*  British Library EThOS: Identification and characterization of new messenger RNA interferases of Escherichia coli
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) loci, which are widely distributed in prokaryotes, are organized in small operons, consisting of genes ... Activation of the toxin occurs when the toxin is in excess of the antitoxin, for example during nutritional stress when the ... labile antitoxins are rapidly degraded by cellular proteases. The biological function of TA systems is debated and several ... encoding toxins and antitoxins. Transcription from the promoter is regulated by the TA protein complex. ...
  http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.555996
*  The mosaic accessory gene structures of the SXT/R391-like integrative and conjugative elements derived from Vibrio spp....
Wozniak RA, Waldor MK: A toxin-antitoxin system promotes the maintenance of an integrative conjugative element. PLoS Genet. ... possibly encoding additional anti-toxin component protecting against the loss of the ICEs [10]. It is thus interesting to study ... which consists of the previously described s044 and s045 genes encoding putative toxin-antitoxin system proteins [23]. ... which encode a novel toxin-antitoxin pair that promotes SXT maintenance by killing or severely inhibiting the growth of cells ...
  https://bmcmicrobiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2180-13-214
*  hipA - Serine/threonine-protein kinase toxin HipA - Escherichia coli (strain K12) - hipA gene & protein
The toxic effect of HipA is neutralized by its cognate antitoxin HipB (PubMed:20616060). Also neutralized by overexpression of ... hipA7 decreases the affinity for antitoxin HipB, leading to increased HipA levels and persistence (PubMed:20616060); depending ... Toxic component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) module, first identified by mutations that increase production of persister ... Toxic component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) module, first identified by mutations that increase production of persister ...
  http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P23874
*  Bacterial Toxin-Antitoxin Systems: More Than Selfish Entities?
They are composed of closely linked genes encoding a stable toxin that can harm the host cell and its cognate labile antitoxin ... Bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are diverse and widespread in the prokaryotic kingdom. ...
  http://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.1000437
*  Unrelated toxin-antitoxin systems cooperate to induce persistence | Journal of The Royal Society Interface
b) M, mRNA; A, antitoxin; T, toxin; C, antitoxin bound to one toxin; D, antitoxin bound to two toxins. A and T are both ... Model of coupled toxin-antitoxin systems. (a) The toxin and antitoxin are translationally coupled. The antitoxin binds and ... Experimental evidence indicates that one toxin-antitoxin system can trigger another, unrelated toxin-antitoxin system [46-48]. ... differing only in the normal rate constant for antitoxin degradation When the antitoxin is more stable (e.g. figure 2b, red), ...
  http://rsif.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/12/108/20150130
*  Mixed Gas-Gangrene Antitoxin (Gas-Gangrene Antitoxin Novyi; Gas-Gangrene Antitoxin Perfringens...)
Mixed Gas-Gangrene Antitoxin indications, usages and related health products lists ... Mixed Gas-Gangrene Antitoxin information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses, ... Gas-Gangrene Antitoxin Novyi*Gas-Gangrene Antitoxin Perfringens*Gas-Gangrene Antitoxin Septicum. ... Find online pharmacy, drugstore, pharma or beauty shop where to order or buy Mixed Gas-Gangrene Antitoxin brand or generic ...
  http://drugs-about.com/drugs-m/mixed-gas-gangrene-antitoxin.html
*  Toxins | Free Full-Text | sRNA Antitoxins: More than One Way to Repress a Toxin
The antitoxin can either be an RNA or a protein. For type I and type III loci, the antitoxins are RNAs; however, they have very ... Type I antitoxins repress toxin protein expression through interacting with the toxin mRNA, thereby targeting the mRNA for ... Along with these two very different modes of action for the antitoxin, there are differences in the functions of the toxin ... an antitoxin to repress its function or expression. ... type III antitoxins directly bind to the toxin protein, ...
