*  Cardiac remodelling in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum in response to phenylhydrazine-induced anaemia | Journal of...
If chronic anaemia has the potential to create a chronic hypoxic condition for the spongy myocardium, chasing fish may have exacerbated this problem by periodically reducing venous oxygen tension (Farrell and Clutterham, 2003) even further. However, we did not observe disproportionate cardiac remodelling in warm-acclimated rainbow trout, but then anaemic fish were more lethargic than normocythemic fish. Similarly, a hypoxic signal in anaemic fish might trigger disproportionate growth of the compact myocardium because the arterial blood supply to the compact myocardium has a higher oxygen partial pressure. Conversely, the lower myocardial oxygen demands of spongy myocardium, combined with its higher activities of oxidative enzymes than compact myocardium (Tota et al., 1983; Gamperl et al., 1994), could compensate for the different levels of hypoxia experienced by the compact and spongy myocardia. Interestingly, cold-acclimated rainbow trout differed from warm acclimated fish by disproportionately ...
  http://jeb.biologists.org/content/210/14/2574
*  A regulatory role for cortisol in muscle glycogen metabolism in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum.
To test the hypothesis that cortisol has a regulatory role in fish muscle glycogenesis post-exercise, rainbow trout were treated 1 h prior to exercise with either saline (control) or metyrapone (2-methyl-1, 2-di-3-pyridyl-1-propanone) to block cortis
  http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/regulatory-role-cortisol-in-muscle/12909698.html
*  Behaviour of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss presented with a choice of normoxia and stepwise progressive hypoxia - Poulsen -...
The objective of this study was to identify behavioural adjustments leading to avoidance of hypoxia. Using the oxygen-sensitive species rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss as a model, individual fish were recorded while moving freely between two sides of a test arena: one with normoxia and one with stepwise progressive hypoxia [80-30% dissolved oxygen (DO) air saturation]. The results demonstrated a gradual decrease in the total time spent in hypoxia starting at 80% DO air saturation. At this DO level, the avoidance of hypoxia could not be attributed to changes in spontaneous swimming speed, neither in normoxia nor in hypoxia. Reducing the DO level to 60% air saturation resulted in decreased spontaneous swimming speed in normoxia, yet the number of trips to the hypoxic side of the test arena remained unchanged. Moreover, data revealed increased average residence time per trip in normoxia at DO levels ≤60% air saturation and decreased average residence time per trip in hypoxia ...
  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2011.03069.x/full
*  The effect of cortisol administration on hepatic and plasma estradiol-binding capacity in immature female rainbow trout ...
Implantation of a cortisol-containing pellet into the peritoneal cavity of immature female rainbow trout raised plasma cortisol levels within the range commonly observed in chronically stressed fish. In cortisol-implanted fish there was a significant decline in the concentration of hepatic estradiol-binding sites relative to sham-implanted controls. This consisted of a 35% drop in cytosolic binding sites and a 29% reduction in the number of nuclear estradiol-binding sites, by 4 weeks postimplantation. Plasma estradiol-binding capacity was also influenced by cortisol treatment. After 2 weeks there was a 33% increase in plasma estradiol-binding capacity of cortisol-implanted fish. Plasma estradiol levels were unaffected by cortisol implantation, suggesting that the effects of cortisol on estradiol-binding sites were not mediated by altering the rate of estradiol secretion. The results indicate a possible mechanism by which environmental stress may suppress vitellogenesis.. ...
  http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/511171/
*  Oncorhynchus mykiss kamloops - Wikipedia
Oncorhynchus mykiss kamloops es un pez que pertenece a la familia Salmonidae.[1]​ Esta especie es nativa de Columbia Británica.[2]​ Description of a New Species of Salmon, Oncorhynchus kamloops, from the lakes of British Columbia Forest and Stream. Oncorhynchus mykiss kamloops strain United States Geological Survey. Oncorhynchus mykiss kamloops IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG). Esta obra contiene una traducción derivada de Kamloops rainbow trout de Wikipedia en inglés, publicada por sus editores bajo la Licencia de documentación libre de GNU y la Licencia Creative Commons Atribución-CompartirIgual 3.0 Unported. Oncorhynchus mykiss kamloops World Register of Marine Species. Lake Superior Kamloops Rainbow Trout Minnesota Steelheader. Rainbow Trout Ministry of Environment - Province of British Columbia ...
