*  DMOZ - Health: Conditions and Diseases: Nutritional and Metabolic Disorders: Inherited: Congenital Chloride Diarrhea
Congenital Chloride diarrhea (CLD) is an intestinal transport defect of chloride ions. Retention of intestinal chloride causes water retention, which leads to watery diarrhea with an abnormally high chloride concentration. This defect presents in utero, with hydramnion presumably due to intrauterine diarrhea. The gestational period is shortened, and newborn babies have abdominal distension and chronic watery diarrhea. If untreated the condition leads to severe electrolyte changes with a fatal outcome, or to permanent damage of kidneys and brain. Treatment with chloride substitution and control of electrolyte balance is effective and patients can live an almost normal life complicated only by relatively loose stools.
*  What are some reasons for low sodium and low chloride levels? | Reference.com
Common causes of hypochloremia, or low chloride levels, include congestive heart failure, dehydration, excessive sweating and dehydration. Hyponatremia, or low sodium levels in the blood or urine,...
*  Sodium Chlorite Manufacturers, Suppliers & Exporters in India
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*  What can cause high chloride levels in your blood work? | Reference.com
Elevated chloride levels in blood work may be caused by bromide poisoning, diarrhea or certain medications used to treat glaucoma, according to MedlinePlus. High levels of sodium in the blood, kidney...
*  Plus it
Chloride transport in 24-h primary cultures of human and rabbit distal colonic crypt cells (90 +/- 5% viable) were characterized using the Cl(-)-sensitive fluorescent probe 6-methoxyquinolyl acetoethyl ester. To calculate the Cl- influx in millimolar per second, the Stern-Volmer quenching constant was determined to be 24.3 M-1 for human and 24.6 M-1 for rabbit colonocytes. Cl- influx was dependent on extracellular Cl- concentration ([Cl-]0), with maximal influx at [Cl-]0 , or = 20 mM. The adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent secretagogues forskolin (1 microM), prostaglandin E1 (1 microM), and 8-bromoadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (100 microM) increased Cl- influx in human colonocytes from 0.35 +/- 0.08 to 2.14 +/- 0.65, 1.85 +/- 0.51, and 0.84 +/- 0.04 mM/s (n = 4), respectively, and in rabbit colonocytes from 0.22 +/- 0.03 to 1.04 +/- 0.11, 1.24 +/- 0.12, and 1.08 +/- 0.07 mM/s (n = 5), respectively. Depending on the secretagogue, this influx was inhibited 50-90% by the ...
*  Ion transport by rabbit colon - Semantic Scholar
Descending rabbit colon, stripped ofmuscularis externa, absorbs Na and Cl under short-circuit conditions and exhibits a residual ion flux, consistent with HCO3 secretion, whose magnitude is approximately equal to the rate of active Cl absorption. Net K transport was not observed under short-circuit conditions. The results of ion replacement studies and of treatment with ouabain or amiloride suggest that the short-circuit currentI sc is determined solely by the rate of active Na transport and that the net movements of Cl and HCO3 are mediated by a Na-independent, electrically-neutral, anion exchange process. Cyclic AMP stimulates an electrogenic Cl secretion, abolishes HCO3 secretion but does not affect the rate of Na absorption under short-circuit conditions. Studies of the effect of transepithelial potential difference on the serosa-to-mucosa fluxesJ sm i of Na, K and Cl suggest thatJ sm Na ,J sm K and one-third ofJ sm Cl may be attributed to ionic diffusion. The permeabilities of the passive
*  Optogenetic visualization of presynaptic tonic inhibition of cerebellar parallel fibers
Tonic inhibition was imaged in cerebellar granule cells of transgenic mice expressing the optogenetic chloride indicator, Clomeleon. Blockade of GABAA receptors substantially reduced chloride concentration in granule cells due to block of tonic inhibition. This indicates that tonic inhibition is a significant contributor to the resting chloride concentration of these cells. Tonic inhibition was observed not only in granule cell bodies, but also in their axons, the parallel fibers (PFs). This presynaptic tonic inhibition could be observed in slices both at room and physiological temperatures, as well as in vivo, and has many of the same properties as tonic inhibition measured in granule cell bodies. GABA application revealed that PFs possess at least two types of GABAA receptor: one high-affinity receptor that is activated by ambient GABA and causes a chloride influx that mediates tonic inhibition, and a second with a low affinity for GABA that causes a chloride efflux that excites PFs. ...
