*  Rapid 3D-imaging of phosphocreatine recovery kinetics in the human lower leg muscles with compressed sensing.
The rate of phosphocreatine (PCr) resynthesis following physical exercise is an accepted index of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and has been studied extensively with unlocalized (31)P-MRS methods and small surface coils. Imaging experiments usin
  http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Rapid-3D-imaging-phosphocreatine-recovery/23023624.html
*  Phosphocreatine in the treatment of patients with myocardial infarct: effects on hemodynamics and oxygen supply]. - Semantic...
Changes in the major parameters of central and intracardiac hemodynamics and body's oxygen supply were examined in 93 patients with massive myocardial infarction in the in-hospital period of the disease. Traditional therapy was given to 71 patients; in addition, phosphocreatine infusions (a course dose being 30 g) were used in 22 patients in acute myocardial infarction. Phosphocreatine therapy failed to substantially affect cardiac pump function, but prevented left ventricular dilation and development of congestive heart failure. The patients receiving phosphocreatine showed an increase in body's oxygen consumption due to its elevated tissue extraction. No adverse effects of phosphocreatine were found.
  https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Phosphocreatine-in-the-treatment-of-patients-with-Perepech-Saks/49efb6a05aa5783733965732f66991867c02695d
*  Human cardiac 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 7 Tesla. - Radcliffe Department of Medicine
PURPOSE: Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS) affords unique insight into cardiac energetics but has a low intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in humans. Theory predicts an increased (31)P-MRS SNR at 7T, offering exciting possibilities to better investigate cardiac metabolism. We therefore compare the performance of human cardiac (31)P-MRS at 7T to 3T, and measure T1s for (31)P metabolites at 7T. METHODS: Matched (31)P-MRS data were acquired at 3T and 7T, on nine normal volunteers. A novel Look-Locker CSI acquisition and fitting approach was used to measure T1s on six normal volunteers. RESULTS: T1s in the heart at 7T were: phosphocreatine (PCr) 3.05 ± 0.41s, γ-ATP 1.82 ± 0.09s, α-ATP 1.39 ± 0.09s, β-ATP 1.02 ± 0.17s and 2,3-DPG (2,3-diphosphoglycerate) 3.05 ± 0.41s (N = 6). In the field comparison (N = 9), PCr SNR increased 2.8× at 7T relative to 3T, the Cramer-Ráo uncertainty (CRLB) in PCr concentration decreased 2.4×, the mean CRLB in PCr/ATP decreased 2.7× and the ...
  https://www.rdm.ox.ac.uk/publications/420913
*  Effects of weight loss on myocardial energetics and diastolic function in obesity - Radcliffe Department of Medicine
A reduced myocardial phosphocreatine/adenosine triphosphate (PCr/ATP) ratio is linked to both diastolic dysfunction and heart failure. Although obesity is well known to cause diastolic dysfunction a link to impaired cardiac energetics has only recently been established. We assessed whether or not long-term weight loss in obesity, which is known to reduce mortality, is accompanied by both improved cardiac energetics and diastolic function. Normal weight (BMI 22 ± 2; n = 18) and obese subjects (BMI 34 ± 4; n = 13) underwent cine-MRI (1.5 Tesla) to determine left ventricular diastolic function using volume-time curve analysis, and 31P-MR spectroscopy (3 Tesla) to assess cardiac energetics (PCr/ATP ratio). Obese subjects (n = 13) underwent repeat assessment after 1 year of supervised weight loss. Obesity, in the absence of identifiable cardiovascular risk factors, was associated with significantly impaired myocardial high energy phosphate metabolism (PCr/ATP ratio, normal; 2.03 ± 0.27 vs. obese; ...
  https://www.rdm.ox.ac.uk/publications/449150
*  A 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and biochemical study of the mo(vbr) mouse: potential model for the mitochondrial...
