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*  Patient support interventions to improve adherence to drug-resistant tuberculosis treatment: A counselling toolkit
MOHR, E et al. Patient support interventions to improve adherence to drug-resistant tuberculosis treatment: A counselling toolkit. SAMJ, S. Afr. med. j. [online]. 2015, vol.105, n.8, pp.631-634. ISSN 2078-5135. http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAMJNEW.7803.. In response to the growing burden of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) in South Africa (SA), Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), with local government health departments, piloted a decentralised model of DR-TB care in Khayelitsha, Western Cape Province, in 2007. The model takes a patient-centred approach to DR-TB treatment that is integrated into existing TB and HIV primary care programmes. One essential component of the model is individual and family counselling to support adherence to and completion of treatment. The structured and standardised adherence support sessions have been compiled into a DR-TB counselling toolkit. This is a comprehensive guide that ...
  http://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S0256-95742015000800011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en
*  Incidence and geographic distribution of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa
South Africa is experiencing a widespread drug-resistant tuberculosis epidemic, although data are limited regarding the current situation. This study finds that the extensively drugresistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) incidence in KwaZulu-Natal increased to 3.5 cases/ 100,000 (776 cases) in 2011-2012. XDR-TB cases are widely distributed geographically, with the majority of districts experiencing a rise in incidence ...
  https://repository.up.ac.za/handle/2263/49638
*  Efficacy Results of Otsuka's Delamanid (Deltyba|sup|TM|/sup|) for Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis (XDR-TB) Published in...
Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.|2015 July 16|News Release|Efficacy Results of Otsuka's Delamanid (Deltyba|sup|TM|/sup|) for Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis (XDR-TB) Published in the New England Journal of Medicine|Tuberculosis |Pharmaceuticals
  https://www.otsuka.co.jp/en/company/release/detail.php?id=3000&date=2015-07-16
*  Clonal Expansion of Multidrug-Resistant and Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, Japan - Volume 16, Number 6-June 2010 -...
The emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) has raised public health concern about global control of TB. To estimate the transmission dynamics of MDR and XDR TB, we conducted a DNA fingerprinting analysis of 55 MDR/XDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from TB patients throughout Japan in 2002. Twenty-one (38%) of the strains were classified into 9 clusters with geographic links, which suggests that community transmission of MDR/XDR TB is ongoing. Furthermore, the XDR M. tuberculosis strains were more likely than the non-XDR MDR strains to be clustered (71% vs. 24%; p = 0.003), suggesting that transmission plays a critical role in the new incidence of XDR TB. These findings highlight the difficulty of preventing community transmission of XDR TB by conventional TB control programs and indicate an ...
  https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/16/6/09-1844_article
*  Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: Get the Facts
Learn about extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR TB) symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, risk factors, statistics, transmission and travel safety.
  http://www.medicinenet.com/extensively_drug-resistant_tuberculosis_xdr_tb/article.htm
*  Poor Prognosis Seen in TB Patients With Extensive Drug Resistance - TheBody.com
In a retrospective study, researchers assessed the impact of a diagnosis of extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) on treatment outcomes and long-term ...
  http://www.thebody.com/content/art49356.html
*  WHO Identifies Areas Where Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis 'Particular Problem,' Including Eastern Europe, China - TheBody.com
Drug-resistant tuberculosis is a 'particular problem' in areas of Eastern Europe and China, according to a report released on Tuesday by the Global ...
  http://www.thebody.com/content/art10300.html
*  A Troubling Rise In Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis | WAMC
Cases of drug-resistant tuberculosis are increasing around the globe, and at a faster rate than previously thought. And if that weren't enough, TB is
  http://wamc.org/post/troubling-rise-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
*  A Troubling Rise In Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis | WUTC
Cases of drug-resistant tuberculosis are increasing around the globe, and at a faster rate than previously thought. And if that weren't enough, TB is
  http://wutc.org/post/troubling-rise-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
*  Epidemiological trends and outcomes of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in Shandong, China | BMC Infectious Diseases |...
