*  Bare lymphocyte syndrome | Define Bare lymphocyte syndrome at Dictionary.com
Bare lymphocyte syndrome definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!
  http://www.dictionary.com/browse/bare-lymphocyte-syndrome
*  Regulation of MHC class II expression by interferon-gamma mediated by the transactivator gene CIITA | Science
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes are expressed constitutively in only a few cell types, but they can be induced in the majority of them, in particular by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). The MHC class II transactivator gene CIITA is defective in a form of primary MHC class II deficiency. Here it is shown that CIITA expression is controlled and induced by IFN-gamma. A functional CIITA gene is necessary for class II induction, and transfection of CIITA is sufficient to activate expression of MHC class II genes in class II-negative cells in the absence of IFN-gamma. CIITA is therefore a general regulator of ...
  http://science.sciencemag.org/content/265/5168/106
*  Toxins | Free Full-Text | MHC Class II and Non-MHC Class II Genes Differentially Influence Humoral Immunity to Bacillus...
Anthrax Lethal Toxin consists of Protective Antigen (PA) and Lethal Factor (LF), and current vaccination strategies focus on eliciting antibodies to PA. In human vaccination, the response to PA can vary greatly, and the response is often directed toward non-neutralizing epitopes. Variable vaccine responses have been shown to be due in part to genetic differences in individuals, with both MHC class II and other genes playing roles. Here, we investigated the relative contribution of MHC class II versus non-MHC class II genes in the humoral response to PA and LF immunization using three immunized strains of inbred mice: A/J (H-2k at the MHC class II locus), B6 (H-2b), and B6.H2k (H-2k). IgG antibody titers to LF were controlled primarily by the MHC ...
  http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6651/4/12/1451/htm
*  RFXANK - Wikipedia
Major histocompatibility (MHC) class II molecules are transmembrane proteins that have a central role in development and control of the immune system. The protein encoded by this gene, along with regulatory factor X-associated protein and regulatory factor-5, forms a complex that binds to the X box motif of certain MHC class II gene promoters and activates their transcription. Once bound to the promoter, this complex associates with the non-DNA-binding factor MHC class II transactivator, which controls the cell type specificity and inducibility of MHC class II gene expression. This protein contains ankyrin repeats involved in protein-protein interactions. Mutations in this gene have been linked to bare lymphocyte syndrome type II, complementation group B. Two transcript variants encoding ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RFXANK
*  The insulator factor CTCF controls MHC class II gene expression and is required for the formation of long-distance chromatin...
The current model predicts that several chromatin organizational states may exist: inactive, poised, and active. As depicted, the active state may occur in MHC-II constitutively expressing B lymphocytes and cells induced to express MHC-II genes by IFN-γ. The active state would feature interactions between XL9 and the promoter regions of the HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQA1 genes. The data collected using the 3C assay represent a population view and not individual haplotypes or alleles. Thus, with a recent report suggesting that active genes do not continuously transcribe their DNA (40), it was possible that only one of the two flanking genes was transcribed at a time or interacting with XL9. However, the RNA FISH data argue that all combinations of expression occur, with the predominant combination including HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQA1 expression from the same chromosome. The observation of ...
  http://jem.rupress.org/content/205/4/785
*  population genomics - McArthur Lab
Authors: Dearborn DC, Gager AB, McArthur AG, Gilmour ME, Mandzhukova E, Mauck RA.. Mol Ecol. 2016 Sep;25(17):4355-67.. Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) exhibit heterozygote advantage in immune defence, which in turn can select for MHC-disassortative mate choice. However, many species lack this expected pattern of MHC-disassortative mating. A possible explanation lies in evolutionary processes following gene duplication: if two duplicated MHC genes become functionally diverged from each other, offspring will inherit diverse multilocus genotypes even under random mating. We used locus-specific primers for high-throughput sequencing of two expressed MHC Class II B genes in Leach's storm-petrels, Oceanodroma leucorhoa, and found that exon 2 alleles fall into two gene-specific monophyletic clades. We tested for disassortative ...
  http://mcarthurbioinformatics.ca/?cat=39
*  MHC class II deficiency Disease Ontology Browser - DOID:5812
Mutations in human and/or mouse homologs are associated with this disease. Synonyms: bare lymphocyte syndrome type II; BLSII; SCID due to absent class II HLA antigens (disorder)
  http://www.informatics.jax.org/disease/209920
*  Methylation of class II transactivator gene promoter IV is not associated with susceptibility to multiple sclerosis. -...
