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*  Examining the role of Gbx1 in spinal cord development and its contribution to mammalian locomotion
Animals explore their environment through locomotion. Motion is largely generated by the activity of neurons in the spinal cord. Genes expressed during embryonic development are essential for the formation of connections between spinal cord neurons that are responsible for producing movement. The murine Gbx genes, Gbx1 and Gbx2, are transcription factors widely involved in central nervous system development. In the spinal cord, they are expressed in unique populations of developing spinal cord neurons. To examine the role of Gbx1 in the developing spinal cord, we generated mice carrying a loss-of-function allele for Gbx1 (Gbx1-/-). By postnatal day 15, Gbx1-/- mice begin to display a gross locomotive defect that specifically affects hindlimb walking gait. Molecular analysis of mutant embryos revealed premature termination of proprioceptive ...
  https://mospace.umsystem.edu/xmlui/handle/10355/49057
*  Evaluation of spinal cord pathology in 2D2 IgHMOG mice. | Open-i
Evaluation of spinal cord pathology in 2D2 IgHMOG mice. Mice were sacrificed in the acute phase of disease (|11 days post onset) and spinal cord pathology
  https://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4584934_fimmu-06-00470-g004&req=4
*  Brevet US7582680 - Methods and compositions for treating mammalian spinal cord injuries - Google Brevets
Methods of treating an injured vertebrate spinal cord are described. In one aspect of the invention, a method of treating an injured vertebrate spinal cord includes contacting the spinal cord with a biomembrane fusion agent such as a polyalkylene glycol, especially polyethylene glycol. In alternative embodiments of the invention, methods of treating an injured vertebrate spinal cord include contacting the cord with a biomembrane fusion agent and a potassium channel blocker. Other aspects of the invention include compositions for treating a vertebrate nervous system. A preferred composition includes a biomembrane fusion agent, such as a polyalkylene glycol, and a potassium channel blocker, such as an amino-substituted pyridine.
  http://www.google.fr/patents/US7582680
*  Diffusion Tensor Imaging of the Spinal Cord
Neurosurgery 74:1-8, 2014. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides a measure of the directional diffusion of water molecules in tissues. The measurement of DTI indexes within the spinal cord provides a quantitative assessment of neural damage in various spinal cord pathologies.. DTI studies in animal models of spinal cord injury indicate that DTI is a reliable imaging technique with important histological and functional correlates. These studies demonstrate that DTI is a noninvasive marker of microstructural change within the spinal cord.. In human studies, spinal cord DTI shows definite changes in subjects with acute and chronic spinal cord injury, as well as cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Interestingly, changes in DTI indexes are visualized in regions of the cord, which appear normal on ...
  http://www.neurosurgery-blog.com/archives/6844
*  Assessment of spinal cord pathology following trauma using early changesin the spinal cord evoked potentials: a pharmacological...
Assessment of spinal cord pathology following trauma using early changesin the spinal cord evoked potentials: a pharmacological and morphologicalstudy in the rat. ...
  http://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:91946
*  real-spinal-cord-anatomy | eDoctorOnline.com
spinal cord anatomy, spinal cord, spinal cord anatomy, cauda equina, image, anatomy of spinal cord, spinal nerves, cauda equina anatomy, human spinal cord anatomy, sacral spinal cord, spinal cord nerves, Spinal Nerve Anatomy, spinal cord anatomy, spinal cord segments, conus medullaris, Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves, spinal cord, real spinal cord, thoracic spinal cord, human spinal cord, ...
  http://www.edoctoronline.com/tag/real-spinal-cord-anatomy
*  Expression of D-type cyclins in differentiating cells of the mouse spinal cord
In contrast to cyclin D1 and D2, the expression level of cyclin D3 was high in the hindbrain at the E15.5 stage (Figure 3I, arrowhead). Moreover, in the midbrain cyclin D3 was expressed in cells closer to the ventricle than those expressing cyclin D2 (Figure 3H, I, arrows).. Discussion. At the E10.5 stage, all three D-type cyclins were expressed in most of the spinal cord cells but cyclin D1 and D3 showed higher expression levels in the dorsal half of the spinal cord. Wianny et al. (1998) found that the dorso-ventral gradient of the cyclin D1 transcript also occurs in the spinal cord of 7-9 somite-stage embryos. However, in our study we found that at the E10.5 stage cyclin D2 was not missing from the floor plate and also that cyclin D3 was not expressed only ventrally, as was reported for the transcripts of the genes in 7-9 somite stage embryos by Wianny et al. (1998). This may have been due to altered ...