  http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6651/6/8/2310
*  Antitoxic | Article about antitoxic by The Free Dictionary
antitoxin. (redirected from antitoxic). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal. antitoxin,. any of a group of ... See Botulism, Diphtheria, Immunity, Toxin-antitoxin reaction. antitoxin. [‚an·tē′täk·sən] (immunology) An antibody elaborated ... Antitoxins may be formed in humans as a result of the disease or the carrier state, or following vaccination with toxoids, and ... Antitoxin. An antibody that will combine with and generally neutralize a particular toxin. When the manifestations of a disease ...
  http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/antitoxic
*  Hok/sok system - Wikipedia
The F plasmid contains another homologous toxin-antitoxin system called srnB. The first type I toxin-antitoxin system to be ... Daughter cells without a copy of the R1 plasmid die because they do not have the means to produce more sok antitoxin transcript ... It was the first type I toxin-antitoxin pair to be identified through characterisation of a plasmid-stabilising locus. It is a ... Due to the short half-life of the sok antitoxin, daughter cells inherit only small amounts and it quickly degrades. If a ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hok/sok_system
*  Toxin-antitoxin system - Wikipedia
Type III toxin-antitoxin systems rely on direct interaction between a toxic protein and an RNA antitoxin. The toxic effects of ... Type I toxin-antitoxin systems rely on the base-pairing of complementary antitoxin RNA with the toxin's mRNA. Translation of ... Toxin-antitoxin systems are typically classified according to how the antitoxin neutralises the toxin. In a Type I toxin- ... Toxin-antitoxin database Van Melderen L, Saavedra De Bast M (March 2009). Rosenberg, Susan M., ed. "Bacterial Toxin-Antitoxin ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toxin-antitoxin_system
*  LdrD-RdlD toxin-antitoxin system - Wikipedia
... as is common with Type 1 toxin-antitoxin systems. Toxin-antitoxin system Hok/sok system RatA Kawano M, Oshima T, Kasai H, Mori ... This is in keeping with other type I toxin-antitoxin systems. Northern blots showed that ldrD and rdlD are both transcribed and ... Fozo EM, Makarova KS, Shabalina SA, Yutin N, Koonin EV, Storz G (June 2010). "Abundance of type I toxin-antitoxin systems in ... Van Melderen L, Saavedra De Bast M (March 2009). "Bacterial toxin-antitoxin systems: more than selfish entities?". PLoS Genet. ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LdrD-RdlD_toxin-antitoxin_system
*  Antitoxin - Wikipedia
History of antitoxinEdit. Antitoxins to diphtheria and tetanus toxins were produced by Emil Adolf von Behring and his ... An antitoxin is an antibody with the ability to neutralize a specific toxin. Antitoxins are produced by certain animals, plants ... To prevent serum sickness, it is often best to use antitoxin generated from the same species (e.g. use human antitoxin to treat ... An antitoxin for scarlet fever was developed in 1924 simultaneously by Raymond Dochez and Gladys and George Frederick Dick.[4] ...
  https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antitoxin
*  Tetanus antitoxin unit definition | Drugs.com
Definition of tetanus antitoxin unit. Provided by Stedman's medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ...
  https://www.drugs.com/dict/tetanus-antitoxin-unit.html
*  Plus it
Treatment of Diphtheria with Refined Antitoxin Br Med J 1939; 1 :384 ... Treatment of Diphtheria with Refined Antitoxin. Br Med J 1939; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.4077.384 (Published 25 ...
  https://www.bmj.com/content/1/4077/384
*  C & D Antitoxin for Animal Use - Drugs.com
D Antitoxin for animal usage including: active ingredients, directions for use, precautions, and storage information. ... C & D Antitoxin. This page contains information on C & D Antitoxin for veterinary use.. The information provided typically ... C & D Antitoxin Indications. Recommended for the prevention and treatment of enterotoxemia caused by Clostridium perfringens ... Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the C & D Antitoxin information published above. However, it remains the ...
