*  Food Competition and Linear Dominance Hierarchy Among Female Chimpanzees of the Taï National Park | SpringerLink
Dominance rank in female chimpanzees correlates positively with reproductive success. Although a high rank obviously has an advantage for females, clear (linear) hierarchies in female chimpanzees have not been detected. Following the predictions of the socio-ecological model, the type of food competition should affect the dominance relationships among females. We investigated food competition and relationships among 11 adult female chimpanzees in the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire (West Africa). We detected a formal linear dominance hierarchy among the females based on greeting behaviour directed from the subordinate to the dominant female. Females faced contest competition over food, and it increased when either the food was monopolizable or the number of competitors increased. Winning contests over food, but not age, was related to the dominance rank. Affiliative relationships among the females did not help to explain the absence of ...
*  Social dominance orientation
SDO was first proposed by Jim Sidanius and Felicia Pratto as part of their Social Dominance Theory (SDT). SDO is the key measurable component of SDT that is specific to it.. SDT begins with the empirical observation that surplus-producing social systems have a threefold group-based hierarchy structure: age-based, gender-based and arbitrary set-based, which can include race, class, sexual orientation, caste, ethnicity, religious affiliation, etc. Age-based hierarchies invariably give more power to adults and middle-age people than children and younger adults, and gender-based hierarchies invariably grant more power to men than women, but arbitrary-set hierarchies though quite resilient are truly arbitrary.. SDT is based on three primary assumptions:. 1. While age- and gender-based hierarchies will tend to exist within all social systems, arbitrary-set systems of social hierarchy will invariably emerge within social systems producing sustainable economic surpluses.. 2. Most forms of group ...
*  Social Dominance Authoritarians - Rule By Fearful Fantasies - Paperblog
In 2006, John Dean wrote this about neoconservatives in his book Conservatives Without Conscience: Neoconservatives are a relatively small group of social dominance authoritarians, with significant, if not disproportionate, i
*  Variations on a theme: Genomics of sex determination in the cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni | BMC Genomics | Full Text
The SD regions of A. burtoni span ~14 MB in the lab strain (blue box in Fig. 3) and ~16 MB in the wild-caught fish. In the lab strain, sex-associated SNPs can even be seen along a region of much longer size (~28 MB on LG5 and ~14 MB on LG14). The association signal of sex determination in the wild-caught Chipwa population is weaker than the one in the lab strain, which might be explained by a generally higher level of heterozygosity in wild compared to inbred fish. It could also be that the sex chromosomes of the Chipwa population are even younger or less differentiated than the one of the lab strain/northern populations or that sex determination is polygenic.. The same RAD-sequencing method detected comparable regions of sex-association of 18.2 MB around the SD locus in the medaka [31] in which the Y-chromosome specific part is only 250 kb long and the SD system is about 5-10 million years old. ([56] and references therein). In the three-spined stickleback with ~10my old sex chromosomes, ...
*  Disruption of Sexual Behaviour By High Ranking Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca Mulatta) » Brill Online
We studied the association between social rank and sexual behaviour in a group of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) (10 males, 14 females) housed in two adjacent 15.25 x 15.25 m compounds which were separated by a solid metal wall. This wall had a small opening through which the monkeys could move from one compound to another. Because of the position of this opening, most monkeys in one compound were hidden from view of the monkeys that remained in the other compound. It was therefore possible for an observer to record whether sexual behaviour was initiated within or outside the field of view of the four highest ranking animals (two males and two females). About 2/3 of the mount sequences initiated by lower ranking males were begun when the dominant animals were out of view. Such behaviour was usually disrupted if dominant animals entered the compound in which it was taking place. Most disruptions of sexual behaviour were accomplished by means of aggression directed by a dominant animal toward one or both
*  Data from: Age-graded dominance hierarchies and social tolerance in packs of free-ranging dogs - Dryad
This files contains data concerning gender, dominance rank, age and body size for some of the dogs studied. In particular, body measurements were collected for members of two dog packs, one studied during the period 2005-2006 (most behaviorual data analyses concerning this group were published by Cafazzo et al. 2010, Behav Ecol 21, 443-455), and another one studied during 2007-2008 (most behavioural data analyses concerning this one are included in Bonanni et al. 2017). As said above, the variable "age class" does not express the actual age of dogs in years, but rather it ranks pack members from the youngest (lowest rank) to the oldest one (highest rank). All body measurements are espressed in cm. Head size was obtained by summing up three distances: nose-occipital bone, temporal-temporal, mandible-forehead. Empty cells refer to missing values. In the original paper by Bonanni et al. (2017), these data were used to: 1) assess the correlation between standardized dominance ...
