*  Visualizing the neural bases of a disconnection syndrome with diffusion tensor imaging. - Semantic Scholar
Compared to controls, an abnormal pattern of brain activity was observed in the patient during word reading, with a lack of ... The functional anatomy of single-word reading in patients with hemianopic and pure alexia.. *A P Leff, H Crewes, G T Plant, S K ... The pathophysiology of letter-by-letter reading.. *Laurent Cohen, Carole Henry, +4 authors Sophie Ferrieux ... White matter pathways in reading.. *Michal Ben-Shachar, Robert F Dougherty, Brian A Wandell ...
*  Language Impairment From 4 to 12 Years: Prediction and Etiology - Semantic Scholar
Preschool speech, language skills, and reading at 7, 9, and 10 years: etiology of the relationship.. *Marianna E Hayiou-Thomas ... Language and reading outcomes to age 9 in late-talking toddlers.. *Leslie Rescorla ... Environmental and genetic influences on pre-reading skills in Australia, Scandinavia, and the United States. ...
*  Nrf2 pathway activation contributes to anti-fibrosis effects of ginsenoside Rg1 in a rat model of alcohol- and CCl4-induced...
Aim:To investigate the anti-fibrosis effects of ginsenoside Rg1 on alcohol- and CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats and to explore the mechanisms of the effects.Methods:Rats were given 6% alcohol in water and injected with CCl4 (2 mL/kg, sc) twice a week for 8 weeks. Rg1 (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg per day, po) was administered in the last 2 weeks. Hepatic fibrosis was determined by measuring serum biochemical parameters, HE staining, Masson's trichromic staining, and hydroxyproline and α-SMA immunohistochemical staining of liver tissues. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and Nrf2 signaling pathway-related proteins (Nrf2, Ho-1 and Nqo1) in liver tissues were analyzed. Cultured hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) of rats were prepared for in vitro studies.Results:In the alcohol- and CCl4-treated rats, Rg1 administration dose-dependently suppressed the marked increases of serum ALT, AST, LDH and ALP levels, inhibited liver inflammation and HSC activation and reduced liver fibrosis scores.
*  Feline sarcoma virus-specific transformation-related proteins and protein kinase activity in tumor cells. - Semantic Scholar
Polyproteins (gag-fes) encoded by the Synder-Theilen (ST) and the Gardner-Arnstein (GA) strains of feline sarcoma virus (FeSV) were previously shown to be associated with mink or rat cells that were nonproductively transformed in vitro. In the present study we demonstrated that the same gag-fes proteins were found in cat cells transformed in vitro. Of greater importance, these transformation-related proteins were also in cells taken from fresh biopsies of FeSV-induced tumors. Cells from fibrosarcomas induced with ST-FeSV had gag-fes proteins that were characteristic of this strain. Fibrosarcomas and melanomas were induced with GA-FeSV and both types of tumors contained the protein that is characteristic of cells transformed in vitro with this virus. Expression of these proteins in cultured tumor cells appeared to be independent of the passage level. Based on two-dimensional tryptic peptide analysis, the gag-fes proteins of cat tumor cells appeared to be indistinguishable from those found in cells
*  Comparison of the measurement of plasma testosterone and plasma oestrogens for the diagnosis of cryptorchidism in the horse. -...
The results of performing 1720 blood tests for equine cryptorchidism are described. Using the paired sample human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) stimulation test and measuring testosterone, 6.7 per cent of tests did not give a clear result. If only the testosterone concentration in the pre-hCG blood sample was used, this percentage rose to 14 per cent. The paired sample hCG stimulation test was 94.6 per cent accurate. A comparison was made between the paired hCG stimulation test and the measurement of conjugated oestrogen in a single sample. The latter did not give as many doubtfuls but gave false negatives in donkeys of all ages and in horses less than three years old. Measurement of conjugated oestrogen was found to be 96 per cent accurate when donkeys and young horses were excluded. It is, therefore, recommended as a simpler and more reliable test than the paired sample hCG test, but only in the older horse.
*  Efficacy of quetiapine for the treatment of schizophrenia: a combined analysis of three placebo-controlled trials. - Semantic...