31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) provides new biochemical information on mitochondrial disorders affecting brain and muscle. To elucidate the mechanisms of mitochondrial abnormalities, however, animal models are needed. We assessed the mo(vbr) (mottled viable brindled) mouse for its value in studying (1) energetics of a mitochondrial disorder and (2) 31P-MRS changes associated with mitochondrial abnormalities in vivo. The maximal activity of succinate-cytochrome c reductase was significantly reduced in mo(vbr) muscle compared to controls, whereas cytochrome oxidase activity was only reduced in mo(vbr) brain. 31P-MRS of mo(vbr) brain showed an increased pH, but no changes in any metabolite ratios. The phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery rate after exercise was reduced in muscles from mo(vbr) mice, indicating impairment of oxidative metabolism. We conclude that mo(vbr) brain and muscle tissue have biochemical abnormalities consistent with mitochondrial impairment. The PCr recovery ...
  https://oacentre.kennedy.ox.ac.uk/publications/376234
*  Evaluation of high-energy phosphate metabolism during cardioplegic arrest and reperfusion: a phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic...
Hypothermic potassium cardioplegia is now commonly used to protect the myocardium during surgically induced ischemia. Because the potassium-related membrane depolarization has been shown to increase calcium influx, we undertook this study to define the effects of varying the calcium content in hyperkalemic perfusates and the effects of using magnesium instead of or in addition to potassium as the arresting agent on the ability of hearts to recover normal function after ischemic arrest. We subjected isolated perfused working rat hearts to 60 minutes of cardioplegic arrest followed by 30 minutes of reperfusion, and measured high-energy phosphate levels every 2 1/2 minutes by phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. These data were correlated with postischemic recovery of function. Our results show that potassium cardioplegia may be harmful when the calcium concentration is greater than 1 mM. The kalemic injury is significantly reduced when the calcium content is lowered to 0.25 mM ...
  http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/67/6/1296
*  Phosphocreatine dictionary definition | phosphocreatine defined
phosphocreatine definition: a compound, CHNOP, in vertebrate muscle, derived from creatine and used as a backup energy source because it reacts with ADP to replenish the ATP and creatine used in muscle contractionOrigin of phosphocreatine phospho- + creatine...
  http://www.yourdictionary.com/phosphocreatine
*  Sportscience Creatine Review
Introduction Creatine is an amino acid, like the building blocks that make up proteins. Creatine in the form of phosphocreatine (creatine phosphate) is an important store of energy in muscle cells. During intense exercise lasting around half a minute, phosphocreatine is broken down to creatine and phosphate, and the energy released is used to regenerate the primary source of energy, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Output power drops as phosphocreatine becomes depleted, because ATP cannot be regenerated fast enough to meet the demand of the exercise. It follows that a bigger store of phosphocreatine in muscle should reduce fatigue during sprinting. Extra creatine in the muscle may also increase the rate of regeneration of phosphocreatine following sprints, which should mean less fatigue with repeated bursts of activity in training or in many sport competitions.. So much for the theory, but can you get a bigger store of creatine ...
  http://www.sportsci.org/traintech/creatine/rbk.html
*  "Relationship of selenium to high energy phosphate compounds in muscle " by A J. Barak, T B. Allison et al.
Barak, A J.; Allison, T B.; and Sorrell, M F., "Relationship of selenium to high energy phosphate compounds in muscle of dystrophic mice." (1974). Subject Strain Bibliography 1974. 2353 ...
  https://mouseion.jax.org/ssbb1974/2353/
*  31P-n.m.r. studies on cerebral energy metabolism under conditions of hypoglycaemia and hypoxia in vitro | Biochemical Journal
A system has been developed for performing 31P-n.m.r. studies on cerebral tissues superfused in vitro, and gives results comparable with those reported from studies in vivo. Under optimal superfusion conditions [10 mM-glucose and O2/CO2 (19:1)] the tissue concentrations of phosphocreatine and ATP were calculated to be approx. 3.1 and 1.3 mumol/g respectively. When the glucose of the superfusing medium was lowered to 0.5 mM, slightly decreased sugar phosphate peaks were observed, but there was no detectable change in [ATP] or [phosphocreatine]. At 0.2 mM-glucose, significantly decreased concentrations of phosphocreatine and ATP were observed. Substitution of pyruvate plus malate for glucose did not decrease levels of phosphocreatine and ATP. When the superfusing medium was gassed with air/CO2 (19:1; 'mild hypoxia'), there was an appreciable fall in sugar phosphates and phosphocreatine with no detectable effect on ATP. In the ...
