*  Virus Exploits a Serotonin Receptor | Science Signaling
JC virus (JCV) is a common human polyomavirus responsible for the fatal demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), in immunocompromised individuals. About 5% of AIDS patients develop this currently untreatable fatal disease. Typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs inhibit JCV infection of glial cells. Elphick et al. now find that the cellular receptor for JCV on glial cells is a serotonin receptor. The findings contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of PML in AIDS patients and suggest that therapy based on existing serotonin receptor inhibitors may be feasible.. G. F. Elphick, W. Querbes, J. A. Jordan, G. V. Gee, S. Eash, K. Manley, A. Dugan, M. Stanifer, A. Bhatnagar, W. K. Kroeze, B. L. Roth, W. J. Atwood, The human polyomavirus, JCV, uses serotonin receptors to infect cells. Science 306, 1380-1383 (2004). [Abstract] [Full Text]. ...
  http://stke.sciencemag.org/content/2004/260/tw425
*  Interferon-α and -β Restrict Polyomavirus JC Replication in Primary Human Fetal Glial Cells: Implications for Progressive...
One of the major limitations of highly active antiretroviral therapy is its inability to inhibit the replication of polyomavirus JC (JCV), the etiologic agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), an acquired immunodeficiency syndromeâ€"defining illness. We previously demonstrated the induction of interferon (IFN)â€"stimulated genes (ISGs) by JCV. In the present study, we characterize the specific viral events required to induce ISGs and the potential antiviral effects of type I IFN on JCV replication in human fetal glial cells in the presence and absence of type I IFNs. Productive JCV replication was essential for the induction of the antiviral host response. JCV replication at all steps was significantly inhibited in the presence of IFN, and neutralizing anti-IFN antibody rescued the inhibitory effect of IFN. These results support the use of IFN as an adjunct therapy for ...
  http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/26240133/interferon-and-restrict-polyomavirus-jc-replication-primary-human-fetal-glial-cells-implications-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-therapy
*  Jc Virus Infection - Articles on Medical Diseases and Conditions
The JC virus belongs to the polyoma virus group of the papovavirus family, which are double-stranded DNA viruses without an envelope. BK virus is also in the polyoma virus group. It appears that infection by both viruses occurs during childhood or adolescence, with about 50% of the population demonstrating antibody before adulthood, rising later to 80%-90%. The JC virus localizes to and remains latent in the kidney, from whence it occasionally may reactivate. If a patient becomes immunosuppressed, especially during AIDS, reactivated JC virus can infect lymphocytes, be carried to the brain, infect oligodendroglia glial cells, and produce a demyelinating disease called progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. This occurs in about 4% of patients with AIDS. Diagnosis is made through biopsy using immunologic ...
  http://med-life.net/2009/07/26/jc-virus-infection/
*  The effects of AGGGAAGGGA pentanucleotide repeat on JC virus gene expression and the isolation and characterization of a cDNA...
Human JC virus (JCV) is the etiologic agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a fatal demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system. Although JCV is a widely-distributed polyomavirus and is oncogenic in animals, its strict dependence for viral growth and expression of JCV on human fetal glial cells has hindered detailed studies of the regulation of JCV early and late gene expression. Previous reports have shown that gene expression of JCV is regulated by viral T antigen and cellular transactivating factors, such as NF1. To date, several cellular factors regulating JCV early and late gene expression have been identified and isolated, and their binding site sequences or motifs in JCV DNA have been characterized. -- The AGGGAAGGGA pentanucleotide (penta) repeat motif of the JCV control region has been ...
  http://research.library.mun.ca/5662/
*  JCV (John Cunningham virus) index: follow-up of a French cohort - AdisInsight
This trial will assess the JCV (John Cunningham virus) index in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and at least one JCV index receiving
  http://adisinsight.springer.com/trials/700268332
*  Natalizumab treatment in patients with multiple sclerosis associated with JC virus infection | Liberation Treatment CCSVI
Treatment with natalizumab in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) appears linked with JC virus (JCV) infection, which can lead to a rare and often fatal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system called progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) that destroys the myelin that protects nerve cells.
  http://liberationtreatmentccsvi.com/2014/03/natalizumab-treatment-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-associated-with-jc-virus-infection/
*  Mouse polyomavirus-specific CD8+ T cells establish a brain-resident memory population during persistent infection (VIR6P.1174) ...
