*  Hepatic very-low-density lipoprotein and apolipoprotein B production are increased following in vivo induction of betaine...
We have previously reported a positive correlation between the expression of BHMT (betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase) and ApoB (apolipoprotein B) in rat hepatoma McA (McArdle RH-7777) cells [Sowden, Collins, Smith, Garrow, Sparks and Sparks (1999) Biochem. J. 341, 639-645]. To examine whether a similar relationship occurs in vivo, hepatic BHMT expression was induced by feeding rats a Met (L-methionine)-restricted betaine-containing diet, and parameters of ApoB metabolism were evaluated. There were no generalized metabolic abnormalities associated with Met restriction for 7 days, as evidenced by control levels of serum glucose, ketones, alanine aminotransferase and L-homocysteine levels. Betaine plus the Met restriction resulted in lower serum insulin and non-esterified fatty acid levels. Betaine plus Met restriction induced hepatic BHMT 4-fold and ApoB mRNA 3-fold compared with Met ...
*  MALDI-TOF MS Genotyping of Polymorphisms Related to 1-Carbon Metabolism Using Common and Mass-Modified Terminators | Clinical...
The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR)1 677C,T polymorphism is the strongest known genetic determinant of total homocysteine (tHcy). Increased tHcy and the 677TT genotype are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, colorectal neoplasias, neural tube defects (NTDs), and pregnancy complications (1)(2). Several other genetic variants have been linked to 1-carbon metabolism, and their possible associations with risk of cardiovascular disease and other diseases are under investigation. These include betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) 742G,A (3), cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) 844ins68 (4) and 699C,T(5), cystathionase (cystathionine γ-lyase) (CTH) 1364G,T (6), dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) del19 (7)(8), nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) -786T,C (9) and 894G,T (10), folate receptor 1 (adult) (FOLR1) 1314G,A (11), methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NADP+ dependent) 1 (MTHFD1) -105T,C (Parle-McDermott A. ...
*  Gender-specific proteomic responses in zebrafish liver following exposure to a selected mixture of brominated flame retardants
Proteomic effect screening in zebrafish liver was performed to generate hypotheses following exposure (21 days) to a structurally diverse mixture of brominated flame retardants (BFRs). Fish were exposed to two doses (10 and 100 nmol/g feed). Two-dimensional gel-electrophoresis, image analysis and MALDI-TOF mass-spectrometry revealed 13 and 19 significant responses in males and females, respectively. Effects on proteins related to cellular maintenance and stress were observed in both genders. Regulated proteins were gender-specific, but functionally indicated common protective responses (peroxiredoxin 6 and Zgc:92891 in males and transketolase in females) suggesting oxidative stress. Betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) was induced in both genders. In addition a female-specific downregulation of ironhomeostatic proteins (iron-regulatory protein 1 and transferrin) were observed. Our proteomic approach revealed novel responses that suggest important ...
*  Downregulation of hepatic betaine:homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) expression in taurine-deficient mice is reversed by...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Halina Jurkowska, Julie Niewiadomski, Lawrence L Hirschberger, Heather B Roman, Kevin M Mazor, Xiaojing Liu, Jason W Locasale, Eunkyue Park, Martha H Stipanuk].
*  Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for Dimethylglycine (HMDB0000092)
Dimethylglycine (DMG) is an amino acid derivative found in the cells of all plants and animals and can be obtained in the diet in small amounts from grains and meat. The human body produces DMG when metabolizing choline into Glycine. Dimethylglycine that is not metabolized in the liver is transported by the circulatory system to body tissue. Dimethylglycine was popular with Russian athletes and cosmonauts owing to its reputed ability to increase endurance and reduce fatigue. DMG is also a byproduct of homocysteine metabolism. Homocysteine and betaine are converted to methionine and N, N-dimethylglycine by betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase. Dimethylglycine in the urine is a biomarker for the consumption of legumes ...