It is a large population and long term-based retrospective study that provides the first comprehensive assessment of XDR-TB in China and represent 8 years of the surveillance data almost from the first terming of XDR-TB in 2006.. The emergence of XDR-TB globally has raised awareness and concern about incurable forms of TB. Between January 2008 and December 2015, a total of 144 XDR-TB cases were identified, accounting for 27.9% of MDR-TB cases in our sample population, which is way above the average level (9%) globally in 2014 [15]. By contrast, a rate of 6.3%-12.8% has been documented in most of the previous studies from different regions of China, revealing the high prevalence of XDR-TB in our setting [16-18, 23, 24]. However, the rate is quite similar to the 23.59% from 2010 nationwide population-based survey in China [25]. The high prevalence of XDR-TB could be explained by the fact that our study was a provincial TB hospital based surveillance study, with a relatively high proportion of ...
  https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12879-017-2652-x/
*  The Xdr Tuberculosis Incident : United States Congress House of Represen : 9781240541850
The Xdr Tuberculosis Incident by United States Congress House of Represen, 9781240541850, available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide.
  https://www.bookdepository.com/Xdr-Tuberculosis-Incident-United-States-Congress-House-Represen/9781240541850
*  Control of Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis (XDR-TB) A | Docsford
4 RUGER, CONTROL OF XDR-TB medical conditions that would reduce their immunity, we felt that it was our responsibility to err on the side of abundant caution and issue the isolation order to assure that we were doing everything possible to protect people's 15health.‖ While the CDC and other health authorities cannot and do not require or compel testing for individuals who may have been exposed, health authorities do recommend that individuals in close proximity to an infected patient and with a compromised immune system receive the baseline skin test and the 16follow-up skin test for incubating TB infection. Moreover, some individuals have special TB risk because of their own medical history and are especially vulnerable. XDR-TB is particularly problematic for individuals with HIV or other conditions weakening the immune system, who are at higher risk of both 17TB infection upon exposure and of death upon contracting TB. Identifying these individuals, however, raises concerns about medical ...
  http://www.docsford.com/document/4278607
*  Plan to Combat Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis Recommendations of the Federal Tuberculosis Task Force<...
Diagnostic Laboratory The laboratory plays a critical role in the diagnosis and management of drug-resistant TB. Test results must be available in a time frame that allows clinicians to make prompt patient management decisions. Many laboratory techniques used to confirm a TB diagnosis and to identify drug resistance were developed in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. Substantial improvements have been made in culture techniques and in rapid methods in the past decade. However, these more accurate, rapid, and sophisticated methods have not been implemented widely, particularly in regions of the world where MDR TB and XDR TB are common and optimized algorithms for providing rapid point-of-care laboratory confirmation of TB and detection of drug resistance have not been established. To combat the growing problem of resistance to TB drugs, the most current methods need to be applied to their fullest capacity while better diagnostic ...
  https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5803a1.htm
*  Transmission of HIV-Associated XDR TB in Rural South Africa - Neel Gandhi
Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR TB) has emerged as a significant global epidemic and poses a particular threat to HIV-infected persons. Drug-resist...
  http://grantome.com/grant/NIH/R01-AI089349-05
*  Bedaquiline and Delamanid Combination Treatment of 5 Patients with Pulmonary Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis - Volume...
We report the experiences of 5 patients taking bedaquiline with delamanid in combination: 1 patient was cured; 3 culture converted, with 2 continuing and 1 changing therapy; and 1 died from respiratory insufficiency. For 2 patients, QT-interval prolongation but no arrhythmias occurred. Use of this therapy is justified for patients with limited options.
  https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/23/10/17-0834_article
*  What went wrong with India's TB control - NextBillion
Friday, August 16, 2013. Tuberculosis is very much in the news, but for all the wrong reasons - a shortage of drugs; increasing multi-drug and extensive drug resistance (MDR, XDR), making treatment both cumbersome and expensive; total drug resistance (TDR) as a veritable death warrant; popularly used serological tests for diagnosis being declared worse than useless, and a government order for mandatory case notification. Private practitioners are legally authorised to treat TB, but without quality check mechanisms. They often bypass the prescribed treatment protocol, while MDR, XDR and TDR result from non-protocol drug treatment.. India pioneered TB control among developing nations. A national TB control project was launched in 1962. With BCG vaccination as the main intervention, there was an air of expectancy that it would protect against TB. Free TB treatment was included to create goodwill in the ...
