*  View source for Oogonium - Biology-Online Dictionary
Definition''' ''noun, plural: oogonia'' (''zoology'') The [[diploid]] female [[gametogonium]] that gives rise to [[primary oocyte]] through [[oocytogenesis]]. (''botany'') The female [[reproductive structure]] in [[thallophyte]]s (e.g. [[algae]]) that appear as rounded [[cell]]s or [[sac]]s containing one or more [[oosphere]]s. '''Supplement''' In [[animal]]s and [[human]]s, the oogonia are actually [[primordial germ cell]]s that have migrated from the[[ yolk sac]] to the [[genital ridge]] during the early embryonic stage. When the oogonia start [[meiosis]] they are now referred to as [[primary oocyte]]s. ''See also:'' [[secondary oocyte ...
  http://www.biology-online.org/bodict/index.php?title=Oogonium&action=edit
*  Ovarian adult stem cells: hope or pitfall? | Journal of Ovarian Research | Full Text
Primordial germline stem cells (PGSs) are of extraovarian origin, migrated in the ovaries during embryonic development. In humans, PGSs originate in the posterior epiblast cells, under the signaling influences of BMP-family morphogens [15]. By weeks 4-5, PGSs are traceable in the extraembryonic mesoderm of the wall of the yolk sac from where they will migrate and populate the urogenital ridge and further differentiate into oogonia. Through mitotic divisions, the number of oogonia increases until the fifth month of intrauterine life, when the first meiotic division is triggered and the oogonia become oocytes.. The differentiating potential of PGS in vitro is well characterized so far and involves several directions: i) differentiation in mature gametocytes; ii) undifferentiation into embryonic stem cells [16]; iii) transdifferentiation into hematopoietic progenitor cells [17].. In the last few years, some authors reported PGSs originating in the OSE of fetal ...
  https://ovarianresearch.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1757-2215-7-71
*  Oogenisis - Revision Cards in University Biology
In developing ovaries primordial germ cells produce OOGENIA until weeks 20 to 24 of pregnancy by miotic divisions. In weeks 8-9 oogonia enter PROPHASE. 6 months after birth all oocytes will have matured from oogonia.. oocytes remain in a state of suspended prophase and mitosis does not occur until ovulation.. ...
  https://getrevising.co.uk/revision-cards/oogenisis
*  Proses pembentukan ovum | Four Season News
Proses pembentukan ovum disebut oogenesis. Perhatikan Gambar 2. Proses ini terjadi di dalam ovarium. Sejak masa embrio hingga dewasa, oogonia (sel induk telur) di dalam ovarium mengalami perkembangan. Oogonium pada masa embrio ini memperbanyak diri secara mitosis membentuk oosit primer ...
  http://fourseasonnews.blogspot.com/2014/01/proses-pembentukan-ovum.html
*  Sex differentiation in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.): morphological and gene expression studies | Reproductive Biology and...
In Atlantic cod, the undifferentiated gonad is positioned ventral of the swim bladder in the caudal part of the body cavity, has very few germ cells and was observed in juveniles ranging from 14 to 18 mm TL. The first morphological sign of ovarian differentiation was observed in individuals of 18 to 20 mm TL, when an empty space formed in the stroma of the ovaries, known as the ovarian cavity. In the majority of gonochoristic teleosts examined, the appearance of an ovarian cavity is the earliest morphological sign of ovary formation [9].. In the size range of 14-20 mm TL, two subgroups were found that differed in germ cell number and gonad size, indicating ongoing morphological sex differentiation during this period. A common early distinction between ovary and testis is based on the number of germ cells present in the early gonad, since oogonia generally show earlier elevated mitotic activity and enter earlier into meiosis than spermatogonia [46]. The somatic part of the gonads appeared to ...
  https://rbej.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1477-7827-10-47
*  Isolation, Identification, Culture, Cryopreservation, Genetic Transformation and Transplantation of Catfish Germline Stem Cells
The hybrid of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) ♀ × blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) ♂ (C × B) is the best catfish for pond culture. The current technology, artificial fertilization and handstripping is labor intensive, time consuming, and requires sacrifice of mature 5 ~ 6 year old blue catfish males. Xenogenic catfish produced by transplanting blue catfish stem cell into the gonads of triploid channel catfish could reduce the generation interval to produce blue catfish and might result in channel catfish males that are able to produce blue catfish sperm, and increase the efficiency of C × B hybrid catfish embryo production. Gonadal cell size and type of 90 ~ 100 day - old fry (TL: 5 ~ 6 cm), two - year old juvenile (TL: 25 ~ 30cm) and mature adults (TL: 65 ~ 70 cm) blue catfish was examined. Gonads of all ages of fish contained oogonia (12 ~ 15 μm diameter, distinct nucleus 7 ~ 8 μm) and spermatogonia (12 ~ 15 μm, distinct nucleus 6 ~ 7.5 μm). Male juvenile blue catfish, which ...