*  Crystal structure of the homocysteine methyltransferase MmuM from Escherichia coli | Biochemical Journal
Homocysteine S -methyltransferases (HMTs, EC catalyze the conversion of homocysteine to methionine using S -methylmethionine or S -adenosylmethionine as the methyl donor. HMTs play an important role in methionine biosynthesis and are widely distributed among microorganisms, plants, and animals. Additionally, HMTs play a role in metabolite repair of S -adenosylmethionine by removing an inactive diastereomer from the pool. The mmuM gene product from Escherichia coli is an archetypal HMT family protein and contains a predicted Zn-binding motif in the enzyme active site. Here we present X-ray structures for MmuM in oxidized, apo, and metallated forms, representing the first such structures for any member of the HMT family. The structures reveal a metal/substrate binding pocket distinct from those in related enzymes. The presented structure analysis and modelling of co-substrate interactions provide valuable insight into the function of MmuM in both ...
*  Genetic Polymorphism of Thiopurine S-methyltransferase in Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Jordan
Background and Aims: It has been demonstrated that homozygote and heterozygote mutant allele carriers for thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) are at high risk of developing myelosuppression after receiving standard doses of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP). The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of TPMT deficient alleles in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in Jordan and to compare it with other ethnic groups. Methods: We included 52 ALL childhood cases from King Hussein Cancer Research Center in Jordan. Genotyping of the rs1800460, rs1800462, and rs1142345 SNPs was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by sequencing. Comparisons were made with historical data for controls and for both volunteers and cases from other middle-eastern countries. Results: Mutant TPMT alleles were present in 3.8% (2/52) of patients. Allelic frequencies were 1.0% for both TPMT*B and TPMT*C. None of the patients were heterozygous or homozygous for TPMT*3A or TPMT *2. We did not ...
*  The complex relationship between folate/homocysteine metabolism and risk of Down syndrome | IRIS Università di Pisa
Folates are essential nutrients that are required for one-carbon biosynthetic and epigenetic processes. A deficiency in cellular folates results in aberrant DNA methylation, point mutations, chromosome breakage, defective chromosome recombination and aneuploidy. In 1999 it was first reported that impairments in folate/homocysteine metabolism, due to genetic polymorphisms of metabolic enzymes, could increase the risk for having an infant with Down syndrome (DS). That paper stimulated considerable investigation into the possible role of folate/homocysteine metabolism in the risk of having a DS child and several studies have been performed so far in different countries to better address this issue. However, despite 10 years of active research, the question is still unsolved. Overall, both in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that an impaired folate/homocysteine metabolism can result in chromosome 21 nondisjunction; however, the birth of a DS child seems to be ...
*  Methylated-DNA-[protein]-cysteine S-methyltransferase, active site (IPR001497) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
*  Species: Methylated-DNA-[protein]-cysteine S-methyltransferase, DNA binding (IPR014048) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
*  IBIMA Publishing Plasma Homocysteine Concentrations in Dogs
Disease and Homocysteine Concentration. Dogs in the heart disease, neoplastic disease, kidney disease, and skin disease groups had significantly higher plasma Hcy concentrations than control dogs. However,multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, and spay/neuter status revealed that Hcy concentration was only associated with skin disease when these other variables were included in the model. The odds ratio per 1 μmol/l increase in Hcy was 1.077, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.001-1.158, p,0.05. In the control group (n=187), the mean plasma Hcy concentration was 13.5 ± 0.4 μmol/l (first quartile-median-third quartile 9.6-12.8-16.0, and min-max 4.3-50.1 μmol/l). In the skin disease group (n=16), the mean plasma Hcy concentration was 20.3 ± 2.3 μmol/l (first quartile-median-third quartile 13.8-19.3-23.3, and min-max 9.7-49.8 μmol/l). The skin disease group included five Shih Tzus and 11 other dogs of nine different breeds. However, our finding that Hcy ...
