*  Dorsomedial nucleus of hypothalamus | definition of dorsomedial nucleus of hypothalamus by Medical dictionary
Looking for online definition of dorsomedial nucleus of hypothalamus in the Medical Dictionary? dorsomedial nucleus of hypothalamus explanation free. What is dorsomedial nucleus of hypothalamus? Meaning of dorsomedial nucleus of hypothalamus medical term. What does dorsomedial nucleus of hypothalamus mean?
*  Effect of PFAS Exposure on Reproduction : a Comparative Investigation between Kisspeptin-secreting AVPV and Arcuate Nuclei
Ovulation requires preovulatory surges of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from preoptic hypothalamic neurons, initiated by elevated ovarian estradiol (E₂). Rising estradiol activates a subset of sexually dimorphic kisspeptin (Kiss-1) neurons in the female, located in the anteroventral periventricular nuclei (AVPV). Conversely, estradiol negative feedback on GnRH secretion is mediated by a neuroanatomically separate population of Kiss-1 neurons in the arcuate nuclei. Kisspeptin stimulates GnRH expression and secretion in vivo, and the development of this system is critical for the initiation of puberty. To elucidate how phenotypically similar Kiss-1 neuronal populations react differentially to estradiol exposure, we have generated two immortalized Kiss-1 cell lines from kiss1-GFP post-pubertal female mice. These cell models recapitulate in vivo differential responsiveness to estradiol, with KTaV-3 (AVPV-derived) demonstrating ~6-fold increases in kiss1 expression under higher estradiol ...
*  A G-Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor Is Involved in Hypothalamic Control of Energy Homeostasis | Journal of Neuroscience
For the first time we have identified a nonsteroidal compound, STX, which selectively targets the mER and is more potent than E2 in activating a membrane delimited pathway in hypothalamic arcuate neurons. STX is fully efficacious in ERα and ERβ knock-out mice and has no proliferative effects on reproductive organs, yet it is effective in reducing the weight gain associated with hypoestrogenic states. Although we found that other arcuate neurons express this mER signaling pathway (Qiu et al., 2003), this pathway is involved in heterologous desensitization of the μ-opioid (autoreceptor) and GABAB receptors in POMC neurons and therefore would play a critical role in dictating the level of excitability POMC neurons. These neurons appear to be the critical "relay" neurons in the melanocortin pathway, and their activity ultimately dictates the level of excitability in feeding circuits (Saper et al., 2002; Jobst et al., 2004; Cone, 2005).. Presently, we have characterized an mER ...
*  Most recent papers with the keyword arcuate nucleus | Read by QxMD
The study explored effects of brexpiprazole (partial D2/5-HT1A agonist, 5-HT2A and α1B/2C-adrenoceptor antagonist) in rats exposed to predator scent stress (PSS), a proposed model of PTSD-like phenotype. Brexpiprazole (3.0mg/kg, PO), escitalopram (5.0mg/kg, IP) and their combination were administered twice daily for 14 days, starting 14 days after exposure to PSS or sham-PSS, shortly after a situational stress reminder. One day after last treatment behavioral responsivity was assessed. Brexpiprazole+escitalopram-treated rats spent more time in open arms, entered open arms more often and exhibited a lower anxiety index in the elevated plus maze than vehicle-treated, PSS-exposed rats ...
*  Prolactin Signalling in the Arcuate Nucleus During Pregnancy and Lactation
Prolactin is a pleiotropic hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland with numerous functions throughout the body. Prolactin regulates its own release via a "short-loop" feedback mechanism mediated by dopaminergic neurons located in the arcuate nucleus. These neurons release dopamine into the median eminence through the portal blood system to the anterior pituitary gland, where it inhibits further PRL release. During late-pregnancy and lactation, elevated levels of prolactin are required; therefore changes in this regulatory system are essential. Such alterations may arise due to changes in the characteristics of these neurons, whereby they cease producing dopamine in response to prolactin. Interestingly, previous findings in rats suggest they also start expressing the opioid peptide enkephalin at this time.. This thesis aims to extend these observations into a mouse model by investigating tyrosine hydroxylase (dopamine synthesising enzyme) and proenkephalin A mRNA ...
