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*  Chromosome 20 (human) - Wikipedia
The following is a partial list of genes on human chromosome 20. For complete list, see the link in the infobox on the right. ... The following are some of the gene count estimates of human chromosome 20. Because researchers use different approaches to ... Gilbert F (1997). "Disease genes and chromosomes: disease maps of the human genome". Genet Test. 1 (3): 225-229. doi:10.1089/ ... 2001). "The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 20". Nature. 414 (6866): 865-871. doi:10.1038/414865a. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chromosome_20_(human)
*  Calico cat - Wikipedia
As with humans, female cats have paired sex chromosomes, XX, and male cats have XY sex chromosomes. The female cat, therefore, ... Such a combination of chromosomes could produce tortoiseshell or calico markings in the male, in the same way as XX chromosomes ... a male calico would have to have a rare condition where they have three sex chromosomes (two X chromosomes and one Y chromosome ... with one color linked to the maternal X chromosome and a second color linked to the paternal X chromosome. Because males only ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calico_cat
*  Radiation hybrid mapping - Wikipedia
The RH procedure was used to map 14 DNA probes from a region of human chromosome 21 spanning 20 megabase pairs. Deloukas, Panos ... If two given DNA markers are far apart on the initial chromosome, then it is likely that they will appear in distinct fragments ... First of all, desired chromosomes are broken into several segments with X-rays, after which they are implanted in rodent cells ... Radiation hybrid mapping (also known as RH mapping) is a technique for mapping mammalian chromosomes. Radiation hybrid mapping ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiation_hybrid_mapping
*  Intersex - Wikipedia
... where a productive human female has an XX chromosome pair, and a productive male has an XY pair, is relevant to the development ... 1976). "True hermaphroditism with XX/XY sex chromosome mosaicism: report of a case". Clin. Genet. 10 (5): 265-72. doi:10.1111/j ... Human Rights Commission of the City and County of San Francisco; de MarĂ­a Arana, Marcus (2005). A Human Rights Investigation ... Council of Europe; Commissioner for Human Rights (April 2015), Human rights and intersex people, Issue Paper, archived from the ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intersex
*  Mouse - Wikipedia
Humans have eaten mice since prehistoric times and still eat them as a delicacy throughout eastern Zambia and northern Malawi, ... The mouse has approximately 2.7 billion base pairs and 20 chromosomes. They can also be manipulated in ways that are illegal ... Mice are generally very docile if raised from birth and given sufficient human contact. However, certain strains have been ... Mice are no longer routinely consumed by humans elsewhere. However in Victorian Britain, fried mice were still given to ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mouse
*  Laboratory mouse - Wikipedia
This was only the second mammalian genome to be sequenced after humans. The haploid genome is about three billion base pairs ... "Human assembly and gene annotation". Ensembl. Retrieved 29 July 2013. "JAX Mice Database - 002983 MRL.CBAJms-Fas/J". Jaxmice. ... compared to an estimated 20,774 in humans. Various mutant strains of mice have been created by a number of methods. A small ... Kolata, Gina (11 February 2013). "Mice Fall Short as Test Subjects for Some of Humans' Deadly Ills". New York Times. Retrieved ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laboratory_mouse
*  Human accelerated regions - Wikipedia
HAR1 is an 106-base pair stretch found on the long arm of chromosome 20 overlapping with part of the RNA genes HAR1F and HAR1R ... There are 18 base pair mutations different between humans and chimpanzees, far more than expected by its history of ... Human accelerated regions (HARs), first described in August 2006, are a set of 49 segments of the human genome that are ... "Comment on "Human-Specific Gain of Function in a Developmental Enhancer"". Science. February 6, 2009. What Makes Us Human?, ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_accelerated_regions
*  Dosage compensation - Wikipedia
For example, in humans, females (XX) silence the transcription of one X chromosome of each pair, and transcribe all information ... of the Y chromosome during meiosis. Additionally, 10-25% of human X chromosome genes, and 3-7% of mouse X chromosome genes ... Specifically, platypus X1 shares homology with the chicken Z chromosome, and both share homology with the human chromosome 9. ... smaller W chromosome. Instead of silencing the entire chromosome as humans do, male chickens (the model ZZ organism) seem to ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dosage_compensation
*  Dominance (genetics) - Wikipedia