Human JC polyomavirus (JCV) causes progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a rare but life-threatening demyelinating disease in patients under profound immunosuppression and those receiving therapeutic immunomodulation for autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. Using persistent mouse polyomavirus (MPyV) infection in mice, we are developing a model of PyV-induced CNS disease to elucidate the role of immunosuppression in PML pathogenesis. Histology revealed corpus callosum demyelination in 100% of persistently infected mice. Following intracerebral injection with MPyV, immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice showed robust infiltration by MPyV-specific CD8 T cells with minimal contraction. During persistent CNS infection, a significant population of CD8 T cells exhibited a tissue-resident memory (Trm) phenotype (CD103+CD69+CD62Llo), as reported for acute VSV and latent HSV-1 infections, and incorporated BrdU in situ, suggesting capacity for ...
  http://www.jimmunol.org/content/194/1_Supplement/149.14
*  Igor J. Koralnik - Wikipedia
Igor Koralnik, MD is an American physician, neurologist and scientist. He is one of the first physicians to study the neurologic complications caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and is a leading researcher in the investigation of the polyomavirus JC (JC virus), which causes progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a disease of the central nervous system that occurs in immunosuppressed individuals. Koralnik was born in Geneva, Switzerland on July 20, 1962. He moved to the United States in 1990 and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He received his medical degree at the University of Geneva Medical School, Switzerland, in 1987. While a medical student, he became interested in a new disease - acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), whose origin in the HIV virus was discovered in 1983. Koralnik's doctoral dissertation focused on the early neurological complications of AIDS. He used ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Igor_J._Koralnik
*  Chinazo O. Cunningham, M.D., M.S. | Albert Einstein College of Medicine
For a comprehensive list of publications, see the PubMed link above. Below are a selection of publications:. Cunningham WE, Sohler NL, Tobias C, Drainoni ML, Bradford J, Davis C, Cabral HJ, Cunningham CO, Eldred L, Wong MD. Health Services Utilization for People with HIV Infection: A Comparison of a Population Targeted for Outreach with theU.S. Population in Care. Medical Care. 2006 Nov;44(11):1038-1047.. Cunningham CO, Sohler NL, Ramsey K, Li X. A comparison of HIV-related utilization measures in a marginalized population: Self-report versus medical record information. Medical Care. 2007 Mar;45(3):264-268.. Cabral HJ, Tobias C, Rajabiun S, Sohler NL, Cunningham CO, Wong MD, Cunningham WE. Outreach program contacts: Do they increase the likelihood of engagement and retention in HIV primary care for hard-to-reach patients? AIDS Patient Care STDs. 2007 Jun;21(S1):S59-S56.. Cunningham CO, Kunins HV, Roose RJ,Elam RT, Sohler NL. Barriers to Obtaining Waivers to Prescribe Buprenorphine for Opioid ...
  http://einstein.yu.edu/faculty/8109/chinazo-cunningham/
*  THE TYSABRI CHANNEL: Clinicians prescribing Tysabri/natalizumab for MS patients who are JC virus serum antibody-positive need...