OBJECTIVE To determine the effectiveness of quetiapine (Seroquel) against specific aspects of schizophrenic symptomatology. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Combined data from three placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomised trials that had previously demonstrated quetiapine's overall clinical effectiveness and tolerability were analysed. Efficacy assessments evaluated were the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) Severity of Illness score, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) factors I-V, BPRS positive symptom cluster score and 18 individual BPRS items. The Simpson-Angus Scale (SAS), the Abnormal Involuntary Movements Scale (AIMS), changes in weight and prolactin concentrations and the recording of adverse events comprised the main tolerability measures. RESULTS Efficacy assessments were available for a total of 426 quetiapine patients (mean age 36.9 years) with a DSM-IIIR diagnosis of schizophrenia; 502 patients were included in the tolerability analyses. The mean quetiapine dose was 300.5 mg/day with a
*  Pilot-scale field study for ammonia removal from lagoon biogas using an acid wet scrubber. - Semantic Scholar
The anaerobic activities in swine slurry storage and treatment generate biogas containing gaseous ammonia component which is a chemical agent that can cause adverse environmental impacts when released to the atmosphere. The aim of this pilot plant study was to remove ammonia from biogas generated in a covered lagoon, using a sulfuric acid wet scrubber. The data showed that, on average, the biogas contained 43.7 ppm of ammonia and its concentration was found to be exponentially related to the air temperature inside the lagoon. When the air temperature rose to 35°C and the biogas ammonia concentration reached 90 ppm, the mass transfer of ammonia/ammonium from the deeper liquid body to the interface between the air and liquid became a limiting factor. The biogas velocity was critical in affecting ammonia removal efficiency of the wet scrubber. A biogas flow velocity of 8 to 12 mm s(-1) was recommended to achieve a removal efficiency of greater than 60%. Stepwise regression revealed that the biogas
*  Identification ofAnomala schonfeldti sex pheromone by high-resolution gc-behavior bioassay - Semantic Scholar
Biochemistry 27, 1025 (1988) 4. Nunn, P. B., Davis, A. J., O'Brien, P.: Science 251, 1619 (1991); Olney, J. W., Zorumski, C., Price, M. T., Labruyere, J. : ibid. 248, 596 (1990); 251, 1619 (1991) 5. Nunn, P. B., O'Brien, P.: FEBS Lett. 251, 31 (1989) 6. Miller, A. L. : Int. Rev. Neurobiol. 22, 47 (1981); Nutt, D. J.: Pharmacol. Ther. 47, 233 (1990); Meduna, L. J.: Carbon Dioxide Therapy. Oxford: Blackwell 1958 7. Lappert, M. F., Prokai, B.' Adv. Organomet. Chem. 5, 225 (1967) 8. Armitage, D. A., in: The Silicon-Heteroatom Bond, p. 367 (S. Patai, ed.). Chichester: Wiley 1991 9. Bakke, J. M., Figenschou, E.: Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A: Comp. Physiol. 97, 427 (1990)
*  Rapid automatic identification and quantification of compounds in complex matrices using comprehensive two-dimensional gas...
Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC×GC-MS) is a powerful tool for comprehensive analysis of organic pollutants. In this study, we developed a powerful analytical method using GC×GC for rapid and accurate identification and quantification of compounds in environmental samples with complex matrices. Specifically, we have developed an automatic peak sentinel tool, T-SEN, with free programming software, R. The tool, which consists of a simple algorithm for on peak finding and peak shape identification, allows rapid screening of target compounds, even for large data sets from GC×GC coupled to high resolution time of flight mass spectrometry (HRTOFMS). The software tool automatically assigns and quantifies compounds that are listed in user databases. T-SEN works on a typical 64 bit workstation, and the reference calculation speed is 10-20 min for approximately 170 compounds for peak finding (five ion count setting) and integration from 1-2GB of sample data
*  Nonfunctional paraganglioma of the larynx: clinical and pathological considerations. - Semantic Scholar
Paraganglioma of the larynx is a rare neoplasm. A review of the 16 previously reported cases in English medical literature is presented along with the details of an additional case. The tumor was analyzed by light and electron microscopy. The anatomy and embryology of the laryngeal paraganglia and controversies in nomenclature are discussed. Hoarseness, pain, dysphagia, and neck mass are the cardinal symptoms of this neoplasm; other clinical characteristics are reviewed. Partial laryngectomy and excision via lateral pharyngotomy and extralaryngeal approaches are the most commonly employed methods of treatment. More aggressive therapy including radical neck dissection, total laryngectomy, and radiation therapy have been used for malignancies.
*  Left ventricular wall stress and thickness from 3D echocardiography in hypertensive patients - Semantic Scholar
The authors applied a previously described method for 3D LV reconstruction from a limited number of long-axis 2D echocardiographic images to obtain epicardial and endocardial surfaces. By intersecting a regularly-spaced set of lines perpendicular to the center-surface with the endocardial and epicardial surfaces, LV local thickness was measured. Accuracy was improved by considering cubic spline patches rather than planar ones. LV volumes, mass and Janz's stress index were computed. The goal of this work was to quantitatively evaluate the degree of LV hypertrophy, its spatial distribution in 21 patients with hypertension and to compare them to the standard M-mode mass values. Results indicate a good correlation between conventional echocardiographic and 3D estimated mass. Different patterns in the spatial distribution of myocardial hypertrophy were responsible for a scattering of data.