*  Kidneys sans glomeruli | Renal Physiology
Supporting transcellular Cl absorption, apical membranes of both amphibian and mammalian proximal tubules bring Cl into the cell from the tubule lumen in exchange for organic anions such as oxalate and formate via isoforms of the SLC family of multifunctional anion exchangers (6, 7, 24, 81, 87, 152, 179, 181), and the basolateral membrane offers Cl channels that permit the exit of intracellular Cl into the renal interstitium (7, 149, 151). Supporting transcellular Cl secretion, same cells employ Cl/HCO3 exchange to bring Cl into the cell from the renal interstitium (2, 90, 117, 141, 193), and the apical membrane offers Cl channels that allow the efflux of Cl into the tubule lumen (1, 31, 99, 182). Thus amphibian and mammalian proximal tubules express the transporters for absorptive as well as secretory Cl transport (Fig. 10). Whether net transcellular Cl transport proceeds in the direction of absorption or secretion depends on many variables, among them 1) the relative number and activity of ...
*  Xe991 reveals differences in K(+) channels regulating chloride secretion in murine airway and colonic epithelium : Sussex...
The cognitive enhancer XE991 interacts with K(+) channels consisting of KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 heteromultimers to block the M-current. XE991 can also block KCNQ1 K(+) channels expressed in oocytes, but sensitivity is reduced when the channels are coexpressed with minK (KCNE1). The purpose of the study was to examine the interaction of XE991 with other types of K(+) channel, especially those in the basolateral membranes of murine epithelia. K(+) channel blockade was measured by the inhibition of chloride secretion resulting from depolarization. XE991 inhibited the chloride secretory current in colonic epithelia by an interaction with basolateral K(+) channels when forskolin was used as the stimulus. However, when 1-ethyl-2-benzimidazolinone (EBIO) was used to stimulate chloride secretion, XE991 was ineffective unless charybdotoxin was also present. Because EBIO also activates Ca(2+)-sensitive K(+) channels, whereas forskolin activates only cAMP-sensitive K(+) channels, it is concluded that the latter ...
*  Influence of Penetrating Chlorides on the Pore Structure of Structural Concrete
The present experimental investigation examines the influence of penetrating chlorides on the pore structure of structural concrete. For this purpose, the pore structure of concrete subjected to chloride penetration is compared with that of a similar concrete isolated from chlorides. To achieve the present objective, partially protected concrete slabs were exposed to chlorides for about two years by ponding with an aqueous solution of sodium chloride from the cast face. On completion of the exposure regime, the pore structure of concrete exposed to chlorides was compared with that of the adjacent concrete isolated from chloride intrusion. The concrete subjected to chloride intrusion showed a significant reduction in the number of coarser pores compared to the adjacent concrete isolated from chlorides. Various possibilities, such as degree of carbonation and degree of hydration were examined, step by step, to explain the ...
*  SLAH1, a homologue of the slow type anion channel SLAC1, modulates shoot Cl − accumulation and salt...
Salinity tolerance is correlated with shoot chloride (Cl-) exclusion in multiple crops, but the molecular mechanisms of long-distance Cl- transport are poorly defined. Here, we characterize the in planta role of AtSLAH1 (a homologue of the slow type anion channel-associated 1 (SLAC1)). This protein, localized to the plasma membrane of root stelar cells, has its expression reduced by salt or ABA, which are key predictions for a protein involved with loading Cl- into the root xylem. Artificial microRNA knockdown mutants of AtSLAH1 had significantly reduced shoot Cl− accumulation when grown under low Cl-, whereas shoot Cl- increased and the shoot nitrate/chloride ratio decreased following AtSLAH1 constitutive or stelar-specific overexpression when grown in high Cl-. In both sets of overexpression lines a significant reduction in shoot biomass over the null segregants was observed under high Cl- supply, but not low Cl- supply. Further in planta data showed AtSLAH3 overexpression increased the ...
