*  GABA is the Main Neurotransmitter Released from Mossy Fiber Terminals in the Developing Rat Hippocampus | SpringerLink
Owens DF, Kriegstein AR (2002) Is there more to GABA than synaptic inhibition? Nature Rev Neurosci 3:715-727CrossRefGoogle ... Lanthorn TH, Ganong AH, Cotman CW (1984) 2-Amino-4-phosphonobutyrate selectively blocks mossy fiber-CA3 responses in guinea pig ... Kamiya H, Shinozaki H, Yamamoto C (1996) Activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor type 2/3 suppresses transmission at rat ...
  https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-0-387-09622-3_6
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JSTX-3 also prevented motor neuron death induced by the agonist, AMPA (5 μm), although not quite as effectively as 5 μm CNQX ( ... 3. JSTX-3, an inhibitor of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors, prevented motor neuron death induced by both AMPA and the G93A SOD-1 ... 7. Glutathione ethyl ester failed to protect motor neurons from toxicity of G93A SOD-1. A, 1 mmglutathione ethyl ester (GSH EE ... 7 A). However, inclusion of 1 mm glutathione ethyl ester in the culture medium had no significant effect on the viability of ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/18/23/9673
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3, B and C).. Activation of α1 Adrenergic Receptors Decreases the Frequency of sIPSCs and mIPSCs. We next tested the effects of ... 7, A and B). In another two cells, 50 μM phenylephrine still increased the firing rate (from 3.64 to 6.02 Hz in one cell and ... 7. Effect of phenylephrine on the firing rate of labeled PVN neurons in the presence of synaptic blockade. A, original tracings ... 3. Effect of phenylephrine on the frequency of mEPSCs in labeled PVN neurons. A, raw tracings showing mEPSCs during control, ...
  http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/316/2/733
*  Mechanisms of Reversible GABAA Receptor Plasticity after Ethanol Intoxication | Journal of Neuroscience
2A,B). In contrast, the Ihold potentiation by EtOH (100 mm) was lost as early as 1 h after EtOH intoxication, but gradually ... 7C). At 1 h after a single EtOH dose, DZ potentiation of Itonic was unaffected, but maximal decreases occurred at 2 d after ... Figure 7. Time course of changes in diazepam sensitivity of synaptic and tonic GABAAR-currents after EtOH treatment. A, Traces ... Figure 2. Changes in acute EtOH sensitivity of synaptic and tonic GABAAR-currents after EtOH intoxication. A, Traces are ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/27/45/12367.long
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6, C and D). The EC50 for increased SCOs frequency was 2.33 μM (1.30-4.18 μM, 95% CI), and the IC50 value for 4-AP attenuation ... 6A, traces 3-6) with an EC50 of 1.76 μM (1.21 to 2.54 μM; 95% CI). Unlike either kainate or pilocarpine, 4-AP produced a long- ... 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione. DIV. days in vitro. FLIPR. fluorescent imaging plate reader. FWHM. full width at half ... 6. 4-AP alters Ca2+ dynamics and SCO in 10 DIV HN cultures. (A) Representative traces of 4-AP-triggered Ca2+ responses in HN ...
  http://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/87/4/595
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As with LA interneurons, 10 μm SCH 23390 blocked this effect (n = 3), whereas neither l-sulpiride (10 μm; n = 4) nor TTX (1 μm ... Figure 2. Dopamine depolarizes LA and FS interneurons of both WT and D1R-/- mice. A, The graph shows the dose-response ... Figure 6. Effects of D2 receptor stimulation in D2L-/- and D2R-/-;D2L-/- mice. A, The graph shows the inhibitory effect of ... The composition of the control solution was (in mm): 126 NaCl, 2.5 KCl, 1.2 MgCl2, 1.2 NaH2PO4, 2.4 CaCl2, 11 glucose, 25 NaHCO ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/23/15/6245
*  CNQX - Wikipedia
36 (6): 787-795. doi:10.1016/0042-6989(95)00176-X. Imamachi et al. : The Non-NMDA Glutamate Receptor Antagonist CNQX Augments ... CNQX (6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione) is a competitive AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist. Its chemical formula is C9H4N4O4 ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CNQX
*  Phylogenetic analysis of ionotropic L-glutamate receptor genes in the Bilateria, with special notes on Aplysia californica |...
2.Center for Computational ScienceUniversity of MiamiCoral GablesUSA. *3.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of MiamiCoral ... 2). This is a unique feature of NMDAR: they are the only iGluR subtype with more than one orthologous copy present before the ... 2).. Within vertebrates there are two ancient paralogs with a total of five kainate genes. The three paralogs GRIK_A1-3 form ... 3 Conserved motifs in Aplysia and H. sapiens. Boxed region denotes SYTANLAAFL motif vital for formation of the channel pore and ...
  https://rd.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12862-016-0871-1
*  Anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of Pimpinella anisum in rat brain | BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine |...