  https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oncorhynchus_mykiss_kamloops
*  Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri - Wikipedia
Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri es una de las tres subespecies de trucha que pertenecen a la familia Salmonidae. Esta especie es nativa del río Columbia, Montana, Oregón, Washington y Idaho.[1]​ Esta especie fue reconocida por el naturista escocés John Richardson. Columbia River Redband Trout - Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri Montana Field Guides. Behnke, Robert J.; Tomelleri, Joseph R. (illustrator) (2002). "Rainbow and Redband Trout". Trout and Salmon of North America. The Free Press. pp. 65-122. ISBN 0-7432-2220-2. Esta obra contiene una traducción derivada de Columbia River redband trout de Wikipedia en inglés, publicada por sus editores bajo la Licencia de documentación libre de GNU y la Licencia Creative Commons Atribución-CompartirIgual 3.0 Unported. Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri Encyclopedia of Life. Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri Integrated Taxonomic Information System ...
  https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oncorhynchus_mykiss_gairdneri
*  Diet and size-selective feeding by escaped hatchery rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) : ICES Journal of Marine...
Escaped hatchery rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), at post-smolt (120-340 g) and adult stages (800-3400 g) adapted differently to natural marine prey after escaping from two fish farms in northern Norway. About 1 month after escape (July), more than 57% of the post-smolt fed actively on fish larvae, which contributed 63-75% of the diet by weight. Surface insects were consumed by more than half the post-smolts and represented 24-48% of the diet during the 3-month period of sampling (June-August). One month after escaping, forage ratios (weight stomach/weight fish × 100) exceeded 1, similar to ratios recorded for other wild anadromous salmonid species in the area. Post-smolt weight increased during the sampling period and the condition factor was stable. In contrast, the condition factor of escaped adult fish reduced significantly and the forage ratios were consistently low (0.05-0.77) during the 15 months of sampling (March-August) following their escapement. ...
  http://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.1016/j.icesjms.2005.07.014
*  MicroRNA expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) vaccinated with a DNA vaccine encoding the glycoprotein gene of...
Viral hemorrhagic septicemia caused by a fish rhabdovirus, Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), results in significant mortality in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum). Although the disease had been eradicated in Denmark, wildlife marine reservoir of VHSV poses a threat particularly to sea-farmed rainbow trout and thus necessitates strategies to mitigate potential disease outbreaks. A DNA vaccine encoding the glycoprotein gene of VHSV has been developed and shown to elicit protective immune responses in laboratory trials. It is important to identify key factors as biomarkers during infection and vaccination in order to understand the complex web of interactions involved in the underlying host immune response. Micro ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) are a diverse class of small (18-22 nucleotides) endogenous RNAs that potently mediate post-transcriptional silencing of a wide range of genes and are emerging as critical regulators of cellular processes, including ...
  http://www.forskningsdatabasen.dk/catalog/236302993
*  Expression of micro-RNAs and immune-relevant genes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) upon vaccination with a Viral...
Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed the increased levels of miR-155, miR-462, and miR-731 in the skeletal muscle tissue at the site of injection and in the liver of vaccinated fish relative to salineand empty plasmid-injected controls. The increased expression of these miRNAs in the skeletal muscle correlated with the increased levels of the type I interferon (IFN)-inducible Mx gene, the vaccine gene (G), type I IFN and IFN-γ genes, and immune cell marker genes (CD4, CD8, sec-IgM, TCR, MHCI, and MHCII) at the vaccination site. The increased expression of immune cell markers indicates infiltration of the vaccination site with activated immune cells. Since the expression of these miRNAs correlated with increased levels of the type 1 IFN gene, IFN-γ gene, and the type I IFN-inducible Mx gene, we then determined whether this induction depends on interferons. Injecting fish with IFN 1-13 (a type I IFN) and IFN-γ constructs resulted in the increased expression of miR-155, miR-462, and miR-731 in ...
  http://orbit.dtu.dk/en/publications/expression-of-micrornas-and-immunerelevant-genes-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-walbaum-upon-vaccination-with-a-viral-haemorrhagic-septicemia-virus
*  Time-course of the effect of dietary L-tryptophan on plasma cortisol levels in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss - NERC Open...