  https://etd.auburn.edu/handle/10415/3934
*  Yearbook reports | Max Planck Institute for Molecular Biomedicine
2004. Schöler, Hans R.. In order to reproduce and to ensure species perpetuation, mammals must produce germ cells, i.e., oocyte and sperm cells. In culture, embryonic stem cells differentiate into oogonia, enter meiosis and produce support cells that have follicle-like structures. They further develop into structures very similar to those found in early stages in mouse embryonic development. The use of oocytes derived in culture is important for biological research and various medical applications. This in vitro system can facilitate biological studies, for example, functional studies for induction of PGCs, interaction between somatic cells and germ cells or studies in genetic reprogramming after nuclear transfer into oocytes. We also see a very large potential in medical applications. We believe that through the derivation of oocytes in culture, fundamental understanding of fertility and problems in infertility can be best researched, and through this in vitro system positive and harmful ...
  http://www.mpi-muenster.mpg.de/100735/reports
*  Derivation of Oocytes from Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells | Science
Continuation of mammalian species requires the formation and development of the sexually dimorphic germ cells. Cultured embryonic stem cells are generally considered pluripotent rather than totipotent because of the failure to detect germline cells under differentiating conditions. Here we show that mouse embryonic stem cells in culture can develop into oogonia that enter meiosis, recruit adjacent cells to form follicle-like structures, and later develop into blastocysts. Oogenesis in culture should contribute to various areas, including nuclear transfer and manipulation of the germ line, and advance studies on fertility treatment and germ and somatic cell interaction and differentiation.. ...
  http://science.sciencemag.org/content/300/5623/1251
*  Bioline International Official Site (site up-dated regularly)
has become a model animal in teleost species research due both to its short reproductive cycle and efficient proliferate capacity. Unfortunately, however, systematic data of its sexual differentiation and development have yet to be obtained. In the present study, we observed Medaka gonad development from the earliest recognizable stages through differentiation to maturation under a light microscope, after paraffin sectioning and hematoxylin-eosin staining. The results showed that among juveniles aged 5 to 10 days, the gonad located on the right side of the dorsal abdominal cavity and the germ cells was significantly larger than the surrounding somatic cells. Ten days after hatching, sexual differences between females and males became obvious, and germline cysts derived from oogonium division were present in the gonad. At 50 days after hatching, ovarian cavities and mature sperm were observed. Moreover, during the study we also observed the coexistence of two sexual characteristics during a ...
  http://www.bioline.org.br/abstract?id=zr13072&lang=en
*  Cystoseiraceae, State Herbarium of South Australia
Phylum Phaeophyta - Order Fucales. Thallus usually 20-150 cm long, with 1-3 simple or branched stipes bearing radially, distichously or tristichously branched axes or primary branches, straight to flexuous, each slightly to much branched with usually (sub-)determinate laterals some of which may develop further; laterals simple or branched, terete to flat; holdfast discoid-conical, or lacerate, or subhapteroid, rarely becoming stoloniferous. Vesicles present or absent, subspherical to ovoid, discrete or within the branches. Growth from a single, three-sided, apical cell in an apical depression. Structure with medulla, cortex and surface meristoderm.. Reproduction: Thalli monoecious or dioecious. Receptacles developed from the whole or the upper parts of the laterals or their ramuli, terete to flat, elongate. Conceptacles and their ostioles scattered or on the surface or margin of flattened receptacles, unisexual or bisexual; oogonia sessile, without a mesochiton collar, containing a single ...