This case report describes a patient with multiple sclerosis (MS) who, after being treated with natalizumab for more than 4 years, developed progressive gait ataxia and appendicular signs over 4 months. MRI did not show any new T2 or gadolinium-enhancing lesions but did demonstrate cerebellar atrophy. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was positive for JC virus by PCR testing, natalizumab was stopped, and plasma exchange promptly removed circulating natalizumab. The patient continued to worsen over 2 months, prompting a cerebellar biopsy establishing severe destruction of the granule cells in the cortical structure, with immunohistochemistry detecting JC virus within the nucleus of remaining granule cells ...
  http://tysabri-news.blogspot.com/2014/05/clinicians-prescribing.html
*  Brain has JC virus and PML - Forum on AIDS-Related Cancers - TheBody.com
The JC virus is a virus which infects the brain of advanced cancer patients and causes PML-- progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. PML can lead to neurologic deficits as indicated in your...
  http://www.thebody.com/Forums/AIDS/Cancer/Q142002.html
*  JC viral loads in patients with Crohn's disease treated with immunosuppression: can we screen for elevated risk of progressive...
Background and aims: Anti-α4 integrin therapy with natalizumab is efficacious in refractory Crohn's disease and in multiple sclerosis, but carries an estimated 1/1000 risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) caused by reactivation of latent JC virus infection. Athough anti-α4 integrin therapies are likely to be introduced in the clinic, screening for the risk of PML has not been developed.. Methods: We prospectively collected urine, serum, plasma and buffy coats from 125 patients with Crohn's disease, 100 control subjects with gastrointestinal (GI) disease, and 106 healthy volunteers. Four to eight weeks after this first sample collection, we additionally collected a set of urine, serum, plasma and buffy coat samples from the 125 patients with Crohn's disease, and a next set of samples was collected 12-16 weeks after the first collection. JC viral loads were determined with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and ...
  http://gut.bmj.com/content/57/10/1393
*  Briggs Cunningham - Wikipedia
Briggs Swift Cunningham II (January 19, 1907 - July 2, 2003) was an American entrepreneur and sportsman, who raced automobiles and yachts. Born into a wealthy family, he became a racing car constructor, driver, and team owner as well as a sports car manufacturer and automobile collector. He skippered the first victorious 12-metre yacht Columbia in the 1958 America's Cup race, and invented the cunningham downhaul to increase the speed of racing sailboats. He was featured on the April 26, 1954 cover of Time magazine, with three of his Cunningham racing cars. The caption reads: Road Racer Briggs Cunningham: Horsepower, Endurance, Sportsmanship. He became an early member of the Road Racing Drivers Club (RRDC), an invitation-only club formed to honor notable road racing drivers. The October 2003 Road & Track magazine article, "Briggs Swift Cunningham-A Life Well Spent", states that "by building and sailing his own ships, and building and racing his own cars, Briggs Cunningham epitomized the ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Briggs_Cunningham
*  Most recent papers with the keyword JC Virus | Read by QxMD
Rapid restoration of virus-specific T immunity via adoptive transfer of ex vivo generated T cells has been proven as a powerful therapy for patients with advanced cancers and refractory viral infections such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). BK virus (BKV), John Cunningham virus (JCV), and Merkel cell carcinoma virus (MCV) are the members of the rapidly growing human polyomavirus (hPyV) family that commonly infects most healthy humans. These viruses have a clearly established potential for causing severe end-organ damage or malignant transformation, especially in individuals with weakened immunity who are unable to mount or regain endogenous T-cell responses as a result of underlying leukemia or iatrogenic immunosuppression in autoimmunity, bone marrow and solid organ transplant settings ...
  https://www.readbyqxmd.com/keyword/9252
*  Role of the interaction between large T antigen and Rb family members in the oncogenicity of JC virus. | IRIS Università degli...
Human polyomaviruses (JC virus, BK virus and simian virus 40) are causative agents of some human diseases and, interestingly, are involved in processes of cell transformation and oncogenesis. These viruses need the cell cycle machinery of the host cell to complete their replication; so they evolved mechanisms that can interfere with the growth control of infected cells and force them into DNA replication. The retinoblastoma family of proteins (pRb), which includes pRb/p105, p107 and pRb2/p130, acts as one of the most important regulators of the G1/S transition of the cell cycle. Rb proteins represent an important target for viral oncoproteins. Early viral T antigens can bind all members of the pRb family, promoting the activation of the E2F family of transcription factors, thus inducing the expression of genes required for the entry to the S phase. The interaction between early viral antigens and cell cycle ...