*  Agouti-related peptide - Wikipedia
Agouti-related protein (AgRP), also called agouti-related peptide, is a neuropeptide produced in the brain by the AgRP/NPY neuron. It is synthesised only in neuropeptide Y (NPY)-containing cell bodies located in the ventromedial part of the arcuate nucleus in the hypothalamus. AgRP is co-expressed with NPY and acts to increase appetite and decrease metabolism and energy expenditure. It is one of the most potent and long-lasting of appetite stimulators. In humans, the agouti-related peptide is encoded by the AGRP gene. AgRP is a paracrine signalling molecule made up of 112 amino acids (the gene product of 132 amino acids is processed by removal of the N-terminal 20-residue signal peptide domain). It was independently identified by two teams in 1997 based on its sequence similarity with agouti signalling peptide (ASIP), a protein synthesised in the skin that controls coat colour. AgRP is approximately 25% identical to ASIP. The murine homologue of AgRP consists of 111 amino ...
*  JCI - Arcuate neuropeptide Y inhibits sympathetic nerve activity via multiple neuropathways
Obesity increases sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) via activation of proopiomelanocortin neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ArcN), and this action requires simultaneous withdrawal of tonic neuropeptide Y (NPY) sympathoinhibition. However, the sites and neurocircuitry by which NPY decreases SNA are unclear. Here, using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) to selectively activate or inhibit ArcN NPY neurons expressing agouti-related peptide (AgRP) in mice, we have demonstrated that this neuronal population tonically suppresses splanchnic SNA (SSNA), arterial pressure, and heart rate via projections to the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH). First, we found that ArcN NPY/AgRP fibers closely appose PVN and DMH presympathetic neurons. Second, nanoinjections of NPY or an NPY receptor Y1 (NPY1R) antagonist into PVN or DMH decreased or increased SSNA, respectively. Third, blockade of DMH NPY1R reversed the ...
*  Identification of proopiomelanocortin neurones in rat hypothalamus by in situ cDNA-mRNA hybridization. - Semantic Scholar
Ardrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), beta-endorphin and the melanotropins (MSHs) are all derived from a single large precursor molecule, proopiomelanocortin (POMC) by individual processing through a series of co- and post-translational modifications. Although the primary site of synthesis is in the pituitary, POMC-derived peptides have been identified in various tissues, notably the brain (see refs 6, 7 for review). A major question concerning brain POMC is whether it is synthesized within the central nervous system (CNS) itself or whether it is taken up from plasma flowing in a retrograde fashion from the pituitary. POMC peptides have been detected immunohistochemically and biochemically in the medial basal hypothalamus, the amygdala and throughout the brain stem. POMC peptide-containing cell bodies have been identified only in two cell groups, however, principally in the periarcuate region of the hypothalamus and to a lesser extent in the nucleus of the tractus solitarius. ...
*  Comparative analysis of kisspeptin-immunoreactivity reveals genuine differences in the hypothalamic Kiss1 systems between rats...
Kiss1 mRNA and its corresponding peptide products, kisspeptins, are expressed in two restricted brain areas of rodents, the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and the arcuate nucleus (ARC). The concentration of mature kisspeptins may not directly correlate with Kiss1 mRNA levels, because mRNA translation and/or posttranslational modification, degradation, transportation and release of kisspeptins could be regulated independently of gene expression, and there may thus be differences in kisspeptin expression even in species with similar Kiss1 mRNA profiles. We measured and compared kisspeptin-immunoreactivity in both nuclei and both sexes of rats and mice and quantified kisspeptin-immunoreactive nerve fibers. We also determined Kiss1 mRNA levels and measured kisspeptin-immunoreactivity in colchicine pretreated rats. Overall, we find higher levels of kisspeptin-immunoreactivity in the mouse compared to the rat, independently of brain region and ...