Human females are typically XX; males are typically XY. The remaining pairs of chromosome are found in both sexes and are ... In humans and other mammal species, sex is determined by two sex chromosomes called the X chromosome and the Y chromosome. ... Most animals and some plants have paired chromosomes, and are described as diploid. They have two versions of each chromosome, ... Each chromosome of a matching (homologous) pair is structurally similar to the other, and has a very similar DNA sequence (loci ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dominance_(genetics)
*  Wellcome Sanger Institute - Wikipedia
The Institute was engaged in collaborations to sequence 8 of the 23 human pairs of chromosomes (1, 6, 9, 10, 13, 20, 22, and X ... "International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium Announces "Working Draft" of Human Genome". National Human Genome Research ... Human Genome Sequencing Consortium (2004). "Finishing the euchromatic sequence of the human genome". Nature. 431 (7011): 931- ... The Institute's research in human genetics focuses on the characterisation of human genetic variation in health and disease. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wellcome_Sanger_Institute
*  Human genetics - Wikipedia
XX), and are called the homogametic sex. Males have two distinct sex chromosomes (XY), and are called the heterogametic sex. ... the sex of an individual is determined by a pair of sex chromosomes (gonosomes). Females have two of the same kind of sex ... The human genome is the total collection of genes in a human being contained in the human chromosome, composed of over three ... Genetic Chromosomal Human evolutionary genetics Human genome Human genetic clustering List of Mendelian traits in humans ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_genetics
*  PRNP - Wikipedia
The human PRNP gene is located on the short (p) arm of chromosome 20 between the end (terminus) of the arm and position 12, ... from base pair 4,615,068 to base pair 4,630,233. PrP is highly conserved through mammals, lending credence to application of ... "Localization of a human gene homologous to the PrP gene on the p arm of chromosome 20 and detection of PrP-related antigens in ... "Assignment of the human and mouse prion protein genes to homologous chromosomes". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83 (19): 7358- ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PRNP
*  Y chromosome - Wikipedia
The DNA in the human Y chromosome is composed of about 59 million base pairs. The Y chromosome is passed only from father to ... in addition to the ancestral XX female, through a variety of modifications to the X and Y chromosomes. In the creeping vole, ... Stevens proposed that chromosomes always existed in pairs and that the Y chromosome was the pair of the X chromosome discovered ... The chromosome with this allele became the Y chromosome, while the other member of the pair became the X chromosome. Over time ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Y_chromosome
*  Karyotype - Wikipedia
Humans have one pair fewer chromosomes than the great apes. Human chromosome 2 appears to have resulted from the fusion of two ... XX,5p-. The critical region for this syndrome is deletion of p15.2 (the locus on the chromosome), which is written as 46,XX,del ... Humans have FN = 82, due to the presence of five acrocentric chromosome pairs: 13, 14, 15, 21, and 22 (the human Y chromosome ... The normal human karyotypes contain 22 pairs of autosomal chromosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes (allosomes). Normal ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karyotype
*  XY sex-determination system - Wikipedia
In humans, most mammals, and some other species, two of the chromosomes, called the X chromosome and Y chromosome, code for sex ... where just one chromosome type appears in pairs for the female but alone in the males, while all other chromosomes appear in ... the fact that males have XY sex chromosomes and females have XX sex chromosomes. The first clues to the existence of a factor ... In humans, half of spermatozoons carry X chromosome and the other half Y chromosome. A single gene (SRY) present on the Y ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/XY_sex-determination_system
*  Human accelerated region 1 - Wikipedia
It is a Human accelerated region. It is located within a pair of overlapping long non-coding RNA genes, HAR1A (HAR1F) and HAR1B ... The HAR1B gene overlaps HAR1A, and is located on the opposite strand of the chromosome. Its expression in the human brain is ... In molecular biology, Human accelerated region 1 (highly accelerated region 1, HAR1) is a segment of the human genome found on ... Scientists Identify Gene Difference Between Humans and Chimps, Scientific American, 17 August 2006 Page for Human accelerated ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_accelerated_region_1
*  Sex differences in human physiology - Wikipedia
Of these 23 pairs of chromosomes, 22 are autosomes, and one is a sex chromosome. There are two kinds of sex chromosomes-"X" and ... designated XX, and males carry one X and one Y, designate A human egg contains only one set of chromosomes (23) and is said to ... The sex chromosome in a human egg is always an X chromosome, since a female only has X sex chromosomes. In sperm, about half ... The X-chromosome carries a larger number of genes in comparison to the Y-chromosome. In humans, X-chromosome inactivation ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sex_differences_in_human_physiology