  https://usiena-air.unisi.it/handle/11365/11437
*  JC polyomavirus ATCC ® VRMC-1™
... Designation: pCY/cl1 [molecular clone of JC polyomarvirus, JC virus] Application: contains sequence
  https://www.atcc.org/Products/Cells_and_Microorganisms/Viruses/Animal_Alphanumeric_GenusSpecies/VRMC-1.aspx
*  Lupus, Humor, and Wellness: 4/1/08
PML is a rare disorder that affects the central nervous system. When it occurs, it is usually in patients with immune systems suppressed by disease or medicines. It happens when the polyomavirus, also known as the JC virus, is activated. The JC virus is found in most adults but does not usually cause symptoms. Scientists do not know exactly how the JC virus is activated. Once activated, the JC virus attacks the cells that make myelin, the protective coating around nerve cells. Signs and symptoms of PML can include localized neurologic signs and symptoms including vision changes, loss of coordination, clumsiness, memory loss, difficulty speaking or understanding what others say, and weakness in the legs. Many patients who develop PML die. Patients who survive may have permanent disability due to irreversible nerve damage. More information on PML can be found ...
  http://lupusandhumor.blogspot.com/2008/04/
*  Progressive clumsiness in a patient with prior Hodgkins - BrainWaves
The JC virus, or John Cunningham virus, is a member of the polyomavirus family. When you're exposed to it as a kid or young adult, you might not even notice it, or you might notice cold-like symptoms which are self-limiting. Not a huge deal at all. You get infected, you make antibodies, life goes on. As long as you're immunocompetent. But that's not the case in patients with impaired cellular immunity, as in cases of Hodgkins lymphoma (HL).. Although the gold standard for diagnosis is brain biopsy, you don't need tissue to make the diagnosis of PML. In an immunocompromised patient with progressive neurologic changes, you'll always need the MRI. This can exclude opportunistic processes like toxoplasmosis, cryptococcal meningitis, or CNS lymphoma, but will also be important to confirm the presence of white matter disease, which may or may not have enhancement 10-20% of the time, and may or may not have mass effect. Our patient had faint ...
  http://brainwaves.me/progressive-clumsiness-in-a-patient-with-prior-hodgkins/
*  Bio Matters: Madeleine Cunningham | i2E
Cunningham earned an undergraduate degree at Mississippi State College for Women and a Ph.D. in both microbiology and immunology from the University of Tennessee Center for Health Sciences.. Today, she is a George Lynn Cross Research Professor and Presbyterian Health Foundation Presidential Professor in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at the University of Oklahoma College of Medicine, where she has taught and conducted research into infection and autoimmune diseases for 33 years.. "My training was in Group A streptococcal disease, but I also love immunology, which is our body's response to infections," she said.. After researching rheumatic fever, myocarditis and other heart-related diseases for 15 years, Cunningham received a call from the National Institutes of Mental Health. They wanted her to investigate a puzzling condition affecting children known as pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with strep, commonly known as PANDAS.. Cunningham became a ...
  https://i2e.org/bio-matters-madeleine-cunningham/
*  Andrew Cunningham, 1st Viscount Cunningham of Hyndhope - Wikipedia
At the end of March 1941, Hitler wanted the convoys supplying the British Expeditionary force in Greece stopped, and the Italian Navy was the only force able to attempt this.[35] Cunningham stated in his biography: "I myself was inclined to think that the Italians would not try anything. I bet Commander Power, the Staff Officer, Operations, the sum of ten shillings that we would see nothing of the enemy."[35] Under pressure from Germany, the Italian Fleet planned to launch an attack on the British Fleet on 28 March 1941.. The Italian commander, Admiral Angelo Iachino, intended to carry out a surprise attack on the British Cruiser Squadron in the area (commanded by Vice-Admiral Sir Henry Pridham-Wippell), executing a pincer movement with the battleship Vittorio Veneto.[36] Cunningham though, was aware of Italian naval activity through intercepts of Italian Enigma messages. Although Italian intentions were unclear, Cunningham's staff believed an attack upon British troop convoys was likely and ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baron_Cunningham_of_Hyndhope
*  Inhibikase Therapeutics Receives FDA Clearance for Phase II Trial of IkT-001 to Treat JC Virus Infection, the Cause of...