  http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-47572007000400032&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en
*  Bcl11a is required for neuronal morphogenesis and sensory circuit formation in dorsal spinal cord development | Development
Bcl11a is expressed in both presynaptic sensory neurons and postsynaptic spinal target neurons (Fig. 1). We next asked whether Bcl11a is required for correct wiring, and if so, on which site. Central axons of sensory neurons were labeled at E16.5 with DiI. In the superficial dorsal horns of Brn4-Cre;Bcl11a mutants, the density of DiI-positive fibers was greatly reduced and the remaining fibers appeared disorganized. Only a few axons crossing the midline or located in a dorsolateral region of the dorsal horn were detectable by DiI labeling in mutants (Fig. 5A,B). TrkA (Ntrk1 - Mouse Genome Informatics) -positive nociceptive fibers preferentially terminate in the superficial dorsal horn. Immunohistological analysis with antibodies against TrkA or aquaporin 1, a water channel protein that is expressed by small-diameter nociceptive fibers (Oshio et al., 2006), invariably revealed almost complete loss of such fibers in the dorsal horn of Brn4-Cre;Bcl11a mutants (Fig. 5C-F). Similar results were ...
  http://dev.biologists.org/content/139/10/1831
*  Adenosine release from the spinal cord may mediate antinodideption by intracerebroventricular morphine | IslandScholar
Sweeney-Nixon, M. I., White, T., & Sawynok, J. (1989). Adenosine release from the spinal cord may mediate antinodideption by intracerebroventricular morphine. Society For Neuroscience Abstracts, 15, 371 ...
  http://www.islandscholar.ca/islandora/object/ir:ir-batch6-6213
*  Figure: To and From and Up and Down the Spinal Cord - Merck Manuals Consumer Version
Spinal nerves carry nerve impulses to and from the spinal cord through two nerve roots: Motor (anterior) root: Located toward the front, this root carries impulses from the spinal cord to muscles to stimulate muscle movement. Sensory (posterior) root: Located toward the back, this root carries sensory information about touch, position, pain, and temperature from the body to the spinal cord. In the center of the spinal cord, a butterfly-shaped area of gray matter helps relay impulses to and from spinal nerves. Its 'wings' are called horns. Motor (anterior) horns: These horns contain nerve cells that carry signals from the brain or spinal cord through the motor root to muscles. Posterior (sensory) horns: These horns contain nerve cells that receive signals about pain, temperature, and other sensory information ...
  http://www.merckmanuals.com/en-pr/home/multimedia/figure/neu_to_from_spinal_cord_b
*  Novel injury mechanism in anoxia and trauma of spinal cord white matter: glutamate release via reverse Na + -dependent...
Novel injury mechanism in anoxia and trauma of spinal cord white matter: glutamate release via reverse Na + -dependent glutamate transport: J.Neurosci.
  http://nparc.cisti-icist.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/view/object/?id=9189330a-ed45-41e9-aaf2-c1dad554fe90
*  NOS1APc associates with Hippo Signaling components and contributes to spinal cord development
The nitric oxide synthase 1 adaptor protein (NOS1AP) is an adaptor protein implicated in a number of human conditions including schizophrenia, anxiety and cardiac QT syndrome. Previous studies have shown that NOS1AP and some of its isoforms associate with the tumor suppressor protein scribble. Since scribble has been linked to the Hippo pathway, I set out to determine if NOS1AP associates with the Hippo pathway and whether it controls aspects of neuronal development. Here I show that NOS1AP and NOS1APc interact with the transcriptional co-activator yes-associated protein (YAP), a component of the Hippo cascade. Further both NOS1APa and NOS1APc show partial co-distribute with YAP in HEK293Tcells, with NOS1APc having better co-distribution. In situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry studies reveal that NOS1APc is expressed in the developing spinal cord. NOS1APc is expressed in the floor plate and roof plate and shows a similar profile to radial glial cells. In ovo ...
  http://dalspace.library.dal.ca/handle/10222/72944
*  Projects | Lev-Tov Laboratory of Spinal Cord Research | Department of Medical Neurobiology | The Hebrew University Medical...