*  Morphine glucuronidation in premature neonates. - Semantic Scholar
The glucuronidation of morphine was investigated in 10 premature neonates (postnatal age | 24 h at initiation of treatment) following 24 h of therapy (2 h loading infusion, followed by a constant rate infusion). Morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) were measured in plasma obtained at 24 h in all babies. Plasma concentrations of M3G and M6G correlated significantly with morphine concentration (P | 0.01 in both cases), and with each other (P | 0.001), suggesting that the capacity for morphine glucuronidation in premature neonates is not saturated at the infusion rates used in this study. M3G/morphine and M6G/morphine plasma concentration ratios were independent of morphine infusion rates (P | 0.05) and morphine plasma concentrations (P | 0.05), providing further evidence of linear kinetics. However, M3G/morphine and M6G/morphine plasma concentration ratios increased significantly with increasing birth weight (P | 0.05 in both cases). This probably reflects increase in
*  New Hippocampal Neurons Mature Rapidly in Response to Ketamine But Are Not Required for Its Acute Antidepressant Effects on...
Virtually all antidepressant agents increase the birth of granule neurons in the adult dentate gyrus in rodents, providing a key basis for the neurogenesis hypothesis of antidepressant action. The novel antidepressant ketamine, however, shows antidepressant activity in humans within hours, far too rapid for a mechanism involving neuronal birth. Ketamine could potentially act more rapidly by enhancing maturation of new neurons born weeks earlier. To test this possibility, we assessed the effects of S-ketamine (S-(+)-ketamine hydrochloride) injection on maturation, as well as birth and survival, of new dentate gyrus granule neurons in rats, using the immediate-early gene zif268, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and BrdU, respectively. We show that S-ketamine has rapid effects on new neurons, increasing the proportion of functionally mature young granule neurons within 2 h. A single injection of S-ketamine also increased cell proliferation and functional maturation, and decreased depressive-like
*  Feedback control of the genetic networks with time delay - Semantic Scholar
In this paper, the modeling and oscillation of the genetic network are studied. The circadian rhythm model consists of three Michaelis-Menten equations. With singular perturbation theory, the system can be transferred to a two-dimension one, and the period oscillation is caused by the positive and negative feedback loops in the biochemical networks. The effects of time delay on the system stability are also analyzed. The simulations are presented to show our theoretical results.
*  Traditional multiplicity adjustment methods in clinical trials. - Semantic Scholar
This tutorial discusses important statistical problems arising in clinical trials with multiple clinical objectives based on different clinical variables, evaluation of several doses or regiments of a new treatment, analysis of multiple patient subgroups, etc. Simultaneous assessment of several objectives in a single trial gives rise to multiplicity. If unaddressed, problems of multiplicity can undermine integrity of statistical inferences. The tutorial reviews key concepts in multiple hypothesis testing and introduces main classes of methods for addressing multiplicity in a clinical trial setting. General guidelines for the development of relevant and efficient multiple testing procedures are presented on the basis of application-specific clinical and statistical information. Case studies with common multiplicity problems are used to motivate and illustrate the statistical methods presented in the tutorial, and software implementation of the multiplicity adjustment methods is discussed.
*  Effects of ovarian puncture for in vitro maturation on subsequent in vitro fertilization cycle in women with polycystic ovaries...
We conducted a case-control study and compared the results of IVF treatment in two groups of women with polycystic ovaries. The first group consisted of 42 women who were previously treated unsuccessfully with in vitro maturation (IVM), and the second group, 48 others with no previous IVM (control group). We included the first IVF cycle only. Our preliminary result shows that previous ovarian puncture for IVM is associated with improved number of mature oocytes retrieved and total number of embryos produced. However, it is not associated with a better pregnancy rate. A larger study is needed.
*  Repair of the distal biceps tendon using suture anchors and an anterior approach. - Semantic Scholar
The authors describe a technique for repair of the biceps tendon rupture from the radial tuberosity. A single anterior incision, limited volar dissection, and implantable bone anchors were used. With this technique, the authors have repaired the distal biceps tendon in 5 men (mean age, 39 years). Four patients were laborers and 1 was an athlete. Mechanism of injury was a single traumatic event with an unanticipated large load being applied to the flexed arm. Four patients were treated acutely and 1 was treated 6 months after injury. All patients returned to preinjury activity levels by 5 months after repair of the tendon. Clinically, all repairs remained intact (mean followup, 2.5 years). Range of motion was symmetric. No evidence of associated nerve injuries, heterotopic bone formation, or olecranon tenderness occurred. Subjective, as well as objective, results were excellent in those 5 patients whose distal biceps tendon was repaired by the single volar incision and implantable anchors.
*  Sporadic Desmoid Tumor of the Small Bowel Mesentery in a Male Patient : A Case Report and Literature Review - Semantic Scholar
Aggressive fibromatosis arising from the small bowel mesentery is extremely rare. It may occur in association with previous trauma, abdominal surgery, drugs, Gardner's syndrome, or familial adenomatous polyposis. This paper presents a 32-year-old man with no significant medical or surgical history, complaining of diffuse abdominal pain and discomfort. His computed tomography scan revealed a well-defined soft tissue mass in the peritoneal cavity. He underwent surgical excision of the mass with resection and anastomosis of the involved loop of the small intestine. Histological examination confirmed mesenteric fibromatosis without infiltration of the bowel. The patient remained well during the 8 months follow-up.