was re-expressed both in vivo and in vitro and the proportions of unrelated M-VATs were not markedly affected by the neutralisation of this single M-VAT. In addition, an overall similarity was observed between M-VAT expression and re-expression in vivo and in vitro. ...
  https://www.gov.uk/dfid-research-outputs/trypanosoma-congolense-re-expression-of-a-deleted-metacyclic-variable-antigen-type-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
*  Bennison et al., 1998. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci., 58 (1-2): 1-12 | Feedipedia
Bennison, J. J. ; Sherington, J. ; Wacher, T. J. ; Dempfle, L. ; Leaver, J. D., 1998. Effects of Trypanosoma congolense infection and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) hay supplementation on ranging, activity, and diet selection of N'Dama cows. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci., 58 (1-2): 1-12 ...
  https://feedipedia.org/node/14174
*  Quantification of the relative importance of trypanotolerance measurements on productivity of N'Dama cattle (Addendum)
Matching information on animal health and performance aspects was collected from 255 N'dama post-weaners from September 1986 to December 1991. Records covered for each animal a two years period from weaning at 10 months of age until 34 months of age. Curative trypanocidal drug treatment was given when an animal appeared by a clinical examination to be badly affected by trypanosomiasis. Trypanosoma vivax and T. congolense infections had equal effects on number of trypanocidal drug treatments required, an average of 0.61 treatments being administered to each infected post-weaner. A reduction of one standard deviation in length of time infected reduced the number of treatments required by 0.23 or 36 percent and an increase of one standard deviation in PCV reduced the number required by 0.27 or 43 percent. Changes in parasitaemia score were not important. In the case of growth, a T. congolense infection reduced growth by 12.4 g per day or 8 percent more than a ...
  https://dspacetest.cgiar.org/handle/10568/29313
*  Detection and differentiation between trypanosome species in experimentally infected tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) using dot...
A modified NC membrane-based dot-ELISA was used to detect and differentiate between Trypanosoma brucei, T. congolense and T. simiae procyclics in the midguts of experimentally infected tsetse flies. The modification of the assay consisted of (a) the lysis of T. congolense or T. simiae in NC membrane applied sample dots using Triton X-114, and (b) treatment of sample applied NC membrane strips with hydrogen peroxide to remove non-specific stains. Also, T. brucei was detected in the salivary glands, and T. congolense and T. vivax were detected in the mouthparts, however, in dot-ELISA without modification. In all the assays, T. brucei and T. congolense parasites were detected directly using MoAbs specific to each of them, whereas T. simiae parasites were detected by exclusion using a T. congolense specific and Nannomonas subgenus-specific MoAbs. The sensitivity of the assay for detecting midgut infections was ...
  https://dspacetest.cgiar.org/handle/10568/27977
*  Trypanotolerance, an option for sustainable livestock production in areas at risk from trypanosomiasis
Trypanosomosis is one of the major constraints on animal production in areas of Africa which have the greatest potential for significant increases in domestic livestock populations and livestock productivity. While the eradication of trypanosomosis from the entire continent is an unrealistic goal, considerable effort has been invested in the control of this disease through the use of trypanocidal drugs, management of the vector and exploitation of the genetic resistance exhibited by indigenous breeds. There is little hope that a conventional, anti-infection vaccine will be produced in the near future. Drug resistance is developing faster than generally thought. The control of the tsetse fly has been attempted over many decades. The decreasing efficacy of available trypanocidal drugs and the difficulties of sustaining tsetse control increase the imperative need to enhance trypanotolerance through selective breeding, either within breeds or through cross-breeding. Trypanotolerance has been defined ...
  https://cgspace.cgiar.org/handle/10568/29592
*  Role of the monitor lizard varanus niloticus laurenti in the epidemiology of trypanosomiasis along the shores of lake victoria,...
Trypanosomiasis is one of the major factors that hinder development of rural economies in Africa. The diseases in Africa. The disease is endemic in some of the most potentially productive lands of tropical Africa where it severely constrains livestock production and human settlement. The lake Victoria shores in Kenya and Uganda have been endemic foci for human sleeping sickness since the early 1900's Glossina fuscipes has been responsible for these epidemics. Reptiles especially the monitor lizard are preferred food sources for G. Fuscipes. Studies were carried out to determine the role played by the monitor lizard, varanus niloticus in the natural transmission cycle of trypanosomiasis between tsetse flies, livestock and man. The objective was to determine the natural occurrence of trypanosomes in lizards. This survey was further supplemented by experimental infections of lizards with Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma congolense. A combination of diagnostic ...
  http://ir-library.ku.ac.ke/handle/123456789/3789
*  Baticados, Waren N. | Outstanding Young Scientists Inc.
In recognition of his significant contributions in the molecular research and detection of significant animal diseases caused by Protozoans and Rickettsia specifically trypanosomosis, babesiosis, neosporosis, and ehrlichiosis which have worldwide importance especially in the tropics including the Philippines, using molecular techniques and biotechnology which prompted rapid diagnosis for timely and proper intervention against the diseases cited. His (and co-workers) twin works on the Trypanosoma congolense L3000 and the T. brucei rhodesiense have contributed to a better understanding on how trypanosomes, major human pathogens, evade the host's immune responses. His recent studies on the livestock dilemmas in the country have established appropriate protocols on the quick diagnosis of infectious diseases through molecular detection, PCR, and recombinant DNA technology.. ...
  http://oysi.org.ph/member/waren-n-baticados/
*  Bovine stem cell factor: Production of a biologically active protein and mRNA analysis in cattle infected with Trypanosoma...
The cDNA coding for the soluble form of bovine stem cell factor (boSCF-Ala-105) was cloned and recombinant protein was produced in bacteria as a histidine tagged-protein. The protein was purified from the inclusion bodies in one step by metal chelation chromatography under denaturing conditions. Recombinant bovine SCF was shown to act synergistically with interleukin 3 (IL-3) and erythropoietin (EPO) in stimulating the growth of bone marrow progenitor cells such as colony forming units-granulocyte macrophage (CFU-GM) and burst forming units-erythroid (BFU-E). Analysis of SCF mRNA expression by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that the transcripts were detectable in bone marrow, lymph node and spleen of cattle, and that the level of transcription was upregulated in lymph nodes of cattle infected with Trypanosoma congolense. Two isoforms of SCF mRNA were amplified by RT-PCR. The availability of recombinant bovine SCF provides a valuable tool ...
  https://dspacetest.cgiar.org/handle/10568/29869
*  Differences in sensitivity of Kenyan Trypanosoma vivax populations to the prophylactic and therapeutic actions of isometamidium...
Differences in sensitivity of Kenyan Trypanosoma vivax populations to the prophylactic and therapeutic actions of isometamidium chloride in Boran ...
  https://cgspace.cgiar.org/handle/10568/29757
*  THE GARP GENE IN INSECT STAGES OF TRYPANOSOMA (NANNOMONAS) SPECIES | Biochemical Society Transactions
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  http://www.biochemsoctrans.org/content/28/5/A475.3