Afferent input has been shown to play a major role in our capacity to reactivate spinal circuits that generate coordinated rhythmic flexion and extension of the limb muscles in spinal cord injury patients. Our studies revealed that stimulation of sacrocaudal afferents (SCA) is a potent means for activating the locomotor central pattern generators (CPGs) in rodents spinal cords that lack the descending control from the brain. These studies showed that capacity of SCA to induce the locomotor rhythm depends on activation of sacrocaudal neurons the crossed and uncrossed projections of which, ascend through the ventral and lateral white matter funiculi (VF,VLF, LF, and DLF) to the limb innervating segments of the cord. The project examines the axonal projections, spatial distribution, organization and physiological properties of these sacrocaudal neurons and evaluates their role in the generation of afferent ...
  http://spinalcord.huji.ac.il/index.asp?TopMenu=Projects
*  Spinal Cord Level of Injury
The spinal cord level of injury refers to the point where the spinal cord is injured and Marks a border between areas of the body that are affected and not affected by the spinal cord injury.
  http://www.upmc.com/services/rehab/rehab-institute/conditions/spinal-cord-injury/basics/pages/level-of-injury.aspx
*  Changing pattern of expression of parvalbumin immunoreactivity during human fetal spinal cord development - ePrints - Newcastle...
Full text for this publication is not currently held within this repository. Alternative links are provided below where available. ...
  http://eprint.ncl.ac.uk/pub_details2.aspx?pub_id=63762
*  Cocultures of rat sensorimotor cortex and spinal cord slices to investigate corticospinal tract sprouting
STUDY DESIGN: Experimental study of corticospinal axonal sprouting in an organotypic slice culture model. OBJECTIVE: To develop an in vitro model that simplifies the study of various factors regulating neuronal regeneration. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Spinal cord injury leads to permanent neurologic damage, mainly due to the inability of the adult central nervous system to regenerate. Much attention has been focused on promoting axonal regeneration and sprouting, either by exogenous administration of various neurotrophic factors or by the antagonization of factors inhibiting regeneration. METHODS: An in vitro system that allows coculture of slices from rat sensorimotor cortex and spinal cord (p4) was established. Two groups of cultures were investigated: In the first group, intact spinal cord slices were cultured adjacent to sensorimotor cortex slices, while in the second group the ...
  http://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:288031
*  Transcutaneous Lumbar Posterior Root Stimulation for Motor Control Studies and Modification of Motor Activity after Spinal Cord...
A method for transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation that can be used for noninvasive investigations of lumbar neural circuits' function in human subjects was recently developed. The same technique can be applied as a neuroaugmentative method for the control of spinal spasticity and the enhancement of the neural control of locomotion after spinal cord injury. This chapter describes this novel method for the stimulation of the lumbosacral spinal cord in humans. By elaborating the underlying biophysical principles, it identifies sensory fibers within the posterior roots as the directly stimulated neural structures. The electrophysiology of muscle responses to the electrical stimuli, referred to as "posterior root-muscle reflexes", is addressed, and their similarity to the soleus Hoffmann reflex is discussed. The potential of transcutaneous spinal cord ...
  http://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199746507.003.0010
*  Human Spinal Cord Derived Neural Stem Cell Transplantation for the Treatment of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis - Full Text View ...
These stem cells are called Human Spinal Stem Cells (HSSC) and have been engineered from the spinal cord of a single fetus electively aborted after 8 weeks of gestation. The tissue was obtained with the mother's consent. The cells will be transplanted into the ALS patient's spinal cord after laminectomy, an operation that removes bone surrounding the spine. After the spinal cord is exposed, a device manufactured for this purpose will be mounted onto the patient and will hold a syringe filled with the cells. The syringe will have a needle attached and the needle will enter the spinal cord in specified areas. The device will minimize trauma to the spinal cord by the needle by making the puncture precise and steady and injecting the material at a slow and steady speed.. ALS is a universally fatal neurodegenerative condition ...
  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT01348451
*  The current state-of-the-art of spinal cord imaging: Methods - Wellcome Centre for Integrative Neuroimaging
A first-ever spinal cord imaging meeting was sponsored by the International Spinal Research Trust and the Wings for Life Foundation with the aim of identifying the current state-of-the-art of spinal cord imaging, the current greatest challenges, and greatest needs for future development. This meeting was attended by a small group of invited experts spanning all aspects of spinal cord imaging from basic research to clinical practice. The greatest current challenges for spinal cord imaging were identified as arising from the imaging environment itself; difficult imaging environment created by the bone surrounding the spinal canal, physiological motion of the cord and adjacent tissues, and small cross-sectional dimensions of the spinal cord, exacerbated by metallic implants often present in ...