*  Transphobia - Wikipedia
... based on the assumption that all people must have either an XX or XY sex-chromosome pair, or, in the case of cisgenderism, a ... "Stances of Faiths on LGBTQ Issues: Islam - Sunni and Shi'a". Human Rights Campaign. Human Rights Campaign. Steinem, Gloria (15 ... Cisgenderism refers to the assumption that, due to human sexual differentiation, one's gender is determined solely by a ... Raymond authored a paper in the 1980s which the United States Department of Health and Human Services allegedly used to deny ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transphobia
*  C7orf43 - Wikipedia
In humans, C7orf43 is located in the long arm of human chromosome 7 (7q22.1), and is on the negative (antisense) strand. Genes ... This promoter is 657 base pairs long and is located at position 99756182 to 99756838 in the negative strand of chromosome 7. ... "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "C7orf43 chromosome 7 open reading frame 43 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]". ... C7orf43 (Chromosome 7 Open reading frame 43) is a protein that in human is encoded by the gene C7orf43. C7orf43 has no other ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C7orf43
*  Nuclear sexing - Wikipedia
Nuclear sexing is a technique for genetic sex determination in those species where XX chromosome pair is present. Nuclear ... Barr body is the inactive X chromosome which lies condensed in the nucleus of somatic cells. A typical human female has only ... Though a Barr body can be sought in any human nucleated cell, circulating mononuclear cells are commonly used for this purpose ... one Barr body per somatic cell, while a typical human male has none. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_sexing
*  Lactoferrin - Wikipedia
In humans, lactoferrin gene LTF is located on the third chromosome in the locus 3q21-q23. In oxen, the coding sequence consists ... insertions and mutations of stop codons affect the coding part and its length varies between 2,055 and 2,190 nucleotide pairs. ... Human colostrum ("first milk") has the highest concentration, followed by human milk, then cow milk (150 mg/L). Lactoferrin is ... lactoferrin shows potent activity against both human immunodeficiency virus and human cytomegalovirus replication in vitro". J ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lactoferrin
*  NDUFA8 - Wikipedia
The NDUFA8 gene is located on the q arm of chromosome 9 in position 33.2 and spans 27,354 base pairs. The gene produces a 20 ... Related pseudogenes have also been identified on four other chromosomes. The human NDUFA8 gene codes for a subunit of Complex I ... NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 8 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NDUFA8 gene. The ... Smeitink J, van den Heuvel L (1999). "Human mitochondrial complex I in health and disease". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 64 (6): 1505-10 ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NDUFA8
*  C-value - Wikipedia
However, the base pairs of the XX female zygote are distributed among 2 homologous groups of 23 heterologous chromosomes each, ... The human genome's GC content is about 41%. Accounting for the autosomal, X, and Y chromosomes, human haploid GC contents are ... Although each zygote has 46 chromosomes, 23 chromosomes of the XX female zygote are heterologous while 24 chromosomes of the XY ... The X gamete contains an X chromosome, while the Y gamete contains a Y chromosome. The larger size of the X chromosome is ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C-value
*  Satellite DNA - Wikipedia
Some types of satellite DNA in humans are: A repeated pattern can be between 1 base pair long (a mononucleotide repeat) to ... "Structure of the major block of alphoid satellite DNA on the human Y chromosome". Journal of Molecular Biology. 195 (3): 457- ... Often the base pair repetition will disrupt proper protein synthesis, leading to diseases such as myotonic dystrophy.[citation ... Most satellite DNA is localized to the telomeric or the centromeric region of the chromosome. The nucleotide sequence of the ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Satellite_DNA
*  J. Craig Venter Institute - Wikipedia
... in which both sets of chromosomes were sequenced. In 2010, the Institute determined the 1.08 million base pair Mycoplasma ... Pennisi, E. (1998). "HUMAN GENOME PROJECT:A Planned Boost for Genome Sequencing, but the Plan is in Flux". Science. 281 (5374 ... "The Human Genome Project Race". Center for Biomolecular Science & Engineering, UC Santa Cruz. Retrieved 20 March 2012. Pruitt, ... In June 2000, Venter founded The Center for the Advancement of Genomics (TCAG), a think tank for studying the ethics of human ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._Craig_Venter_Institute