*  Yellow Paper Wasp Polistes dominulus - Download Animals
Fine Art Photography: Yellow Paper Wasp Polistes dominulus Author: Alfred Schauhuber Date: 2006-08-21 Maximum available size: 18. DOWNLOAD
*  Androgen Receptor May Explain Male Dominance In Liver Cancer - Redorbit
A University of Rochester study helps to explain why men get liver cancer more often than women and opens the door for a new treatment pathway, by showing a direct link between the androgen receptor, which is more active in men, and the hepatitis B virus as it relates to the deadly cancer.. The study was published May 19, 2010, in Science Translational Medicine, a new journal from the American Association for the Advancement of Science, AAAS.. Primary liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer in men. It often arises after infection from the hepatitis B virus (HBV), which is widespread across the globe and growing in the United States. Other studies of liver cancer have focused on risk factors such as age, family history, and use of alcohol and cigarettes, but those epidemiology studies have not explained the mechanisms driving hepatocellular carcinoma and why men are more susceptible.. Now, corresponding author Chawnshang Chang, Ph.D., the George Hoyt Whipple Distinguished Professor of ...
*  Female, but not male, agonistic behaviour is associated with male reproductive success in stable bluebanded goby (Lythrypnus...
In many social species, there are important connections between social behaviour and reproduction that provide critical insights into the evolution of sociality. In this study, we describe associations between agonistic behaviour and male reproductive success in stable social groups of bluebanded gobies (Lythrypnus dalli). This highly social, sex-changing species forms linear hierarchies of a dominant male and multiple subordinate females. Males reproduce with each female in the harem and care for the eggs. Since aggression tends to be associated with reduced reproduction in social hierarchies, we hypothesized that males in groups with high rates of aggression would fertilise fewer eggs. We also hypothesized that a male's agonistic behaviour would be associated with his reproductive success. Dominants often exert substantial control over their harem, including control over subordinate reproduction. To address these hypotheses, we quantified egg laying/fertilisation over 13 days and observed agonistic
*  Social Hierarchy in Animals: Dominance Tests in Mice - Maze Engineers
The study of social hierarchy in animals is important to understand the neurological basis of social dominance behavior. We shall discuss how to assess...
*  Researchers Find Link Between Social Status, Immunity in Monkeys - Redorbit
Changes in a female monkey's social status lead to changes in her immune system, and researchers writing in this week's edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) Early Edition suggest that the findings may be applicable to humans as well.. The research, which was led by Jenny Tung, currently a visiting assistant professor in Duke University's evolutionary anthropology department and a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Chicago at the time of the study, is said to be the first to utilize an experimental approach to analyze how gene expression patters across a range of genes correlates with the social dominance of an animal, the Durham, North Carolina-based school said in a press release on Monday.. Emory University, home of the Yerkes National Primate Research Center (where the research was conducted), said that Tung and her colleagues studied 49 female rhesus macaques and could determine the social rank of each macaque, without looking at the animal ...