  https://www.drugs.com/vet/c-d-antitoxin.html
*  Botulism Antitoxin (Intravenous Route) Side Effects - Mayo Clinic
Some side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:. ...
  https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/botulism-antitoxin-intravenous-route/side-effects/drg-20060934
*  Species: Transcriptional regulator, AbiEi antitoxin (IPR025159) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI
Species: Transcriptional regulator, AbiEi antitoxin (IPR025159). Key Species. This entry matches no proteins from key species. ...
  http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR025159/taxonomy
*  Patent US4722937 - Antitoxin vaginal products and catamenials - Google Patents
... such as pyruvic acid and maleic acid were not effective antitoxins at 1 mg. Thus, the antitoxin activity of ascorbic acid is ...
  http://www.google.com/patents/US4722937?dq=5095480
*  antitoxin facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about antitoxin
Make research projects and school reports about antitoxin easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... antitoxin Antibody produced by the body in response to a toxin. It is specific in action and neutralizes the toxin. Antitoxin ... antitoxin An antibody produced in response to a bacterial toxin.. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for ... antitoxin (anti-toks-in) n. an antibody produced by the body to counteract a toxin formed by invading bacteria or from any ...
  https://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/anatomy-and-physiology/anatomy-and-physiology/antitoxin
*  Type II Toxin-Antitoxin Loci: The Unusual mqsRA Locus | SpringerLink
... locus of Escherichia coliK-12 codes for a translation-independent GCU site-specific endoribonuclease MqsR and an antitoxin MqsA ... 2011). Toxin-antitoxin systems in bacteria and archaea. Annual Review of Genetics, 45, 61-79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... 2011). Antitoxin MqsA helps mediate the bacterial general stress response. Nature Chemical Biology, 7(6), 359-366.PubMed ... 2010). Escherichia coli toxin/antitoxin pair MqsR/MqsA regulate toxin CspD. Environmental Microbiology, 12(5), 1105-1121.PubMed ...
  https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-33253-1_6
*  RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View - Antitoxin VapB26 - O53778 (VPB26 MYCTU)
Antitoxin component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) system. Upon expression in M.smegmatis neutralizes the effect of cognate ...
  http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/protein/O53778
*  Type I toxin-antitoxin system, toxin Ldr (IPR025253) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI
They are part of the type I toxin antitoxin (TA) system, where expression of the proteinaceous toxin is controlled by an ... Type I toxin-antitoxin system, toxin Ldr (IPR025253). Short name: Toxin_Ldr ... For example, LdrD expression is inhibited by the antisense RNA RdlD, which functions as an antitoxin [PMID: 12123448]. ...
  http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR025253
*  Vial, Botulism Anti-Toxin | National Museum of American History
Vial, Botulism Anti-Toxin a" data-cycle-caption="#nmah-edan-caption" data-cycle-auto-height="container" data-cycle-caption- ... With the start of the Gulf War in 1991, First Flight's antitoxin was shipped to Saudi Arabia to be at hand should Saddam ... These antibodies, contained in his blood plasma, made up the key ingredient in antitoxin serum. Once purified, the serum could ... First Flight was a thoroughbred horse that was transformed by scientists into a living factory to produce botulism antitoxin ...
  http://americanhistory.si.edu/collections/search/object/nmah_833897
*  Merck & Co to file Clostridium difficile antitoxin - PharmaTimes
Co is gearing up to file its investigational antitoxin bezlotoxumab in the US, Canada and Europe this year, after late-stage ... Merck & Co is gearing up to file its investigational antitoxin bezlotoxumab in the US, Canada and Europe this year, after late- ... "Results of these studies showed that a single, one-time infusion of the antitoxin bezlotoxumab given with standard of care C. ...
  http://www.pharmatimes.com/news/merck_and_co_to_file_clostridium_difficile_antitoxin_971918