  https://www.win.ox.ac.uk/publications/443237
*  PPT - Spinal Cord Function After Injury PowerPoint Presentation - ID:6341268
Spinal Cord Function After Injury. spinal cord structure in relation to vertebrae types of lesions fibre tracts in spinal cord sensory loss motor loss reflexes and spinal shock neuropathic pain. Orientation of spinal cord and spinal roots with respect to vertebrae. Posterior. Slideshow 6341268 by oren-livingston
  https://www.slideserve.com/oren-livingston/spinal-cord-function-after-injury
*  Synapse Formation in the Zebrafish Spinal Cord
This dissertation describes research to elucidate the early steps in the process of synapse formation in the zebrafish spinal cord. One question is how presynaptic proteins are trafficked and recruited to nascent synapses. Previous work has suggested two possible models of presynaptic transport, either (1) most presynaptic proteins are transported together or (2) two types of transport packets, synaptic vesicle (SV) protein transport vesicles (STVs) and Piccolo-containing active zone precursor transport vesicles (PTVs), transport the necessary components separately. We tested these models using in vivo imaging in zebrafish spinal cord and found that the recruitment of at least three distinct transport packets during presynaptic assembly of a glutamatergic synapse occurs in an ordered sequence. First, STVs are stabilized at future synaptic sites, then PTVs, followed by a third transport packet type carrying Synapsin, a cytosolic protein that ...
  https://scholarsbank.uoregon.edu/xmlui/handle/1794/12028
*  Spinal Cord Axon Injury Location Determines Neuron's Regenerative Fate - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.com
Researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine report a previously unappreciated phenomenon in which the location of injury to a neuron's communication wire in the spinal cord - the axon - determines whether the neuron simply stabilizes or attempts to regenerate. The study, published April 30 by Neuron, demonstrates how advances in live-imaging techniques are revealing new insights into the body's ability to respond to spinal cord injuries.. While the body of a neuron is small, its axon can extend far up or down the spinal cord, which is about one and half feet long in humans. Along that distance, the axon branches out to make hundreds of connections with other cells, sending out signals that allow us to sense and respond to the world around us. Unless something happens to disrupt the axon's reach, that is. Adult human axons in the brain and spinal ...
  https://www.healthcanal.com/brain-nerves/63036-spinal-cord-axon-injury-location-determines-neurons-regenerative-fate.html
*  Spinal Cord Axon Injury Location Determines Neuron's Regenerative Fate
Researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine report a previously unappreciated phenomenon in which the location of injury to a neuron's communication wire in the spinal cord - the axon - determines whether the neuron simply stabilizes or attempts to regenerate. The study, published April 30 by Neuron, demonstrates how advances in live-imaging techniques are revealing new insights into the body's ability to respond to spinal cord injuries.. While the body of a neuron is small, its axon can extend far up or down the spinal cord, which is about one and half feet long in humans. Along that distance, the axon branches out to make hundreds of connections with other cells, sending out signals that allow us to sense and respond to the world around us. Unless something happens to disrupt the axon's reach, that is. Adult human axons in the brain and spinal ...
  http://ucsdnews.ucsd.edu/pressrelease/spinal_cord_axon_injury_location_determines_neurons_regenerative_fate
*  CellNEWS: Stem Cells Repair Damaged Spinal Cord Tissue
A joint study by Professor Jonas Frisén's research group at Karolinska Institute and their colleagues from France and Japan, and published in Cell Stem Cell, shows how stem cells and several other cell types contribute to the formation of new spinal cord cells in mice and how this changes dramatically after trauma. The research group has identified a type of stem cell, called an ependymal cell, in the spinal cord. They show that these cells are inactive in the healthy spinal cord, and that the cell formation that takes place does so mainly through the division of more mature cells. When the spinal cord is injured, however, these stem cells are activated to become the dominant source of new cells ...
  http://cellnews-blog.blogspot.se/2010/10/stem-cells-repair-damaged-spinal-cord.html
*  Animal organs. Nervous system. Spinal cord. Atlas of plant and animal histology
The axons of motoneurons, neurons that make synaptic contacts with muscle cells, and the axons of the neurons that send sensory information to the central nervous system, leave or enter the spinal cord, respectively, as bundles known as nerve roots. There are two types of nerve roots: ventral roots, which leave the spinal cord ventrally and carry motor information to muscle cells, and dorsal roots, which enter the spinal cord dorsally, and carry sensory information from most parts of the body. Furthermore, some axons from sympathetic preganglionar neurons (thoracic and lumbar levels: T1 to L3) or from parasympathetic neurons (sacral level: S2-S4), belonging to the autonomous nervous system, also travel through the ventral nerve roots. Both ventral and dorsal roots are distributed at more or less regular intervals along the spinal cord. They are sorted in couples, that is, ...
  http://mmegias.webs.uvigo.es/02-english/2-organos-a/guiada_o_a_01medula.php