*  Getting on top, genetically | Genome Biology | Full Text
For the first time, scientists have directly linked social cues to an immediate genetic response in the brain, according to a new study in PloS Biology. Only minutes after subordinate male cichlid fish sense an opportunity to become socially dominant, they display dominant characteristics such as changes in color and behavior, and express egr-1, encoding a transcription factor that likely triggers enhanced fertility and other long-term dominance traits.. "People forget that social influences are pretty important," said study co-author Russell Fernald at Stanford University in California. "Here's the case where the social is everything. [It] regulates brain structure in a very direct way.". Characterized by a dynamic social hierarchy, the cichlid fish Astatotilapia (Haplochromis) burtoni can readily alter sexual capacities, and only dominant males are physiologically able to reproduce. "We were interested in understanding how this occurred at a mechanistic level, uncovering earliest steps ...
*  Foundress behaviors and interactions in polygynous colonies of the haplometrotic Japanese paper wasp Polistes snelleni ...
Only two out of 959 pre-emergence colonies of the paper wasp Polistes snelleni de Saussure surveyed between 1989 and 1996 in Sapporo, northern Japan, were found to be two-foundress colonies, and the others were single-foundress colonies. The two foundresses in one of the two colonies showed neither aggressive dominance behavior nor clear division of labor between them during a total of approximately 30 h in the first half of the pre-emergence stage. Although both of the foundresses foraged for pulp and laid eggs, only one foundress foraged for prey and delivered it to the other. ...
*  Selfish herd theory - Wikipedia
The selfish herd theory states that individuals within a population attempt to reduce their predation risk by putting other conspecifics between themselves and predators. A key element in the theory is the domain of danger, the area of ground in which every point is nearer to a particular individual than to any other individual. Such antipredator behavior inevitably results in aggregations. The theory was proposed by W. D. Hamilton in 1971 to explain the gregarious behavior of a variety of animals. It contrasted the popular hypothesis that evolution of such social behavior was based on mutual benefits to the population. The basic principle governing selfish herd theory is that in aggregations, predation risk is greatest on the periphery and decreases toward the center. More dominant animals within the population are proposed to obtain low-risk central positions, whereas subordinate animals are forced into higher risk positions. The hypothesis has been used to explain why populations at higher ...
*  Dominance and Pseudoscience: Making Sense of Nonsense | Psychology Today
Dominance hierarchies in animals are real and rigorous science tells us so. Claims that dominance hierarchies are not real are based on misinformed readings of the results of solid scientific research by numerous talented researchers who really know the animals who they study and in some cases might be called pseudoscience.
*  Infidel753: May 2016
Civilization cannot exist without a strong state. Even hunter-gatherer bands have leaders; even chimpanzee groups have leaders. Dominance hierarchies are a distinctive feature of all primate social groups. When dominance hierarchies break down, the result is escalating violence, not greater freedom. The simpler forms of social organization in primitive pre-state societies don't allow much personal freedom in practice, since in those societies human behavior is strongly constrained by the expectations of tradition; and as we now know, levels of violence in such societies are staggeringly high by our standards. Also, such systems only work for small population sizes. If a society has a population above a few tens of thousands, in practice the only workable form of organization is the state. Historically, most states have not provided much freedom because doing so hasn't been a priority (in fact, historically one of the features of the state is large-scale slavery), but they do ...
*  Dominance hierarchies in vertebrates - The A Level Biologist - Your Hub
This is your stop for learning resources, extra info and essential dates and documents. I've scoured the world just to bring you, the A Level biologists, all you need to succeed and enjoy your Biology A Level.
*  High Testosterone Affects Financial Decisions
As he describes in the Proceedings of the Royal Society, the responders who rejected a low final offer had an average testosterone level more than 50% higher than the average of those who accepted. Five of the seven men with the highest testosterone levels in the study rejected a $5 ultimate offer but only one of the 19 others made the same decision.. What Dr Burnham's result supports is a much deeper rejection of the tenets of classical economics than one based on a slight mis-evolution of negotiating skills. It backs the idea that what people really strive for is relative rather than absolute prosperity. They would rather accept less themselves than see a rival get ahead. That is likely to be particularly true in individuals with high testosterone levels, since that hormone is correlated with social dominance in many species.. Economists often refer to this sort of behaviour as irrational. In fact, it is not. It is simply, as it were, differently rational. The things that money can buy are ...
