*  nos-1 and nos-2, two genes related to Drosophila nanos, regulate primordial germ cell development and survival in...
In Drosophila, the posterior determinant nanos is required for embryonic patterning and for primordial germ cell (PGC) development. We have identified three genes in Caenorhabditis elegans that contain a putative zinc-binding domain similar to the one found in nanos, and show that two of these genes function during PGC development. Like Drosophila nanos, C. elegans nos-1 and nos-2 are not generally required for PGC fate specification, but instead regulate specific aspects of PGC development. nos-2 is expressed in PGCs around the time of gastrulation from a maternal RNA associated with P granules, and is required for the efficient incorporation of PGCs into the somatic gonad. nos-1 is expressed in PGCs after gastrulation, and is required redundantly with nos-2 to prevent PGCs from dividing in starved animals and to maintain germ cell viability during larval development. In the absence of nos-1 and nos-2, germ cells cease proliferation at the ...
  http://dev.biologists.org/content/126/21/4861
*  Transplantation of Chicken Primordial Germ Cells
Jenn-Fa Liou, Yu-Min Shue, Hsiao-Lung Liu, Chein Tai, Lih-Ren Chen, and Jen-Wen Shiau. The objective of this study was to evaluate the capacity of gonadal migration and characterization for chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) after long-term in vitro culture. Chicken PGCs collected from the primitive gonads of 5.5-day-old White Leghorn chicken embryos were plated together with their own stroma cells as co-culture. The cultured PGCs began to from colonies 7-10 days after plating. The PGC-derived colonies maintained in culture up to 280 days were positively stained with antibodies specific to SSEA-1, SSEA-4, integrin α6 and integrin β1, and also strongly expressed periodic acid Schiff reaction. Their capacities of migration and colonizing in the primary gonadal ridge were further demonstrated by transferring to stage 14-15 (3 days old) recipient embryos. These results suggested that chicken PGCs maintained in long-term culture retains their capacity to ...
  http://english.tlri.gov.tw/page.aspx?path=353
*  Cell-autonomous and somatic signals control sex-specific gene expression in XY germ cells of Drosophila. - Zurich Open...
When XX germ cells develop in a testis they become spermatogenic. Thus, somatic signals determine the sex of genetically female germ cells. In contrast, XY germ cells experimentally transferred to an ovary do not differentiate oogenic cells. Because such cells show some male characteristics when analyzed in adults, it was assumed that XY germ cells autonomously become spermatogenic. Recently, however, evidence showing that a female soma feminizes XY germ cells was reported. The conclusion was drawn that the sex determination of XY germ cells is dictated by the sex of the soma. We monitored the fate of XY germ cells placed in a female environment throughout development. Here we report that such germ cells ...
  http://www.zora.uzh.ch/id/eprint/753/
*  GP130, the shared receptor for the LIF/IL6 cytokine family in the mouse, is not required for early germ cell differentiation,...
GP130 is expressed in germ cells in the male and female throughout much of development. In the adult female, GP130 expression is weak in primordial follicles but is upregulated in growing oocytes. GP130 expression exhibits a similar pattern in the male, being absent in spermatogonia but strongly expressed in spermatocytes. This expression pattern resembles that of KIT (Manova et al., 1990), and, like KIT, GP130-mediated signaling may have multiple roles in germ cell formation and function.. Data from culture experiments led us to expect that GP130 signaling would be important for mediating germ cell survival during the period in which PGCs are migrating and colonizing the gonads. Consequently, we have analyzed PGC numbers in male and female E13.5 GP130-deficient embryos. The males were found to have a slight but statistically significant decrease in PGC numbers, whereas the females were normal. This suggests that an IL6 family member maybe ...
  http://dev.biologists.org/content/130/18/4287
*  Embryonic Germ Cells - Amino Acids - Barnard Health Care
Pluripotent embryonic germ cells can be isolated from the genital ridge of the developing mammalian fetus. EG cells closely resemble ES cell lines in the morphology of colonies, response to induced differentiation, and ability to create chimeric offspring. ES and EG cells are not the same in all respects. Differences exist in the conditions required for their isolation, culture, lifespan in vitro, and differentiation capacity. An important difference is genetic modifications that occur in the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of primordial germ (PG) cells that result in erasure of genomic imprints. The DNA modifications that occur can compromise the developmental potential of the EG cells.. ...
  https://www.barnardhealth.us/amino-acids-2/embryonic-germ-cells.html
*  Germ Cell Specification: Ruth Lehmann
Ruth Lehmann: When an egg is fertilized, two distinct groups of cells are formed; the somatic cells which give rise to all the structures in body and will ultimately die, and the primordial germ cells which become germ line stem cells that produce sperm and egg and thus, can give rise to another generation. Hence, germ cells are responsible for the maintenance of a species. In Part 1 of her lecture, Dr. Lehmann discusses the strategies used by an embryo to specify which cells will become somatic cells and which will become germ cells. She also outlines the currently known features of germ cells that differentiate them from other cells in the embryo.