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex trait in which alleles at or near the class II loci HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 contribute significantly to genetic risk. The MHC class II transactivator (MHC2TA) is the master controller of expression of class II genes, and methylation of the promoter of this gene has been previously been shown to alter its function. In this study we sought to assess whether or not methylation of the MHC2TA promoter pIV could contribute to MS disease aetiology. METHODS: In DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a sample of 50 monozygotic disease discordant MS twins the MHC2TA promoter IV was sequenced and analysed by methylation specific PCR. RESULTS: No methylation or sequence variation of the MHC2TA promoter pIV was found. CONCLUSION: The results of this study cannot ...
  https://www.dpag.ox.ac.uk/publications/34301
*  RFXAP, a novel subunit of the RFX DNA binding complex is mutated in MHC class II deficiency | The EMBO Journal
MHCII deficiency is a genetic disease of gene regulation. It is due to defects in regulatory factors that are essential for both constitutive and IFN‐γ inducible expression of MHCII genes (Reith et al., 1995, 1997; Mach et al., 1996). Together with a number of in vitro generated regulatory mutants, MHCII deficiency patients have been classified into at least four different complementation groups (A, B, C and D) believed to correspond to at least four distinct regulatory genes (Hume and Lee, 1989; Benichou and Strominger, 1991; Seidl et al., 1992; Lisowska‐Grospierre et al., 1994). The disease thus provides a genetic approach to identify genes encoding several of the trans‐acting regulatory factors involved and therefore represents an ideal model system for the dissection of the molecular mechanisms controlling transcriptional activation ...
  http://emboj.embopress.org/content/16/5/1045.export
*  Dag Erik Undlien - Institute of Clinical Medicine
Eike, Morten Christoph; Skinningsrud, Beate; Kvien, Tore Kristian; Stormyr, Alice; Undlien, Dag Erik & Lie, Benedicte Alexandra (2010). Support for involvement of CIITA gene variants in rheumatoid arthritis. Show summary The class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) transactivator (CIITA) is a crucial regulator of MHC class II gene expression. Due to the established role of MHC class II in autoimmunity, CIITA is therefore an excellent candidate for involvement in autoimmune diseases. Accordingly, the rs3087456 A,G promoter SNP in this gene has been reported associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the intronic rs8048002 T,C SNP with autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD). In this study, we genotyped 819 Norwegian RA patients and 2152 controls for both of these SNPs. Results: The rs3087456 GG genotype ...
  http://www.med.uio.no/klinmed/english/people/aca/dagerik/index.html
*  Cloning and biological activities of riboenzymes against major histocompatibility complex class II transactivator]. - Semantic...
OBJECTIVE To investigate the cloning and biological activities of riboenzymes against major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II transactivator (CIITA) so as to explore the feasibility of using hammerhead riboenzyme to create immune tolerance. METHODS Three riboenzymes against MHC CIITA were synthesized and their activities were evaluated in vitro. Rz464, the riboenzyme with a better digestion effect, was inserted into the vector pIRES2-EGFP (then called pRz464). Human B lymphoma cells of Daudi line were cultured and transfected with pRz464 (then called pRz464-D). Cultured Daudi cells transfected with riboenzyme without the ability against CIITA (Rz-D) were used as control group. The expressions of classic MHC CIITA (HLA-DR, DP, and DQ) on the surface of Daudi cells before and after transfection were examined by flow ...
  https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Cloning-and-biological-activities-of-riboenzymes-Guo-Zou/f8cc44fbfc5c992da985a11d3ee44a8aa3f7ca42
*  Major histocompatibility class II peptide occupancy, antigen presentation, and CD4+ T cell function in mice lacking the p41...