  http://www.biochemj.org/content/212/2/365
*  Phosphagen
The phosphagens are energy storage compounds, also known as high-energy phosphate compounds, are chiefly found in muscular tissue in animals. They allow a high-energy phosphate pool to be maintained in a concentration range, which, if it all were ATP, would create problems due to the ATP consuming reactions in these tissues. As muscle tissues can have sudden demands for lots of energy; these compounds can maintain a reserve of high-energy phosphates that can be used as needed, to provide the energy that could not be immediately supplied by glycolysis or oxidative phosphorylation.. The actual biomolecule used as a phosphagen is dependent on the organism. The majority of animals use arginine/phosphoarginine as phosphagens; however, the phylum Chordata (i.e., animals with spinal cords) use creatine. Creatine phosphate, or phosphocreatine, is made from ATP by the enzyme creatine kinase in a reversible reaction:. ...
  https://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Phosphagen.html
*  Abnormal Phosphocreatine Levels in Cardiac Hypertrophy in the Rat after Myocardial Infarction | Clinical Science
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Clinical Science.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
  http://www.clinsci.org/content/79/s23/24P.4
*  Sprinting...
Creatine phosphate. You're not going to run out of phosphocreatine stores unless you die. But because death resides at phosphocreatine depletion, when levels dip far enough your body slows down its use. The creatine phosphate system is your fastest way to produce ATP. When you stop using it as a major energy contributor, you lose out on a substantial source of energy fueling the demands of your muscle. When demands aren't met, the amount of recruit-able muscle declines. It's kind of like lactic acid build up in that you end up not being able to use as much muscle. Plus it happens around the same time, contributing to your slower finishing pace in the 100. This is why you see athletes with better lactic acid tolerance and greater phosphocreatine stores gain the most ground during the final third of sprint competitions. And the way to improve your phosphocreatine stores is to train with pure anaerobic metabolism, pretty much exactly as you ...
  http://www.angelfire.com/ms2/bigjensen/Efitness/tracksprinting.html
*  Creatine Phosphate Disodium Salt 922-32-7 Sodium Phosphocreatine Glycin - Wuhan Yuancheng Gongchuang Technology Co,.Ltd -...
CAS Number:922-32-7 Name:Glycine,N-[imino(phosphonoamino)methyl]-N-methyl-, sodium salt (1:2) Formula:C4H8N3Na2O5P Molecular Weight:255.08 Synonyms:Glycine,N-[imino(phosphonoamino)methyl]-N-methyl-, disodium salt...
  https://www.ecplaza.net/products/creatine-phosphate-disodium-salt-922-32_4112011
*  Plus it
Compared with healthy controls, blood lactate concentration starts to rise at lower absolute work rates in COPD patients (12, 58, 88). This phenomenon is accounted for by the lactate produced in the legs, but not by that produced in the respiratory muscles (19), and is regarded as a consequence of a low-energy status in the skeletal muscle fibers of the lower limbs of these patients (12, 58, 88). In vivo assessments of the energy status of skeletal muscle fiber of the limbs can be obtained by the measurement of the phosphocreatine-to-inorganic phosphate ratio (PCr/Pi), which is closely related to the ratio of ATP to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (65), using 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS). Soon after initiating exercise at the same absolute work rate, the intracellular PCr/Pi and pH of the calf and thigh decrease to lower levels in COPD patients than in age-matched controls (35, 99, 112). Low-energy status, however, does not necessarily imply intrinsic impairment of oxidative ...
  http://jap.physiology.org/content/114/9/1282
*  Exercise sub-cluster 0
The development of 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has enabled direct and non-invasive measurements of muscle metabolism. Serial measurements of the phosphocreatine/inorganic phosphate (PCr/Pi) ratio, which is closely related to the adenosine triphosphate/adenosine diphosphate (ATP/ADP) ratio and pH during and after forearm exercise were performed in 11 patients with chronic lung ...
  http://www.biomedsearch.com/cluster/75/Exercise/sub-0-p10.html
*  TGD diary: Why metabolism and what happens in bio-catalysis?