  https://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/development-stem-cells/ruth-lehmann-part-1.html
*  Germ Cell Development in C. elegans
www.MOLUNA.de Germ Cell Development in C. elegans [4213219] - Introduction to germ cell development in C. elegans .- Germ cell specification.- Sex determination in the C. elegans germline.- Stem cell proliferation versus meiotic fate decision in C. elegans .- Physiological control of germline development.- Meiotic development in C. elegans .- Spermatogenesis.- Translational control in the C. elegans germ line.-
  https://www.moluna.de/buch/4213219-germ+cell+development+in+c.+elegans/
*  Quantitative Dynamics of Chromatin Remodeling during Germ Cell Specification from Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells | Bhaskar Chanda
Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell Kurimoto et al. perform careful analyses of chromatin remodeling during mouse germ cell specification from embryonic stem cells. Widespread epigenetic reprogramming events included re-organization of H3K27me3 and bivalent signatures as well as progressive deletion of H3K9me2 throughout the genome, creating a unique foundation for the epigenome of the next generation.. from Cell Stem Cell http://ift.tt/1xjbWRu ...
  https://bhaskarchandatoronto.wordpress.com/2015/03/19/quantitative-dynamics-of-chromatin-remodeling-during-germ-cell-specification-from-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells/
*  Sandwalk: Intelligent Design Creationists Choose ENCODE Results as the #1 Evolution Story of 2012
Mouse primordial germ cells (PGCs) erase global DNA methylation (5mC) as part of the comprehensive epigenetic reprogramming that occurs during PGC development. 5mC plays an important role in maintaining stable gene silencing and repression of transposable elements (TE) but it is not clear how the extensive loss of DNA methylation impacts on gene expression and TE repression in developing PGCs. Using a novel epigenetic disruption and recovery screen and genetic analyses, we identified a core set of germline-specific genes that are dependent exclusively on promoter DNA methylation for initiation and maintenance of developmental silencing. These gene promoters appear to possess a specialised chromatin environment that does not acquire any of the repressive H3K27me3, H3K9me2, H3K9me3 or H4K20me3 histone modifications when silenced by DNA methylation. Intriguingly, this methylation-dependent subset is highly enriched in genes with roles in suppressing TE activity ...
  http://sandwalk.blogspot.com/2013/01/intelligent-design-creationists-choose.html
*  Germ cell apoptosis and DNA damage responses - Research Database, The University of Dundee
TY - CHAP. T1 - Germ cell apoptosis and DNA damage responses. AU - Bailly,Aymeric. AU - Gartner,Anton. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - In the past 12 years, since the first description of C. elegans germ cell apoptosis, this area of research rapidly expanded. It became evident that multiple genetic pathways lead to the apoptotic demise of germ cells. We are only beginning to understand how these pathways that all require the CED-9/Bcl-2, Apaf-1/CED-4 and CED-3 caspase core apoptosis components are regulated. Physiological apoptosis, which likely accounts for the elimination of more than 50% of all germ cells, even in unperturbed conditions, is likely to be required to maintain tissue homeostasis. The best-studied pathways lead to DNA damage-induced germ cell apoptosis in response to a variety of genotoxic stimuli. This apoptosis appears to be regulated similar to DNA damage-induced apoptosis in ...
  http://discovery.dundee.ac.uk/portal/en/research/germ-cell-apoptosis-and-dna-damage-responses
*  Gene pathways and cell cycle-related genes in cultured avian primordial germ cells.
Primordial germ cells (PGC) from early embryos are applicable to various kinds of research, including the production of transgenic animals. Primordial germ cells eventually migrate and differentiate into germ cells in the gonads, where they settle an
  http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Gene-pathways-cell-cycle-related/23155027.html
*  Dynamic changes in H1 subtype composition during epigenetic reprogramming | JCB
In mammals, histone H1 consists of a family of related proteins, including five replication-dependent (H1.1-H1.5) and two replication-independent (H1.10 and H1.0) subtypes, all expressed in somatic cells. To systematically study the expression and function of H1 subtypes, we generated knockin mouse lines in which endogenous H1 subtypes are tagged. We focused on key developmental periods when epigenetic reprogramming occurs: early mouse embryos and primordial germ cell development. We found that dynamic changes in H1 subtype expression and localization are tightly linked with chromatin remodeling and might be crucial for transitions in chromatin structure during reprogramming. Although all somatic H1 subtypes are present in the blastocyst, each stage of preimplantation development is characterized by a different combination of H1 subtypes. Similarly, the relative abundance of somatic H1 subtypes can distinguish male and female chromatin upon sex differentiation in developing ...