*  Plus it
In rodents, chronic estrogenization has been shown to induce degeneration of dendrites and myelin figures in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus adjacent to peroxidase-positive astrocyte processes. Because in this brain region estradiol is metabolized to 2- hydroxyestradiol (catecholestrogen), we hypothesized that the latter may be oxidized by the astrocytic peroxidase activity to cytotoxic ortho-semiquinones as occurs in peripheral tissues. Cysteamine induces nonenzymatic peroxidase activity in cultured astroglia identical to that observed in vivo. Using electron spin resonance, we demonstrate robust peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of 2-hydroxyestradiol and dopamine by cysteamine-pretreated astrocyte cultures relative to untreated controls. These results implicate the peroxidase-positive astrocytes in the pathogenesis of estradiol-related hypothalamic damage, parkinsonism, and other free-radical-related neurologic disorders.. ...
*  Letteratura Scientifica 2007 | Bollettinoginendo
Follicular development and ovulation are suppressed during lactation in various mammalian species, mainly due to the suppression of pulsatile GnRH/LH secretion. Metastin (kisspeptin-54), a KiSS-1 gene product, is an endogenous ligand for GPR54, a G-protein-coupled receptor, and suggested to play a critical role in regulating the gonadal axis. The present study therefore aims to determine whether metastin (kisspeptin-54)-GPR54 signaling in discrete brain areas is inhibited by the suckling stimulus that causes suppression of LH secretion in lactating rats. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the KiSS-1 mRNA level was significantly lower in the arcuate nucleus (ARC)-median eminence region in lactating ovariectomized (OVX) and estrogen-treated OVX rats than in nonlactating controls. KiSS-1 mRNA in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus was kept at a low level in both lactating and nonlactating rats despite estrogen treatment. GPR54mRNAlevels were significantly ...
*  MC4R Dimerization in the Paraventricular Nucleus and GHSR/MC3R Heterodimerization in the Arcuate Nucleus: Is There Relevance...
The worldwide obesity epidemic is increasing, yet at this time, no long-acting and specific pharmaceutical therapies are available. Peripheral hormonal signals communicate metabolic status to the hypo
*  Medical Advisor Journals by Kyle J. Norton: Hormone Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT): Metabolic syndrome: a brain disease
According to the study by The TsimTsoum Institute, Krakow, Silesia, Poland, increased sympathetic activity, with increased secretion of catecholamine, cortisol, and serotonin can cause oxidative stress, which may damage the arcuate nucleus as well as the hypothalamus and macrophages, and the liver may release pro-inflammatory cytokines. These, in conjunction with an underlying deficiency in long chain PUFA, may damage the arcuate nucleus as well as neuropeptide-Y and pro-opiomelanocortin neurons and insulin receptors in the brain, especially during fetal life, infancy, and childhood, resulting in their dysfunction(32 ...
*  Involvement of nitric oxide in disease-related anorexia - Zurich Open Repository and Archive
The nitric oxide (NO) producing enzyme inducible NO synthase isoform (iNOS) is strongly upregulated under inflammatory conditions in the arcuate nucleus, a hypothalamic key structure for the control of food intake and energy balance. This project aims to prove the concept that a pharmacological blockade of iNOS attenuates anorexia and associated disease symptoms induced by the proinflammatory endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We also analyzed the association between LPS-induced anorexia and pSTAT3-formation in the arcuate nucleus and in hindbrain feeding centers (AP/NTS region). pSTAT3 is a cytokine dependent transcription factor, which is suggested to control iNOS expression. Findings and conclusions: NO contributes to LPS-induced anorexia because anorexia is attenuated by the specific iNOS-inhibitor 1400W. In addition, 1400W treatment also ameliorates other LPS-induced symptoms (e.g. adipsia, fever, inactivity). LPS treatment induces a ...
*  Category:Arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus
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*  EfferentProjections :Category:Arcuate nucleus of medulla - NeuroLex
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*  Proopiomelanocortin deficiency | definition of proopiomelanocortin deficiency by Medical dictionary
Looking for online definition of proopiomelanocortin deficiency in the Medical Dictionary? proopiomelanocortin deficiency explanation free. What is proopiomelanocortin deficiency? Meaning of proopiomelanocortin deficiency medical term. What does proopiomelanocortin deficiency mean?