1999, 261 (1-2): 1-4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar. *. Greiner C, Schmidinger A, Hulsmann S, Moskopp D, Wolfer J, Kohling R ... 2003, 133 (1-2): 159-170.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar. *. Baptiste SL, Tang HM, Kuzniecky RI, Devinsky O, French JA, Ludvig ... 2005, 7 (Suppl 3): S25-S28.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar. *. Abramowicz AE, Kass IS, Chambers G, Cottrell JE: Midazolam ... 2006, 392 (1-2): 154-158.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar. Pre-publication history. *. The pre-publication history for this ...
  https://bmccomplementalternmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1472-6882-12-76
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6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione. KAT II. kynurenine aminotransferase II. K-S. Kolmogorov-Smirnov. KYNA. kynurenic acid. ... 2 and 3) may be caused by the ability of MLA to block some heteromeric α7 or non-α7 nAChRs. The α7 nAChR currents in ... 2, B and C).. The frequency of GABAergic PSCs was also significantly lower in slices that had been incubated for 1 h in ACSF ... 7. Effect of the admixture of kynurenine and α-BGT on the frequency of PSCs. A, mean frequency of PSCs recorded 1) after 1-h ...
  http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/341/2/500
*  GABA Mediated Synaptic Events in Neonatal Rat CA3 Pyramidal Neurons in Vitro: Modulation by NMDA and Non-NMDA Receptors |...
Kemp, J.A., Foster, A.C., Leeson,P.D., Priestley, T., Tridgett, R., Iversen, L.L. and Woodruff, G.N. (1988). 7-Chlorokynurenic ... Harris, M.K and Miller, J.R. (1989). CNQX (6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxalone-2,3-elione) antagonizes NMDA-evoked (3H)GABA release from ... Neuman, R.S., Ben-Ari, Y., Gho, M. and Cherubini, E. (1988a). Blockage of excitatory synaptic transmission by 6-cyano-7- ... nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) in the hippocampus in vitro. Neurosci. Lett. 92, 64-68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
  https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-5769-8_18
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3, D1 and D2 (compare with Fig. 1C3), where we present IKv whole-cell responses in the presence of 100 and 1000 μM Glu ( ... 6, B2 and B3). These data show that the effects of 1 and 10 μM Glu may be brought on by the activation of metabotropic receptor ... 2. Effects of Glu on Kv current gating kinetics. A, time constants of activation (τn) are plotted against different membrane ... 6, C1 and C2). To the contrary, when the intracellular solution contained 250 μM GTPγS, the effects of Glu at both 1 and 1000 ...
  http://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/67/3/856
*  Quantal Release of ATP in Mouse Cortex | JGP
3 C; τdecay 8.9 ± 1.6 and 16.8 ± 2.5 ms, n = 5). The time constants of rise and decay of mEPSCs were not affected by CNQX (50 ... 2, B and C). When added in the presence of NBQX and d-APV, suramin (10 μM) also reduced the amplitude (by 55 ± 8%, n = 7) and ... 2 A) and suramin (10 μM, Fig. 2 B), which both block most of P2X receptor subtypes (North and Surprenant, 2000). PPADS (3 μM) ... 6 B). The first was single quantal in all 16 cells and had lower release probability and smaller quantal size, similar to the ...
  http://jgp.rupress.org/content/129/3/257
*  Food, Food Allergies, and Nutrition sub-cluster 68
8-Hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)-tetralin inhibits food intake in fasted rats by an action at 5-HT1A ... ... Efforts to address the food effect issue led us to explore and discover compounds in series 2 as orally active CRF 1 receptor ... A molecular form known as chicken GnRH II ([His(5) Trp(7) Tyr(8)] GnRH, cGnRH II) is widely distributed in vertebrates, and has ... The effects of the 5-HT1A agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)-tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) on food intake were investigated in food- ...
  http://www.biomedsearch.com/cluster/49/Food-Food-Allergies-and-Nutrition/sub-68-p9.html
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Figure6 illustrates average data from a cell in which EPSCs were evoked at 0.5 Hz (Fig. 6 A) and 50Hz (Fig. 6 B) at increasing ... 6 B),dl-TBOA had a small effect when the stimulus intensity was low (V1), but this effect was greatly enhanced with increasing ... 3 A) shows the soma and dendrites of a filled interneuron; the lower panel shows part of the axon at higher magnification. ... The top traces in Figure 6, A and B,illustrate the effect of dl-TBOA on EPSCs in the absence of glutamate receptor antagonists ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/22/11/4428
*  Shaul Hestrin | Stanford Medicine Profiles
Controlling brain states. Neuron Bennett, C., Arroyo, S., Hestrin, S. 2014; 83 (2): 260-261 Abstract. Neurons in mouse V1 ... Layer 6 corticothalamic neurons activate a cortical output layer, layer 5a. journal of neuroscience Kim, J., Matney, C. J., ... 6. No shift of the tau K-V and the gK-V relations was observed when the internal potassium was reduced from 150 to 50 mM. 7. ... In layer 5/6 (L5/6), we recorded from two or three FS and/or pyramidal (PYR) neurons to study the development of electrical and ...