Isolated juvenile rainbow trout were fed a feed supplemented with L-tryptophan (TRP) for 3, 7 or 28 days, after which they were either sampled directly (undisturbed) or subjected to a standardised stressor prior to sampling. Controls (stressed and undisturbed) received the same feed but without any supplementary TRP. Stress resulted in a significant elevation of plasma [cortisol] in fish fed control feed and in fish fed TRP-supplemented feed for 3 and 28 days. However, fish fed TRPsupplemented feed for 7 days did not show any significant elevation of plasma [cortisol] in response to stress. Plasma levels of adrenocorticotropin followed the same general pattern as cortisol. Plasma and brain [TRP] were elevated in fish fed TRP-supplemented feed. The amino acid TRP is the precursor of the monoamine neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and the brain 5- HT system is known to be involved in the control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis. Fish fed TRP-supplemented ...
  http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/510945/
*  Characterization of p53 in rainbow trout cell lines
The tumour suppressor protein p53 is a critical protein in the DNA damage checkpoint pathway. It acts as a transcription factor that is involved in initiating the apoptotic pathway; disruption of this pathway can lead to various forms of cancer. Due to its importance in cancer prevention, p53 has been extensively studied, though only a small fraction of these studies have been in non-mammalian models. Some previous studies of p53 expression and regulation in lower vertebrate species have shown potential differences in its control, in comparison to the better characterized mammalian pathways. These differences emphasize the need to further investigate its mechanism of action in lower vertebrate models. To evaluate its biomarker potential for aquatic toxicology studies, two rainbow trout cell lines (RTbrain-W1 and RTgill-W1) were used in dose response experiments using DNA damage checkpoint inducing agents: bleomycin, hydroxyurea, and methyl methanesulfonate. For our studies, a rainbow trout ...
  https://uwspace.uwaterloo.ca/handle/10012/5510
*  Effects of treated sewage effluent on immune function in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) | IslandScholar
In this study, the immune reactions of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were examined, after exposure to 10, 30 and 70% of tertiary-treated municipal sewage effluent for 27 days. Exposures were conducted concurrently with and without an immune challenge using intraperitoneal injections of inactivated Aeromonas salmonicida salmonicida. Due to the time required to prepare and analyse samples, fish sampling was conducted over two consecutive days. There was no trout mortality for any of the Show moreIn this study, the immune reactions of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were examined, after exposure to 10, 30 and 70% of tertiary-treated municipal sewage effluent for 27 days. Exposures were conducted concurrently with and without an immune challenge using intraperitoneal injections of inactivated Aeromonas salmonicida salmonicida. Due to the time required to prepare and analyse samples, fish sampling was conducted over two consecutive ...
  http://www.islandscholar.ca/islandora/object/ir:ir-batch6-669
*  A Comparative Toxicogenomic Investigation of Oil Sand Water and Processed Water in Rainbow Trout Hepatocytes | SpringerLink
The purpose of this study was to compare the expression of gene transcripts involved in toxic stress in rainbow trout hepatocytes exposed to oil sand water (OSW), lixiviate (OSLW), and processed water
  https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00244-013-9888-2
*  Data from: Divergent immunity and energetic programs in the gills of migratory and resident Oncorhynchus mykiss - Dryad
Divergent life history strategies occur in steelhead or rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, and many populations produce both migrant (anadromous fish that move to the ocean after rearing) and resident (do not migrate and remain in fresh water) individuals. Mechanisms leading to each type are only partially understood; while the general tendency of a population is heritable, individual tendency may be plastic, influenced by local environment. Steelhead hatchery programmes aim to mitigate losses in wild stocks by producing trout that will migrate to the ocean and not compete with wild trout for limited freshwater resources. To increase our understanding of gill function in these migratory or resident phenotypes, here we compare gill transcriptome profiles of hatchery-released fish either at the release site (residents) or five river kilometres downstream while still in full fresh water (migrants). To test whether any of these genes can be used as predictive markers for ...
  http://datadryad.org/resource/doi:10.5061/dryad.3p545
*  Oncorhynchus mykiss aquilarum - Wikipedia
Oncorhynchus mykiss aquilarum es un pez que pertenece a la familia Salmonidae.[1]​ Esta especie es endémica, habita en el Lago Eagle (Condado de Lassen), California. Es un tipo de trucha que se caracteriza por su capacidad para soportar una alta alcalinidad.[1]​ Eagle Lake Rainbow Eagle Lake Rainbow. U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2012. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Eagle Lake Rainbow Trout as an Endangered or Threatened Species. Federal Register, vol. 77, no. 172. 54548-54553. Esta obra contiene una traducción derivada de Eagle Lake trout de Wikipedia en inglés, publicada por sus editores bajo la Licencia de documentación libre de GNU y la Licencia Creative Commons Atribución-CompartirIgual 3.0 Unported. California Trout Eagle Lake Rainbow Trout. Oncorhynchus mykiss aquilarum PISCES. Q&A - US Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service ...
  https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oncorhynchus_mykiss_aquilarum
*  Sodium-sensitive and -insensitive copper accumulation by isolated intestinal cells of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss |...