*  Big thinkers | Harvard Gazette
Psychologists at Harvard University have found that infants younger than a year old understand social dominance and use relative size to predict who will prevail when two individuals' goals conflict.
*  Isolated MCA Disease in Patients Without Significant Atherosclerotic Risk Factors | Stroke
Using HR-MRI, we examined the vessel wall status in young adult patients with unilateral MCA disease who had minimal risk factors. HR-MRI including black-blood precontrast and postcontrast T1-weighted sequences with fat suppression image can delineate the arterial wall from the lumen and the surrounding perivascular structures,18 and postcontrast T1-weighted sequences can be used to identify the contrast enhancement of the arterial wall.12. We found that only 26 of the 95 (27.4%) patients showed HR-MRI findings compatible with atherosclerosis. Other nonatherosclerotic findings included HR-MMD (29 patients), HR-dissection (22 patients), and HR-vasculitis (18 patients). The HR-athero patients were more often male and smokers. Cigarette smoking is an important risk factor for cerebral infarction in young adults.19 The male dominance in the HR-athero group may in part be because of the different smoking prevalence between males and female. There also is a tendency for HR-athero ...
*  Plant Life: Ecology: Concept
Ecologists attempt to name and classify ecosystems in a manner similar to the way that taxonomists name and classify species. Ecosystems may be named according to their dominant plants, such as deciduous forests, prairies, and evergreen forests. Others, such as coral reefs, are named according to their dominant animals. Physical factors are used to name deserts, ponds, tidal pools, and other ecosystems ...
*  Dominance as Expressed and Inferred Through Speaking Time - Mast - 2002 - Human Communication Research - Wiley Online Library
Differences in speaking time during a group interaction are hypothesized to reflect differences in individual dominance. In order to test this assumption and to identify potential moderator variables influencing the strength of the predicted association, a meta-analysis was conducted. Whether speaking time is used to convey dominance to the same extent that it is used in inferring dominance was tested by contrasting studies concerned with dominance expressed in speaking time with studies of inferred dominance based on speaking time. Overall, and for the investigated subcategories of studies, the relationship between dominance and speaking time was significant. The strength of the associations, however, differed considerably due to the influence of moderator variables. The results showed that inferred dominance studies showed stronger associations between speaking time and ...
*  Alpha/Beta/Omega - Fanlore
A similar premise was used in Life from the Ashes in X-Files fandom in the 1990s. In that story, a virus biologically changes half of the male population into breeding partners who emit sex pheromones. Social differentiation between the biologically determined groups is not explicit, although by the end of the story, it is implied. You also see many of the same elements in Indago[1], a Harry/Draco story from the skyehawke archive published in 2005. Draco, Harry, and Snape turn out to be magical creatures called Indago, who are genderless but fall into categories of Supero and subicio, who are extremely similar to alphas and omegas, except for knotting. There is still scenting, heat, self-lubrication, mpreg, use of Supero pheromones to control or placate subicios, and Superos establish a dominance hierarchy and use the terms alpha and beta. In March 2011, the NCIS Gibbs/DiNozzo Centaur-fic Heat was posted by Kathana-grey, positing many of the same concepts used in early Omegaverse works but ...
*  Articles about Social Status - tribunedigital-sunsentinel
Social Status News. Find breaking news, commentary, and archival information about Social Status From The tribunedigital-sunsentinel
*  PPT - DOMINANCE PowerPoint Presentation - ID:3209975
DOMINANCE. INCOMPLETE DOMINANCE. Pattern of gene expression in which the phenotype of a heterozygous individual is intermediate between those of the parents. Cases in which one allele is not completely dominant over another. Snapdragons. HUH?. Slideshow 3209975 by penney