*  Therapeutic Lessons from Pharmacogenetics | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of Physicians
Like many other drugs, mercaptopurine and azathioprine are associated with low therapeutic indices; large interindividual variations in their metabolism; and pharmacokinetic perturbation by numerous host factors, including genetic variation. Pharmacogenetics is the exploration of genetically determined alterations in a drug's usual metabolic pathway. Such alterations are often associated with the accumulation and toxicity of a drug and with shifts to different pathways that have toxic intermediates. The paper in this issue by Yates and colleagues [1] on the molecular diagnosis of thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPM) deficiency as a genetic basis for mercaptopurine and azathioprine toxicity provides an opportunity to discuss several therapeutic lessons from pharmacogenetics. These lessons can be condensed into the principle that large variations among patients in drug metabolism caused by multiple genetic and environmental factors require individualization of the dosage of many drugs to avoid ...
*  RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View - 5-methyltetrahydrofolate--homocysteine S-methyltransferase - Q2RJ67 (Q2RJ67 MOOTA)
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
*  Effect of betaine supplementation on cycling sprint performance | Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition |...
Our purpose was to examine the effect of one week of betaine ingestion on anaerobic power as measured with a series of four, 12 sec work bouts. We found that one week of betaine ingestion (2.5 g.d-1) improved sprint performance by 5.5 ± 0.8% compared to baseline and 3.5 ± 0.2% compared to the carbohydrate placebo. These results contrast with data from Hoffman et al. [10], who reported daily consumption of 2.5 grams of betaine mixed with a commercially available carbohydrate beverage for 15 days did not enhance peak power, mean power, rate of fatigue, or total work across two Wingate trials separated by 5 min of active rest. One likely explanation for some of the difference in the results between the studies is the nature of the sprint test. Our subjects completed more sprints (4 vs. 2) of a shorter duration (12 vs. 30 sec) that were interspersed with shorter periods of active recovery (2.5 vs. 5 min) relative to the subjects in Hoffman et al. [10]. ...
*  AllAboutFeed - Better feed efficiency with naturally sourced betaine
Betaine supplementation has numerous positive effects on animal performance. Recent studies with betaine from sugar beet molasses looked if this naturally derived betaine can substitute a certain amount of added methionine in broiler diets.
*  August 06, 2017<...
A 2002 look at investigated whether pigs given betaine supplementation showed changes in body composition, mainly in the event that they misplaced greater fat whilst taking betaine. The outcomes confirmed that betaine had effective affects and that inside the pigs fed betaine supplements, their potential to metabolize protein stepped forward and that they lost more fat than the manage institution of pigs (no longer receiving betaine) did. Protein deposition changed into determined to be better within the pigs taking betaine, at the same time as frame fat probabilities have been discovered to be lower than in the pigs now not taking betaine. And this fashion had a linear relationship, which means that the extra betaine the pigs were given, the greater fats-loss consequences they experienced. (23 ...
*  Cocamidopropyl betaine supplier distributor- CAS 61789-40-0 70851-07-9 83138-08-3
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*  The regulation of folate and methionine metabolism | Biochemical Journal
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*  High Potency Vitamin B12 Sublingual Powder | Higher Nature
B12 is needed for the formation of red blood cells, normal homocysteine metabolism, energy production, the nervous system and the immune system
*  Betaine HCL
I have been using betaine HCL for the last 3 weeks and it has probably been the most beneficial effect from any supplement I have taken in a long time. Best part is the relief has lasted more than the usual 1-2 weeks. I once tried a betaine HCL product in the past but I took it the same time as taking a probiotic (I have found I always rash up from probiotics, without exception.) It may be worth a try, I'm having a lot of success using it everyday and cycling my other supplements. In
*  Nature's Life Betaine HCl 648 mg - 250 Caps - eVitamins.com
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*  Betaine HCl
Betaine Hydrochloride main physiologic function is to protect cells that are under stress, and to provide methyl groups that are necessary to many biological functions.
*  BETAINE ANHYDROUS: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD
Find patient medical information for BETAINE ANHYDROUS on WebMD including its uses, effectiveness, side effects and safety, interactions, user ratings and products that have it.
*  Female Diagnostic Testing
We need follicle stimulating hormones (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, and estradiol levels (E2) on either Day 2 or 3 of your cycle.