  http://d2j7maqgsavdlx.cloudfront.net/content/early/2017/08/08/jcb.201611012
*  Dynamic changes in H1 subtype composition during epigenetic reprogramming | JCB
In mammals, histone H1 consists of a family of related proteins, including five replication-dependent (H1.1-H1.5) and two replication-independent (H1.10 and H1.0) subtypes, all expressed in somatic cells. To systematically study the expression and function of H1 subtypes, we generated knockin mouse lines in which endogenous H1 subtypes are tagged. We focused on key developmental periods when epigenetic reprogramming occurs: early mouse embryos and primordial germ cell development. We found that dynamic changes in H1 subtype expression and localization are tightly linked with chromatin remodeling and might be crucial for transitions in chromatin structure during reprogramming. Although all somatic H1 subtypes are present in the blastocyst, each stage of preimplantation development is characterized by a different combination of H1 subtypes. Similarly, the relative abundance of somatic H1 subtypes can distinguish male and female chromatin upon sex differentiation in developing ...
  http://jcb.rupress.org/content/early/2017/08/08/jcb.201611012
*  Germ Cell Migration: Ruth Lehmann
Ruth Lehmann: When an egg is fertilized, two distinct groups of cells are formed; the somatic cells which give rise to all the structures in body and will ultimately die, and the primordial germ cells which become germ line stem cells that produce sperm and egg and thus, can give rise to another generation. Hence, germ cells are responsible for the maintenance of a species. In Part 1 of her lecture, Dr. Lehmann discusses the strategies used by an embryo to specify which cells will become somatic cells and which will become germ cells. She also outlines the currently known features of germ cells that differentiate them from other cells in the embryo.
  https://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/development-stem-cells/ruth-lehmann-part-3.html
*  Protein synthesis and degradation are critical to regulate germline stem cell homeostasis in Drosophila testes | Development
The homeostasis of self-renewal and differentiation in stem cells is strictly controlled by intrinsic signals and their niche. We conducted a large-scale RNA interference (RNAi) screen in Drosophila testes and identified 221 genes required for germline stem cell (GSC) maintenance or differentiation. Knockdown of these genes in transit-amplifying spermatogonia and cyst cells further revealed various phenotypes. Complex analysis uncovered that many of the identified genes are involved in key steps of protein synthesis and degradation. A group of genes that are required for mRNA splicing and protein translation contributes to both GSC self-renewal and early germ cell differentiation. Loss of genes in protein degradation pathway in cyst cells leads to testis tumor with overproliferated germ cells. Importantly, in the Cullin 4-Ring E3 ubiquitin ligase (CRL4) complex, we identified multiple ...
  http://dev.biologists.org/content/early/2016/07/27/dev.134247
*  The Nanos3-3′UTR Is Required for Germ Cell Specific NANOS3 Expression in Mouse Embryos
Background The regulation of gene expression via a 3′ untranslated region (UTR) plays essential roles in the discrimination of the germ cell lineage from somatic cells during embryogenesis. This is fundamental to the continuation of a species. Mouse NANOS3 is an essential protein required for the germ cell maintenance and is specifically expressed in these cells. However, the regulatory mechanisms that restrict the expression of this gene in the germ cells is largely unknown at present. Methodology/Principal Findings In our current study, we show that differences in the stability of Nanos3 mRNA between germ cells and somatic cells is brought about in a 3′UTR-dependent manner in mouse embryos. Although Nanos3 is transcribed in both cell lineages, it is efficiently translated only in the germ lineage. We also find that the translational ...
  http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0009300
*  Jak/Stat signalling in niche support cells regulates dpp transcription to control germline stem cell maintenance in the...
The creation of unique `permissive zones' by support cells is a general principle of stem cell niches. Niches are dynamic systems in which several signalling pathways are often integrated in order to coordinate different cell types and to respond to changing physiological conditions (Scadden, 2006). In this work, we have used the Drosophila ovarian germline niche to establish that Jak/Stat signalling in support cells regulates the production of the growth factor Dpp, an extrinsic signal transmitted from support cells and required for GSC division and perpetuation (Xie and Spradling, 1998; Xie and Spradling, 2000).. Two well-characterised extrinsic factors acting in the ovarian GSC niche are the BMP-like proteins Dpp and Gbb, which are known to block germline stem cell differentiation by repressing the transcription of the bam gene (Chen and McKearin, 2005; Song et al., 2004; Szakmary et al., 2005). In addition to its effect ...