Phase transition reducing the value of heff/h=n as a basic step in bio-catalysis Hydrogen atom allows also large heff/h=n variants with n,6 with the scale of energy spectrum behaving as (6/n)2 if the n=4 holds true for visible matter. The reduction of n as the flux tube contracts would reduce n and liberate binding energy, which could be used to promote the catalysis. The notion of high energy phosphate bond is somewhat mysterious concept. There are claims that there is no such bond. I have spent considerable amount of time to ponder this problem. Could phosphate contain (dark) hydrogen atom able to go to the a state with a smaller value of heff/h and liberate the excess binding energy? Could the phosphorylation of acceptor molecule transfer this dark atom associated with the phosphate of ATP to the acceptor molecule? Could the mysterious high energy phosphate bond correspond to the dark atom state. Metabolic energy would be needed to transform ADP to ATP and would generate dark atom. Could ...
  http://matpitka.blogspot.fi/2017/02/why-metabolism-and-what-happens-in-bio.html
*  Plus it
LVDD is common in diabetes and is associated with increased mortality (14). However, few studies have investigated potential therapies. In type 2 diabetic subjects with LVDD, 6 months' treatment with candesartan improved one index of diastolic filling (E/A), but not another (DT) (15). In hypertensive patients with LVDD, 12% of whom had diabetes, BP reduction over 38 weeks improved myocardial relaxation (E′) irrespective of the agent used, but the independent effect of diabetes was not assessed (16). No trials have previously examined fenofibrate's effect on cardiac failure or LVDD. Small trials in heart failure patients collectively suggest a modest benefit of CoQ on systolic function (10), but no studies have investigated its effect on LVDD.. In type 2 diabetes, LVDD is associated with abnormal high-energy phosphate metabolism (17), and we anticipated that fenofibrate and CoQ would improve LVDD in type 2 diabetes by reducing lipotoxicity and oxidative stress and improving endothelial function ...
  http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/31/8/1502
*  IB2006054515 PHOSPHOCREATINE COMPLEXES
This patent search tool allows you not only to search the PCT database of about 2 million International Applications but also the worldwide patent collections. This search facility features: flexible search syntax; automatic word stemming and relevance ranking; as well as graphical results.
  https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/de/detail.jsf?docId=WO2007063509&recNum=1&maxRec=&office=&prevFilter=&sortOption=&queryString=&tab=PCT+Biblio
*  Top latest Five Creatine Urban news
In skeletal muscle, PCr concentrations may well attain twenty-35 mM or maybe more. Furthermore, for most muscles, the ATP regeneration capacity of CK is rather high and is also therefore not a limiting issue. Even though the cellular concentrations of ATP are tiny, modifications are tough to detect because ATP is consistently and effectively replenished from the big swimming pools of PCr and CK.[13] Creatine has the opportunity to increase muscle retailers of PCr, likely growing the muscle's capability to resynthesize ATP from ADP to satisfy amplified Power needs.[fourteen][fifteen][sixteen ...
  http://martinkptwy.designertoblog.com/3029228/top-latest-five-creatine-urban-news
*  What Happens During a Chemical Change? | Reference.com
Alterations to the electron-based ionic or covalent bonds between ions or atoms happen during a chemical change. Such changes result in one or more new substances with different physical and chemical...
  https://www.reference.com/science/happens-during-chemical-change-948c4ecbdbcffae7
*  Is cooking a physical or chemical change? | Reference.com
Cooking can be both a physical and chemical change. For example, mashing up potatoes is a physical change, but baking a cake is a chemical...
  https://www.reference.com/science/cooking-physical-chemical-change-c19971d5e903f12c
*  Essay about Observations of Chemical Changes - 2987 Words
Experiment 1: Observations of Chemical Changes Purpose: To observe the macroscopic changes that occur in chemical reactions and attempt to interpret the
  http://www.studymode.com/essays/Observations-Of-Chemical-Changes-594112.html
*  Losarhyd LD TCK - Drugs.com
Losarhyd LD TCK is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Losarhyd LD TCK is available on the Drugs.com website.
  https://www.drugs.com/international/losarhyd-ld-tck.html
*  What are enzymes? - Chantilly Health
Enzymes are complex organic substances produced in living cells and capable of causing certain chemical changes in other biological materials by acting as catal
  https://chantillyhealth.com/pages/what-are-enzymes