  http://flora.sa.gov.au/efsa/Marine_Benthic_Flora_SA/Part_II/Cystoseiraceae.shtml
*  Distromium multifidum, State Herbarium of South Australia
Phylum Phaeophyta - Order Dictyotales - Family Dictyotaceae - Tribe Zonarieae. Reproduction: Sori (Fig. 83A,B) small, with 4-12 sporangia, on the concave (upper) side of branch ends, with a membranous indusium; sporangia (Fig. 83B,C) developed directly from thallus cells (without a stalk cell), external to the thallus, subspherical to ovoid, (120)150-200 (-240) gm in diameter, tetrahedrally divided. Oogonia unknown. Antheridia (Fig. 83D) present on sporangial plants (ADU, A23956); sori on concave branch ends, 400-600 µm long and 200-300 µm across; antheridia 60-90 µm long, 20-40 µm in diameter.. Type from Victor Harbor, S. Aust., drift ( Womersley, 19.ix.1965); in ADU, A29525.. Selected specimens: Hopetoun, W. Aust., 3-4 m deep on old jetty piles (Kraft 6994 & Ricker, 16. viii.1979; ADU, A50723). Elliston Bay, S. Aust., 10-12 m deep (Shepherd, 23.x.1969; ADU, A34940). Pearson I., S. Aust., 28 m deep (Shepherd, 9.i.1969; ADU, A34002). Barker Rocks, Yorke Pen., S. Aust., drift (Womersley, ...
  http://flora.sa.gov.au/efsa/Marine_Benthic_Flora_SA/Part_II/Distromium_multifidum.shtml
*  Morphological and genetic analyses of the invasive forest pathogen Phytophthora austrocedri reveal two clonal lineages...
Phytophthora austrocedri is causing widespread mortality of Austrocedrus chilensis in Argentina and Juniperus communis in Britain. The pathogen has also been isolated from J. horizontalis in Germany. Isolates from Britain, Argentina and Germany are homothallic with no clear differences in the dimensions of sporangia, oogonia or oospores. Argentinian and German isolates grew faster than British isolates across a range of media and had a higher temperature tolerance although most isolates regardless of origin grew best at 15°C and all isolates were killed at 25°C. Argentinian and British isolates caused lesions on both hosts when inoculated onto A. chilensis and J. communis; however the Argentinian isolate caused longer lesions on A. chilensis than on J. communis and vice versa for the British isolate. Genetic analyses of nuclear and mitochondrial loci showed that all British isolates are identical. Argentinian isolates and the German isolate are also identical but differ from the British ...
  https://genomics.ed.ac.uk/resources/publications/morphological-and-genetic-analyses-invasive-forest-pathogen-phytophthora
*  Most recent papers with the keyword female germ cell | Read by QxMD
ESRP1 regulates alternative splicing, producing multiple transcripts from its target genes in epithelial tissues. It is upregulated during mesenchymal to epithelial transition associated with reprogramming of fibroblasts to iPS cells and has been linked to pluripotency. Mouse fetal germ cells are the founders of the adult gonadal lineages and we found that Esrp1 mRNA was expressed in both male and female germ cells but not in gonadal somatic cells at various stages of gonadal development (E12.5-E15.5). In the postnatal testis, Esrp1 mRNA was highly expressed in isolated cell preparations enriched for spermatogonia but expressed at lower levels in those enriched for pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids ...
  https://www.readbyqxmd.com/keyword/76878
*  Fetal ovary, light micrograph - Stock Image C024/0084 - Science Photo Library
Light microscopy of the fetal primate ovary about 20 weeks of gestation. The ovary is densely populated with oocytes (female germ cells) enclosed with a layer of follicle cells which together are known as follicles. The earliest follicles are called primordial follicles. In most species the fetal ovary is massively oversupplied with oocytes/follicles; in humans there may be up to 5 million per ovary. For reasons that remain unknown the majority (approximately 85%) of follicles die with a few hundred thousand surviving in each ovary at birth. Magnification x180 when narrow width printed at 10 cm. - Stock Image C024/0084
  http://www.sciencephoto.com/media/649510/view
*  Scholarships/Endowments - Foundation - Chadron State College
Endowments that honor a family or loved one establish a perpetual fund to provide ongoing support to CSC students. An endowed scholarship required a minimum principal balance of $10,000, to be paid over five (5) year period. The principal balance will generate earnings to be used to fund the scholarship on an annual basis. The donor can help determine the selection criteria for the scholarship.. I know how hard it was for my Mom and Dad to help my brother and me in any way. I had scholarships, student grants, work study and loans in order to make it through Chadron. To this day, I do not take my degree and how it has helped for granted. Every person has trials in their lives, but we have truly been blessed beyond all imagination. We hope and pray that we can make a difference in young people's lives as they go through college at Chadron, now and in the future.' Carroll Dolson '69. Carroll and Ruth established the Ruth and Carroll Dolson Endowment ...