Copper (Cu) is an essential nutrient for vertebrates and has numerous functions in cellular biochemistry (Linder, 1991; Huffman and O'Halloran, 2001), such as electron transfer in mitochondria (Moody et al., 1997), acting as a cofactor for more than 30 different enzymes (Linder, 1991), and modulating the neuro-endocrine control of metabolism (Linder, 1991; Handy, 2003). Teleost fish require 1-4 mg Cu kg-1 dry mass of food (Murai et al., 1981; Knox et al., 1982; Lanno et al., 1985; Watanabe, 1997), but excess dietary Cu is also toxic to fish (for reviews, see Handy, 1996, 2003; Clearwater et al., 2002), and so Cu uptake across the gut must be carefully regulated (Clearwater et al., 2000, 2002).. In mammals and fish, Cu uptake from the gut lumen to the blood involves (i) electrostatic adsorption of Cu to the surface of the mucosal membrane, (ii) entry into the gut cells by facilitated diffusion, probably through ion channels, (iii) transfer of Cu across the cell by metal chaperones, (iv) export ...
  http://jeb.biologists.org/content/208/2/391.full?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&andorexacttitle=or&andorexacttitleabs=and&fulltext=aquaculture&andorexactfulltext=and&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=50&sortspec=relevance&resourcetype=HWCIT
*  Degranulation of eosinophilic granule cells induced by capsaicin and substance P in the intestine of the rainbow trout ...
Adult rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were injected intraperitoneally with capsaicin, substance P, serotonin, or a control of saline vehicle or bovine serum albumin (0.5 microgram/g body weight). Fish were sacrificed 30 min and 1, 2, and 4 h post-injection, the gut was dissected out, and a small section of the upper intestine was processed for electron microscopy. A significant proportion of eosinophilic granule cells (EGCs) of the intestine were in close association with non-myelinated Show moreAdult rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were injected intraperitoneally with capsaicin, substance P, serotonin, or a control of saline vehicle or bovine serum albumin (0.5 microgram/g body weight). Fish were sacrificed 30 min and 1, 2, and 4 h post-injection, the gut was dissected out, and a small section of the upper intestine was processed for electron microscopy. A significant proportion of eosinophilic granule cells (EGCs) of the intestine ...
  http://www.islandscholar.ca/islandora/object/ir:ir-batch6-208
*  The effect of oxygen on the growth of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) embryos with and without a chorion | IslandScholar
Ciuhandu, C. S., Stevens, E. D., & Wright, P. W. (2005). The effect of oxygen on the growth of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) embryos with and without a chorion. Journal Of Fish Biology, 67(6), 1544-1551 ...
  http://www.islandscholar.ca/islandora/object/ir:1060
*  In vitro methods of assessing the viability of rainbow trout spermatozoa | IslandScholar
The accuracy of three in vitro methods for estimating the proportion of dead rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss ) spermatozoa was investigated. Motility rating, fluorometry using ethidium bromide, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in seminal plasma were compared. Semen samples were prepared to contain 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% killed spermatozoa. All three methods demonstrated highly significant relationships (P,0.001) with the percentage of killed spermatozoa. Motility rating was found Show moreThe accuracy of three in vitro methods for estimating the proportion of dead rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss ) spermatozoa was investigated. Motility rating, fluorometry using ethidium bromide, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in seminal plasma were compared. Semen samples were prepared to contain 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% killed spermatozoa. All three methods demonstrated highly significant relationships (P,0.001) with the percentage of killed spermatozoa. Motility ...
  http://www.islandscholar.ca/islandora/object/ir:ir-batch6-2522
*  Academic Journals
Comparison of the Growth Performance and Mortality in Abant Trout (Salmo trutta abanticus Tortonese, 1954) and Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792) under Farming Conditions ...