*  "Sodium Chloride Levels for Finishing Feedlot Heifers" by Casey B. Wilson, Galen E. Erickson et al.
A trial was conducted to establish a NaCl level that maximizes intake and performance while minimizing excretion of Na to the environment. Fifty-nine individually fed yearling heifers (803 lb) were fed 113 days. NaCl was added to a corn-based feedlot diet at levels of 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.375 and 0.5 % of diet DM. No difference in ADG, DMI or F/G were observed with different levels of NaCl. Results suggest NaCl inclusion in the diet likely is not necessary to maintain acceptable feedlot performance.
*  A Comparison of Two Methods for Measuring the Chloride Ion Permeability of Concrete
The AASHTO T 277 test (recently adopted as ASTM C 1202) for chloride permeability is widely used. However, a number of researchers have criticized it for various reasons: (1) it is sensitive to differences in pore solution chemistry and therefore exaggerates the effectiveness of supplementary cementing materials in reducing permeability; (2) the relation between electrical conductivity and ion diffusion varies with the type of diffusion, making the test sensitive to small defects in the concrete; and (3) the measurement is taken before steady-state flow is achieved. This paper reports the results of parallel tests on 18 different concretes using both AASHTO T 277 and a modified version called the Norwegian test. The latter test provides a direct measure of the migration of chloride ions over time. The results show that although both tests lead to the same broad conclusions, they do not rank a series of concretes in the same order. The differences can be attributed largely to differences in pore ...
*  All That Spam: He Threw Sodium Chloride at Me
A collection of all the stuff I am bombarded with every day on Facebook and email and Twitter and so forth. Almost all of it is stuff that was sent to me and I did not request. I don't know where most of it came from other than the person that dropped it on me.. ...
*  Lauryl Methyl Gluceth-10 Hydroxypropyldimonium Chloride - Buy Lauryl Methyl Gluceth-10 Hydroxypropyldimonium Chloride...
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Synonyms for acetyl chloride in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for acetyl chloride. 1 synonym for acetyl chloride: ethanoyl chloride. What are synonyms for acetyl chloride?
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*  Patent US5840475 - Photothermographic element for providing a viewable retained image - Google Patents
An element is disclosed containing a photothermographic layer capable of providing a retained viewable image when imagewise exposed and heated. The Layer contains a high chloride {100} tabular grains.
*  Permeability to chloride ion | Material Testing | Geneq
Permeability to chloride ion - Modèle Proove'it ASTM C-1202 (). Description How easy it is to force chlorides into a concrete by applying an electrical charge, the 'RCPT Coulomb Test' according to the standard AASHTO T 277-831: 'Rapid
*  Donor-acceptor stabilized silaformyl chloride - Chemical Communications (RSC Publishing)
Formyl chloride (H(Cl)C [[double bond, length as m-dash]] O) is unstable at room temperature and decomposes to HCl and CO. Silicon analogue of formyl chloride, silaformyl chloride IPr·SiH(Cl) [[double bond, length as m-dash]] O·B(C6F5)3 (3) (IPr = 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropyl-phenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene), was stabiliz...
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*  AID 861041 - Open TG-GATES: Regimen: Single; Time: 6 hr; Dose: Middle; Route: Gavage | Dataset: Biochemistry; Assay: CHLORIDE ...
BioAssay record AID 861041 submitted by ChEMBL: Open TG-GATES: Regimen: Single; Time: 6 hr; Dose: Middle; Route: Gavage | Dataset: Biochemistry; Assay: CHLORIDE (Chloride); Study_ID: 275/10.