We used a 'hit and run' gene targeting strategy to generate mice expressing only the p31 isoform of the conserved invariant (Ii) chain associated with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. Spleen cells from these mice appear indistinguishable from wild type with respect to class II subunit assembly, transport, peptide acquisition, surface expression, and the ability to present intact protein antigens. Moreover, these mutant mice have normal numbers of thymic and peripheral CD4+ T cells, and intact CD4+ T-dependent proliferative responses towards a soluble antigen. In short, MHC class II expression and function are surprisingly unaffected in mice lacking p41 invariant chain, implying that the p31 and p41 isoforms may be functionally redundant in the intact animal.
  https://www.neuroscience.ox.ac.uk/publications/22827
*  Jenny's Bibliography
J Immunol. 2001 Oct 1;167(7):3626-34. Harton JA, Zika E, Ting JP. The histone acetyltransferase domains of CREB-binding protein (CBP) and p300/CBP-associated factor are not necessary for cooperativity with the class II transactivator. J Biol Chem. 2001 Oct 19;276(42):38715-20. Deffrennes V, Vedrenne J, Stolzenberg MC, Piskurich J, Barbieri G, Ting JP, Charron D, Alcaide-Loridan C. Constitutive expression of MHC class II genes in melanoma cell lines results from the transcription of class II transactivator abnormally initiated from its B cell-specific promoter. J Immunol. 2001 Jul 1;167(1):98-106. Li G, Harton JA, Zhu X, Ting JP. Downregulation of CIITA function by protein kinase a (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation: mechanism of prostaglandin E, cyclic AMP, and PKA inhibition of class II major histocompatibility complex ...
  http://www.unc.edu/~jting/publications.html
*  Cytokines
A macrophage activator, IL-4 stimulates phagocytic activity and MHC class II gene expression. IL-4 stimulates isotype switching by activating the promoters for Iε, and Iγ1 (the I regions for ε and γ1 heavy chain constant region genes). IL-4 is pivotal in regulating the IgE response: IgG1 and IgE account ∼2% of all antibodies secreted by splenic B cells incubated with LPS; IgG1 accounts for ∼50% and IgE accounts for ∼20% of all antibodies secreted by B cells incubated with LPS and IL-4. IL-4 knockout mice cannot mount an IgE response to parasites. Also, CD4 T cells activated in presence of IL-4 develop into TH2 cells (especially if IL-6 is also present); IL-4 and IL-10 both inhibit T cell differentiation into TH1 cells ...
  https://studentreader.com/M4JRA/cytokines/
*  Epithelial cells expressing aberrant MHC class II determinants can present antigen to cloned human T cells. - Nuffield...
The first step in the induction of immune responses, whether humoral or cell mediated, requires the interaction between antigen-presenting cells and T lymphocytes restricted at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). These cells invariably express MHC class II molecules (HLA-D region in man and Ia in mouse) which are recognized by T cells of the helper/inducer subset in association with antigen fragments. Interestingly, in certain pathological conditions, for example in autoimmune diseases such as thyroiditis and diabetic insulitis, class II molecules may be expressed on epithelial cells that normally do not express them. We speculated that these cells may be able to present their surface autoantigens to T cells, and that this process may be crucial to the induction and maintenance of autoimmunity. A critical test of this hypothesis would be to determine whether epithelial cells bearing ...
  https://www.ndorms.ox.ac.uk/publications/481830
*  GTP Binding by Class II Transactivator: Role in Nuclear Import | Science
Class II transactivator (CIITA) is a global transcriptional coactivator of human leukocyte antigen-D (HLA-D) genes. CIITA contains motifs similar to guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins. This report shows that CIITA binds GTP, and mutations in these motifs decrease its GTP-binding and transactivation activity. Substitution of these motifs with analogous sequences from Ras restores CIITA function. CIITA exhibits little GTPase activity, yet mutations in CIITA that confer GTPase activity reduce transcriptional activity. GTP binding by CIITA correlates with nuclear import. Thus, unlike other GTP-binding proteins, CIITA is involved in transcriptional activation that uses GTP binding to facilitate its own nuclear import. ...
  http://science.sciencemag.org/content/285/5432/1402
*  A new member of the leucine zipper class of proteins that binds to the HLA DR alpha promoter | Science
Several mutants derived from transformed human B cell lines are defective in expressing major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes. The failure to express a class II gene in at least one such mutant line has been mapped to the MHC class II X box, a conserved transcriptional element in the promoter region. A complementary DNA encoding a DNA-binding protein (human X box binding protein, hXBP-1) whose target is the human DR alpha X box and the 3' flanking region has now been cloned. This complementary DNA encoded a protein with structural similarities to the c-jun proto-oncogene product, and its target sequence was closely related to the palindromic target sequence of c-jun. Mutation of the hXBP-1 DNA target sequence decreased DR alpha promoter activity in vivo. These studies suggest that the hXBP-1 protein acts as a transcription factor in B cells. ...