  http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/zoology/issue.htm?id=442
*  Steelhead struggling home in record low numbers | The Columbian
Salmon and steelhead are in hot water - a problem scientists warn is going to get worse because of climate change.. Steelhead returning this year to the Columbia and Snake rivers migrated out of the river during horrendous conditions in 2015, which included record low flows and high water temperatures.. Those steelhead also were at sea during the so-called "blob" - a mass of warm water that began forming off the West Coast in 2013 and wreaked havoc in the ocean, including depressed food supplies for marine animals of all sorts.. Now those steelhead are migrating back through reservoirs where water temperatures at some Columbia and Lower Snake River dams, thanks to a record Northwest heat wave, have been stuck this summer above 70 degrees for days on end - potentially lethal for salmon and steelhead.. "They are just getting creamed everywhere they turn; conditions in the Columbia and Snake are the worst I have ever seen them," said Steve Petit, a steelhead biologist with Idaho Fish and Game for ...
  http://www.columbian.com/news/2017/aug/18/steelhead-struggling-home-in-record-low-numbers/
*  Genetic architecture of growth and early life‐history trans...: Ingenta Connect
Heritabilities of growth, precocious maturation and smolting were measured in 75 families of juvenile steelhead or rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, progeny of within and between line matings (crosses) of wild, anadromous steelhead and wild, resident (lake) rainbow trout originally derived from the same anadromous stock 70 years earlier. The tagged yearling progeny were combined by line in common freshwater rearing containers and graded into three categories: mature, smolt or rearing (undifferentiated) at age 2 years. Heritabilities of precocious male maturity, smolting and growth were moderate to high, and the genetic correlation between growth and smolting was low. Smolting and precocious male maturity were highly variable among families within lines and significantly different between lines. Each of the four lines produced significant numbers of smolts at age two. Smolting and maturation were negatively genetically correlated, which may explain the persistence of ...
  http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bsc/jfb/2004/00000065/A00101s1/art00019
*  The Oceangoing Steelhead Trout - latimes
Steelhead trout is the oceangoing version of rainbow trout. Like Pacific salmon, the steelhead spends its adult life in the ocean and returns to the river of its birth to spawn.In California,
  http://articles.latimes.com/1985-06-30/food/fo-418_1_steelhead-trout
*  CV - Karen Farbridge & Associates
Leatherland, J.F., Farbridge, K.J. and Boujard, T. 1992. Lunar and semi-lunar rhythms in fishes. In Rhythms in Fishes. Edited by M.A. Ali. Plenum Press, New York. pp 83-107. Farbridge, K.J. and Leatherland, J.F. 1992. Chronic fasting reduces the response of the thyroid to growth hormone and TSH and alters the growth hormone-related changes in hepatic 5-monodeiodinase activity in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 87: 343-353.. Farbridge, K.J and Leatherland, J.F. 1992. Temporal changes in plasma thyroid hormone, growth and free fatty acid concentrations, and hepatic 5-monodeiodinase activity, lipid and protein content during chronic fasting and re-feeding in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish Physiol. Biochem. 10: 245-257.. Farbridge, K.J. and Leatherland, J.F. 1992. Plasma growth hormone levels in fed and fasted rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are decreased followed ...
  http://www.karenfarbridge.ca/about/karen-farbridge/cv
*  Organic plant ingredients in the diet of Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): Impact on fish muscle composition and oxidative...
Rainbow trout were fed diets containing either fish meal and fish oil (FM-FO) (control) or diets in which 40% of the fishmeal was substituted with a mixture of ingredients grown organically including plant protein concentrate (PP) in combination with either fish oil (FO) as lipid source, or one of the following organic plant oils; rapeseed (RO), linseed/flaxseed (LO), grape seed (GO), or sunflower (SO). The impact of these substitutions was investigated by measuring fish muscle fatty acid profile as well as oxidative and color stability of the fillet during 14 days ice storage. The inclusion of plant protein concentrate did not affect the fatty acid profile significantly but resulted in a slightly improved oxidative stability of the fish fillets as compared to the control diet. The fatty acid profile of the oil used was in general well reflected in the fish muscle fatty acid profile. Fish fed PP-RO were the most oxidatively stable during ice storage but the omega-3 fatty acid content was reduced ...
  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ejlt.201300157/full