  https://www.csc.edu/foundation/scholarships/
*  University of Alabama endowment
Find info concerning University of Alabama endowment. There are a variety of accredited business programs that may appeal to you. Advertising, accounting, human resources, and business management are just a few options.
  http://www.universityofalabama.net/University-of-Alabama-endowment.php
*  Multiple Sclerosis Foundation - Grants and Endowments
The Multiple Sclerosis Foundation is proud to provide financial grants and endowments to individuals and organizations looking to help those affected by MS.
  https://msfocus.org/Healthcare-Professionals/Grants-and-Endowments.aspx
*  M. Gene Newport Business Scholarship Endowment - Fastweb
The M. Gene Newport Business Scholarship Endowment is available to full- time entering freshmen and transfer students at the University of Alabama, Birmingham. You must be enrolled in the School o...
  https://www.fastweb.com/college-scholarships/scholarships/52050-m-gene-newport-business-scholarship-endowment
*  Endowment Donors 1997
The Association gratefully acknowledges the generosity of the following members and friends who made gifts to the Endowment Fund from November 1, 1996, to October 29, 1997. These contributions are a testimony to AHA members' continuing desire to further the interests of historians through the activities of the Association. Each contribution will play a role in supporting existing activities or in furthering new activities. We are sincerely grateful for these donations and hope that the coming year of 1998 inspires continued support. If we have overlooked anyone, please call us at (202) 544 2422 to let us know. Thank you very much.. G. T ...
  https://www.historians.org/about-aha-and-membership/aha-history-and-archives/annual-reports/annual-report-1997/endowment-donors-1997
*  Thank You Individual Donors
The AOFAS and The Foundation gratefully acknowledge the following individuals who contributed to the OREF Endowment Fund as of January 1, 2014 through December 31, 2014 and designated their donation to the AOFAS Endowment. The purpose of the AOFAS Endowment Fund is to provide funding for research and education in perpetuity. The Board of Directors has directed that this fund be used for the Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Foundation ...
  http://admin.aofas.org/foundation/Pages/Foundation-Individual-Donors.aspx
*  Fitness Watch: Pregnancy Exposures Determine Risk of Breast Cancer in Multiple Generations of Offspring
This study, published online today in Nature Communications, shows for the first time that the risk of some "familial" breast cancers originate from biological alterations caused by maternal diet during pregnancy that not only affect the directly exposed fetus but also the fetal germ cells, transmitting the increased mammary cancer risk to subsequent generations ...
  http://fitnesswatch.blogspot.com/2012/10/pregnancy-exposures-determine-risk-of.html
*  Recent Articles | Opinion, Evolution And Immunology | The Scientist Magazine®| Page 38
A toothpick and a bit of chance shaped David Page's career, which he has dedicated to understanding the mammalian Y chromosome and fetal germ cell development.. 0 Comments. ...
  https://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.list/tagNo/41,8,12/tags/opinion,evolution,immunology/pageNo/38/
*  Why, Oh Y? | The Scientist Magazine®
A toothpick and a bit of chance shaped David Page’s career, which he has dedicated to understanding the mammalian Y chromosome and fetal germ cell development.
  https://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/41689/title/Why--Oh-Y-/
*  Trickle-In Economics
Admittedly, it may be a little hard to visualize at first how this "return to the universal beneficiary" would happen in practice. Are we going to send a dividend check to everyone on Earth? In theory, that could happen, though not immediately. It would take a long time for enough civil capital to accumulate for that. It is possible, though, that even in the early phases of such a system, productivity could be channeled to those who need it most in creative ways. In practice, any profits of civil investment would most likely be re-invested as the system develops. As significant as that is, the financial returns or growth of civil endowment is not really the primary benefit of civil endowment investment. What is more significant, and what can take place on any level of scale, is the qualitative stimulus effect that civil capital can have on an economy. Going back to the nice folks who brought us SRI, what they realized, in their wisdom, is that quite apart from financial return, a capital ...
  http://trickle-in.blogspot.com
*  It's All in the Name: Evidence of Founder-Firm Endowment Effects | CLS Blue Sky Blog
We examine the relations among various types of family firms, including those named after their founders (founder-named, or FN, firms), those managed by their founders (founder-managed, or FM, firms), and those named after and managed by their founders (founder-named-and-managed, or FN&M, firms)...
  http://clsbluesky.law.columbia.edu/2017/04/20/its-all-in-the-name-evidence-of-founder-firm-endowment-effects/