  http://science.sciencemag.org/content/247/4950/1581
*  A polymorphic variant in the MHC2TA gene is not associated with systemic lupus erythematosus
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the major histocompatibility complex class II transactivator (MHC2TA) gene encoding the class II transactivator have been associated with multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and myocardial infarction in the Swedish population. We used a case-control approach to investigate the prevalence of a relevant variant in Swedish systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) cohorts to determine whether SLE shares the same MHC2TA susceptibility allele as the other diseases. No differences were observed between cases and control subjects at either the allele or genotype levels. Furthermore, no significant correlations were found when comparing different clinical and serological SLE phenotypes. This particular polymorphism rs3087456 of the MHC2TA gene does not appear to influence genetic susceptibility to SLE in the Swedish population. We conclude that our data ...
  http://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:41422
*  Plus it
Somatic mutations in CREBBP occur frequently in B-cell lymphoma. Here, we show that loss of CREBBP facilitates the development of germinal center (GC)-derived lymphomas in mice. In both human and murine lymphomas, CREBBP loss-of-function resulted in focal depletion of enhancer H3K27 acetylation and aberrant transcriptional silencing of genes that regulate B-cell signaling and immune responses, including class II MHC. Mechanistically, CREBBP-regulated enhancers are counter-regulated by the BCL6 transcriptional repressor in a complex with SMRT and HDAC3, which we found to bind extensively to MHC class II loci. HDAC3 loss-of-function rescued repression of these enhancers and corresponding genes, including MHC class II, and more profoundly suppressed CREBBP-mutant lymphomas in vitro and in vivo. Hence, CREBBP loss-of-function ...
  http://cancerdiscovery.aacrjournals.org/content/early/2016/12/15/2159-8290.CD-16-0975
*  Plus it
Mocetinostat is a spectrum-selective class I/IV histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor that augments checkpoint inhibitor therapy through enhanced antigen presentation capacity and a pro-immunogenic shift in the tumor microenvironment (TME). Mocetinostat up-regulated tumor antigen presentation machinery (i.e. major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes and co-presentation molecules) and programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in a panel of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. Surprisingly, some of the most highly up regulated genes following mocetinostat treatment were MHC class II genes (~20 fold), which are normally expressed by antigen-presenting cells, but are silenced in most epithelial tissues and solid tumors. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms whereby mocetinostat regulates MHC class I and class ...
  http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/77/13_Supplement/637
*  The common marmoset as a novel preclinical transplant model: identification of new MHC class II DRB alleles and prediction of...
Prasad, S., Humphreys, I., Kireta, S., Gilchrist, R. B., Bardy, P., Russ, G. R. and Coates, P. T. H. (2007), The common marmoset as a novel preclinical transplant model: identification of new MHC class II DRB alleles and prediction of in vitro alloreactivity. Tissue Antigens, 69: 72-75. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-0039.2006.760_7.x ...
  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1399-0039.2006.760_7.x/references
*  Anti MHC Class II H-2I-Ak/s Antibody, clone OX-6 | Bio-Rad Antibodies (formerly AbD Serotec)
Mouse anti MHC Class II H-2I-Ak/s antibody, clone OX-6 recognizes a monomorphic determinant of the rat RT1B MHC class II antigen present o
  https://www.bio-rad-antibodies.com/rat-mhc-class-ii-h-2i-ak-s-antibody-ox-6-mca2687r.html
*  Systemic Lupus
As summarized in Section 1, EAT susceptibility and resistance are categorized by their MHC class II gene differences. Since susceptible mice have naturally existing CD4+CD25+ T cells (Morris and Kong, 2004), it was of interest to determine if CD4+CD25+ T cells also influence EAT induction in resistant strains. In pilot experiments using two EAT-resistant strains, prior depletion of CD4+CD25+ T cells in both BALB c (H2d) mice (Wei et al, 2004) and B10 (H2b) mice (Morris et al., 2004) enabled the.... ...
  https://www.alpfmedical.info/systemic-lupus/