  http://dev.biologists.org/content/135/3/533
*  SNU Open Repository and Archive: Journal Papers (저널논문 식품·동물생명공학부)
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  http://s-space.snu.ac.kr/handle/10371/168
*  Most recent papers with the keyword female germ cell | Read by QxMD
ESRP1 regulates alternative splicing, producing multiple transcripts from its target genes in epithelial tissues. It is upregulated during mesenchymal to epithelial transition associated with reprogramming of fibroblasts to iPS cells and has been linked to pluripotency. Mouse fetal germ cells are the founders of the adult gonadal lineages and we found that Esrp1 mRNA was expressed in both male and female germ cells but not in gonadal somatic cells at various stages of gonadal development (E12.5-E15.5). In the postnatal testis, Esrp1 mRNA was highly expressed in isolated cell preparations enriched for spermatogonia but expressed at lower levels in those enriched for pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids ...
  https://www.readbyqxmd.com/keyword/76878
*  The synthetic activity of primordial germ cells in normal and irradiated neonatal male rats | Development
Resting primordial germ cells or gonocytes, present in the testis of the rat at birth (Beaumont & Mandl, 1963), are highly radiosensitive. A dose of 50-100 r X-rays induces complete, or almost complete, sterility, as judged by the histological appearance of the testis at 25 days post parturn (Mandl et al. 1964). Studies of short-term post-irradiation changes have revealed that gonocytes, exposed to a sterilizing dose of X-rays at birth, do not degenerate immediately after exposure but differentiate normally into transitional cells (the immediate precursors of definitive germ cells; Beaumont & Mandl, 1963; Huckins, 1963; Franchi & Mandl, 1964) so that no histological abnormalities are detectable for 5 or 6 days. Subsequently, however, the irradiated transitional cells fail to divide; they increase markedly in size and form irregularly shaped giant cells which eventually become pyknotic ...
  http://dev.biologists.org/content/19/2/239
*  Ror2 Enhances Polarity and Directional Migration of Primordial Germ Cells
Author Summary Egg and sperm derive from precursors in the early embryo called primordial germ cells (PGCs). The mechanisms underlying the migration of PGCs through the embryo to the forming gonads remain unclear. In a genetic screen, we identified a role for the receptor Ror2 and its ligand Wnt5a in promoting PGC colonization of the embryonic gonads. By ex vivo culture, we show that Ror2 acts autonomously in PGCs to enhance their polarized response to the chemotactic factor SCF. Asymmetric distribution of ROR2 within PGCs in vitro and in vivo suggests that signaling via Ror2 locally amplifies cell polarity in response to other directional cues. These studies identify a novel relationship between Ror2 and cKit signaling in polarized migration.
  http://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.1002428
*  Focus Issue: From Egg to Egg-Cell Signaling in Germ Cells | Science Signaling
In this Focus Issue of Science's STKE, which complements the Science Special Issue on germ cells, we take a closer look at cell signaling in germ cells. STKE highlights the migration of germ cells with an article that describes the different mechanisms controlling primordial germ cell movement and survival in mice and flies. Another article describes a mechanism for mediating plant self-incompatibility through control of the pollen tube, to prevent inappropriate delivery of incompatible sperm to the ovule. A common feature found in each of the organisms discussed, be they animal, insect or plant, is that signals from the surrounding tissues control survival and migration of the germ cells or resulting gametes.. ...
  http://stke.sciencemag.org/content/2007/383/eg3
*  FGF control of E-cadherin targeting in the Drosophila midgut impacts on primordial germ cell motility | Journal of Cell Science
Embryo formation requires tight regulation and coordination of adhesion in multiple cell types. By imaging, 3D reconstructions and genetic analysis during posterior midgut morphogenesis in Drosophila we find a novel requirement for the conserved FGF signaling pathway in maintenance of epithelial cell adhesion, by modulation of zygotic E-cadherin. During Drosophila gastrulation, primordial germ cells (PGC) are transported with the posterior midgut while it undergoes dynamic cell shape changes. In Branchless and Breathless mutant embryos zygotic E-cadherin is not targeted to AJs causing midgut pocket collapse impacting on PGC movement. We find that the ventral midline also requires FGF signaling to maintain cell-cell adhesion. We show that FGF signaling regulates the distribution of zygotic E-cadherin during early embryonic development to maintain cell-cell adhesion in the posterior midgut and the ventral midline, a role that is likely crucial in other tissues undergoing ...
  http://jcs.biologists.org/content/early/2015/11/24/jcs.174284
*  Stem Cell Markers: Antibodies to Primordial Germ Cells and Ectoderm - FocusOn 104 | acris-antibodies.com
Acris Antibodies offers an extensive range of antibodies for stem cells. In this FocusOn we present markers to primordial germ cells and ectoderm (see…
  https://us.acris-antibodies.com/focusons/stem-cell-markers-antibodies-to-primordial-germ-cells-and-ectoderm.htm