One of the main actions of ghrelin, which attracted the interest of researchers mainly due to its possible therapeutic potential, is its orexigenic action. It is recognized that ghrelin transmits hunger signals from the periphery to the central nervous system. Thus, it enhances appetite, increases food intake and reduces energy consumption, with consequent weight gain(41). The discovery of GOAT, enzyme responsible for ghrelin acylation(11) was a step forward in understanding the role played by acyl-modification in the physiology of ghrelin. The GOAT-ghrelin system acts as a nutrient sensor informing the body of the presence of nutrients(42). The central site of ghrelin action is the hypothalamus (mainly the arcuate nucleus, with increased expression of NPY and AgRP orexigenic peptide), where ghrelin and leptin exert antagonistic effects, the two molecules being in competitive interaction(43,44). Furthermore, it was demonstrated that ghrelin is involved in meal ...
*  gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) | biochemistry | Britannica.com
gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH): GnRH a neurohormone consisting of 10 amino acids that is produced in the arcuate nuclei of the hypothalamus. GnRH stimulates the synthesis and secretion of the two gonadotropins...
*  Series: Leptin
Once you have added the Leptin Rx to your paleo/primal template and you have successfully experienced all the "small wins" that I mentioned in the Leptin FAQ's blog, what should you do next? If you recall reading the blog on how the leptin Rx works, it basically is a plan to make your gastrointestinal tract perform visceral exercises that it is not accustomed to performing, in order to cause neuroplastic changes in your hypothalamus' arcuate nucleus. It uses the vagus nerve as the "stimulator" to send these new messages to the brain. After a period of time, the inflammation will slowly dissipate at the median eminence, and these afferent signals will force expression of certain genes that have been repressed since we were in utero. These genes and pathways are hardwired into our DNA at conception, and used until the child is 12-24 months old. After this time, they are not expressed any longer, because transgenerational epigenetics favors instead the use of the leptin ...
*  Stimulate the Mind, Fight Cancer | Science Signaling
Cao et al. investigated the effect of enriched housing environments on tumor growth (see also Kappeler and Meaney). Mice living in enriched environments (EE mice) developed fewer, smaller, and slower-growing tumors when subcutaneously injected with B16 melanoma cells than control mice in standard group housing. In addition, EE mice showed altered serum concentrations of various circulating factors, such as increased adiponectin and decreased leptin concentrations. Sera from EE mice inhibited the in vitro proliferation of B16 melanoma cells, an effect also seen with sera from control mice pretreated with a neutralizing antibody directed against leptin. Gene expression analysis of nuclei in the hypothalamus revealed that the abundance of the mRNA encoding brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was higher in the arcuate nuclei of EE mice compared with that in control mice. Overexpression of BDNF in the hypothalamus resulted in decreased serum leptin concentrations and smaller tumors, whereas ...
*  Ghrelin通过弓状核区域α型雌二醇受体神经元介导雌性小鼠采食调控
摘要 Ghrelin作为一种具有特殊功能的能量调控因子,在能量代谢平衡以及生殖调控研究中被广泛关注,然而其在小鼠性周期变化过程中发挥调控的机制尚不明确。本研究通过腹腔注射ghrelin研究其对小鼠性周期不同阶段采食量及血清中雌二醇浓度的影响,并运用免疫荧光技术鉴定了ghrelin与弓状核(arcuate nucleus,ARC)区域分布的α型雌二醇受体(estrogen receptor α,ERα)神经元之间的共表达情况。结果表明,ghrelin(50 μg·kg-1)注射后的2 ...
*  Hormone Might Help Restore Female ... ( Kisspeptin spurs healthy ovulation re...)
Health,...Kisspeptin spurs healthy ovulation researchers explain ...TUESDAY March 17 (HealthDay News) -- A hormone called kisspeptin may ...The study included 10 women who were not menstruating and were inferti...The women who received kisspeptin had a 48-fold increase in LH and a 1...,Hormone,Might,Help,Restore,Female,Fertility,,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
*  leptin sensitivity
If you read Part 2 of this series you will have a solid action plan to get your metabolism back to normal levels. In the process, you may add a touch of body fat, but will be in a much stronger position to get lean for summer.. ...
*  Aborted Arc - TV Tropes
The Aborted Arc trope as used in popular culture. When a Story Arc disappears off the face of the storyline without warning, never to be heard from again.