...ATLANTA Aug. 16 2011 /- Inhibikase Therapeutics Inc. ...(Logo: http://photos.prnewswire.com/prnh/20110517/CL02791LOGO) ...The Phase II trial will be a four-week open-label sequential-dose-ra... The launch of this study is a pivotal event for Inhibikase Therapeuti...,Inhibikase,Therapeutics,Receives,FDA,Clearance,for,Phase,II,Trial,of,IkT-001,to,Treat,JC,Virus,Infection,,the,Cause,of,Progressive,Multifocal,Leukoencephalopathy,(PML),in,Multiple,Sclerosis,Patients,medicine,advanced medical technology,medical laboratory technology,medical device technology,latest medical technology,Health
  http://www.bio-medicine.org/medicine-technology-1/Inhibikase-Therapeutics-Receives-FDA-Clearance-for-Phase-II-Trial-of-IkT-001-to-Treat-JC-Virus-Infection--the-Cause-of-Progressive-Multifocal-Leukoenc-19609-1/
*  Microbiology Society Journals | Utility of JC polyomavirus in tracing the pattern of human migrations dating to prehistoric...
JC virus (JCV) is a double-stranded DNA polyomavirus co-evolving with humans since the time of their origin in Africa. JCV seems to provide new insights into the history of human populations, as it suggests an expansion of humans from Africa via two distinct migrations, each carrying a different lineage of the virus. A possible alternative to this interpretation could be that the divergence between the two lineages is due to selective pressures favouring adaptation of JCV to different climates, thus making any inference about human history debatable. In the present study, the evolution of JCV was investigated by applying correspondence analysis to a set of 273 fully sequenced strains. The first and more important axis of ordination led to the detection of 61 nt positions as the main determinants of the divergence between the two virus lineages. One lineage ...
  http://jgv.microbiologyresearch.org/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.80650-0
*  5-HT2A receptor - Wikipedia
The mammalian 5-HT2A receptor is a subtype of the 5-HT2 receptor that belongs to the serotonin receptor family and is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). 5-HT is short for 5-hydroxy-tryptamine, which is serotonin. This is the main excitatory receptor subtype among the GPCRs for serotonin, although 5-HT2A may also have an inhibitory effect on certain areas such as the visual cortex and the orbitofrontal cortex. This receptor was first noted for its importance as a target of serotonergic psychedelic drugs such as LSD. Later it came back to prominence because it was also found to be mediating, at least partly, the action of many antipsychotic drugs, especially the atypical ones. 5-HT2A may be a necessary receptor for the spread of the human polyoma virus called the JC virus. Downregulation of post-synaptic 5-HT2A receptor is an adaptive process provoked by chronic administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and classical antipsychotics. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/5-HT2A_receptor
*  Jets' Jermaine Cunningham charged with sharing explicit photos - The Register Citizen
Prosecutors allege Cunningham violated a law that forbids disclosing photos or videos without the consent of someone "whose intimate parts are exposed" or who is engaged in a sexual act. They say the woman and Cunningham lived together.. ...
  http://www.registercitizen.com/nfl/article/Jets-Jermaine-Cunningham-charged-with-sharing-11976141.php
*  Hanselminutes on 9 - Gadget Basement with Ward Cunningham | Hanselminutes On 9 | Channel 9
Scott stopped by Ward Cunningham (you know, the guy who invented the Wiki. Yes, that Ward Cunningham) to hang out, and discovered Ward's treasure trove of electronics, software, soldering guns and we
  https://channel9.msdn.com/Shows/HanselminutesOn9/Hanselminutes-on-9-Gadget-Basement-with-Ward-Cunningham