  https://nextbillion.net/news/what-went-wrong-with-indias-tb-control/
*  Epidemiology and clinical management of XDR-TB: a systematic review by TBNET | European Respiratory Society
A meta-analysis of the available data was not possible, owing to discrepancies between the studies with respect to definitions used and data elements collected. Since the study of XDR-TB as a phenomenon is relatively new, all the available studies have been affected by one or more of the following pitfalls: retrospective and observational design that does not permit collection of all useful variables; small sample size of XDR-TB cases (range 7-119); lack of quality-assured DST results; variable treatment regimens for XDR-TB (individualised or standardised) that prevent the possibility of drawing any conclusions on the effectiveness of single drugs or drug combinations 9-12, 16, 18-20, 22-24; and differences in outcome definitions that hamper the ability to compare results across studies (tables 1⇑-⇑3⇑).. Surprisingly, the proportion of retreatment cases in the cohort was not described in some studies and the number of previous treatment regimens longer than 1 month was not ...
  http://erj.ersjournals.com/content/33/4/871.long
*  Improving detection of drug-resistant tuberculosis
(Medical Xpress) -- European researchers are developing new assays to detect drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
  https://medicalxpress.com/print255157096.html
*  Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis as a Cause of Death in Patients Co-Infected With Tuberculosis and HIV in a Rural Area...
The authors of the current study noted the close association between HIV-1 and TB in South Africa. In the sub-Saharan Africa, TB is the most common cause ...
  http://www.thebody.com/content/art38858.html
*  TCA1 Compound Kills Persistent And Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis | Science 2.0
A team of researchers has identified a highly promising new anti-tuberculosis compound that attacks the tuberculosis (TB) bacterium in two different ways. Although isoniazid and rifampin, two front-line TB drugs, came into use in 1952 and 1967 respectively, new TB infections still occur at the rate of roughly one per second.
  http://www.science20.com/news_articles/tca1_compound_kills_persistent_and_drugresistant_tuberculosis-114945
*  What It Takes To Cure Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis | HPPR
We recently chatted with Dr. Mel Spigelman, the president of TB Alliance, and he answered five common questions about tuberculosis. We edited his responses
  http://hppr.org/post/what-it-takes-cure-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
*  Faces Of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis | Northwest Public Radio
Forms of tuberculosis are emerging that are costly, difficult and at times, nearly impossible to treat. This new, worldwide threat is called multidrug
  http://nwpr.org/post/faces-drug-resistant-tb
*  Asia and Australia | Best Syndication
Best Syndication News] The World Health Organization (WHO) said that in some areas in the world 1 out of 4 people that have tuberculosis are infected with a drug resistant form of the disease. They point out that 28 percent of cases diagnosed in the Northwestern part of Russia had this untreatable form of Tuberculosis (TB) in 2008.. WHO further explained that in their Multidrug and Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: 2010 Global Report on Surveillance and Response that approximately one-third of the 440,000 people worldwide have died from the new drug-resistant TB disease. Out of this Asia has the worst hit for the drug-resistant strain of TB with around 50 percent of these untreatable cases happening in China and India. They said that Africa had 69,000 cases but believe that many cases ...
  http://www.bestsyndication.com/?q=taxonomy/term/97&page=6
*  Potential treatment for drug-resistant TB discovered
... New York: Researchers led by an Indian-origin scientist have developed a new drug that may serve as a treatment against multi-drug resistant
  http://forum.punjabijunktion.co.in/f25/potential-treatment-drug-resistant-tb-discovered-555743/
*  TB partners, patients ask: How does a bacterium responsible for nearly a third of drug-resistance deaths not make list of R&D...
The day after the World Health Organization announced it had produced its "first ever" list of drug-resistant bacteria for which new medicines are the most urgently needed, the agency released a second announcement on the topic Tuesday, emphasizing its recognition of drug-resistant tuberculosis, which had been left off the list, as "a top priority for WHO and for the world." By that time, however, the omission of the leading infectious disease killer that leads to almost a third of all deaths resulting from drug resistance from a list that WHO called "a catalogue of 12 bacteria that pose the greatest threat to human health," had drawn responses from communities of tuberculosis response advocates that ranged from "dismay" to a demand that the list be amended.. ...
  http://hesp-news.org/2017/03/03/tb-partners-patients-ask-how-does-a-bacterium-responsible-for-nearly-a-third-of-drug-resistance-deaths-not-make-list-of-rd-priority-pathogens/