  https://med.stanford.edu/profiles/shaul-hestrin
*  Mechanism of Cannabinoid Effects on Long-Term Potentiation and Depression in Hippocampal CA1 Neurons | Journal of Neuroscience
Slices were perfused with solution (120 mm NaCl, 3.5 mm KCl, 2.6 mm CaCl2, 1.3 mm MgCl2, 1.25 mmNaH2PO4, 26 mmNaHCO3, and 10 mm ... The brain was removed and placed in ice-cold solution (120 mm NaCl, 3.5 mm KCl, 0.7 mm CaCl2, 4 mm MgCl2, 1.25 mmNaH2PO4, 26 mm ... 7 c). As with whole-cell LTP, LTD was blocked in the presence of AP-5 (50 μm) and 1 μm WIN55,212-2 (0.99 ± 0.02;n = 3), ... WIN55,212-2, WIN55,212-3, and SR141716A solutions were made up as 10 mm stock solutions in DMSO, stored at −20°C, and used at a ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/19/16/6795.long
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7D,E). We observed that FS cell firing was able to delay an action potential in MSNs, the delay ranging from 3-4 ms to 40 ms (n ... 6A). We measured a driving force of chloride ions through GABAARs of 17.2 ± 7 mV from EGABA = −60.8 mV and RMP = −78.1 ± 1.1 mV ... Figure 3. Inhibition of GABAARs in the postsynaptic neuron only is sufficient to reverse STDP. A, Raw traces of 50 s recordings ... D3, MSN impedance at −80 mV using a high chloride and Cs+-based internal solution. Inset: resonance at −80 mV before and after ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/33/22/9353
*  List of MeSH codes (D03) - Wikipedia
2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-8-chloro-3-methyl-5-phenyl-1h-3-benzazepin-7-ol MeSH D03.438.079.800 --- 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-1- ... quinolizin-2-ol, 2-ethyl-1,3,4,6,7,11b-hexahydro-3-isobutyl-9,10-dimethoxy- MeSH D03.438.834.775 --- sparteine MeSH D03.438. ... 5-amino-3-((5-nitro-2-furyl)vinyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazole MeSH D03.383.129.462.580.400 --- 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan MeSH D03.383. ... 5-amino-3-((5-nitro-2-furyl)vinyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazole MeSH D03.383.312.649.290 --- fanft MeSH D03.383.312.649.308 --- furagin ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(D03)
*  Synthesis and Neuropharmacological Evaluation of Some Novel Quinoxaline 2, 3-Dione Derivatives
To study the locomotor activity (CNS-depressant activity) of ethidium bromide and its recovery by means of quinoxaline dione ... Dione (2a). Colourless crystals 2a, (70%), mp , 300°C; Rf (benzene/acetone 9 : 1) 0.23; IR (KBr): 1708.9 and 1681 (C=O), 1247.9 ... dione (RO-48-8587).. These compounds are screened for neuropharmacological activity in mice and rats (analgesia, sedation, ... we were planning to synthesize some novel quinoxaline dione derivatives and to evaluate their antagonistic action through ...
  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2012/718023/
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There are at least 2 possible mechanisms for this lethal effect. In addition to KA receptors, KA could directly stimulate NMDA ... 3-dione (CNQX). This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that KA adds an increment of toxicity in this system by directly ... the fraction of toxicity attributed to the addition of KA can be blocked by the relatively specific non-NMDA antagonist 6-cyano ... is totally prevented by 2-amino-5- phosphonovalerate (APV), a specific NMDA receptor antagonist. These findings indicate that ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/11/4/966
*  Myoblast-derived neuronal cells form glutamatergic neurons in the mouse cerebellum. - PubMed - NCBI
Figure 3. M-RV-GFP cells injected in the cerebellum. (A): Deconvolution image of injection tract and GFP-positive cells ... Figure 2. Differentiated M-RV cells engineered to express green fluorescent protein [M-RV-GFP(D)] cells show functional ion ... Unfixed cerebellar slices were stained with 1 μM TOTO-3 to label cell nuclei, and GFP expression was visualized using the GFP ... EPSCs in GFP-positive cells and CGNs were abolished by the NMDA and nonNMDA receptor antagonists 2-amino-5-phosphovalerate (10 ...
  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20799335
*  Fragile X mental retardation protein is translated near synapses in response to neurotransmitter activation | Proceedings of...
For the treated sample, 10−4 M DHPG was added at t = 0 and aliquots were taken at t = 2 min and t = 5 min. Samples were lysed ... Figure 3 A polysome gradient dot blot from samples stimulated for 2 or 5 min with 10−5 M quisqualate (in the presence of 4 × 10 ... 2; data from one of eight replications). Although the presence of FMR1 mRNA is increased in polysomes of all sizes, the ... Figure 6 Polyribosome-associated proteins eluted with 0.5 M K+ buffer were separated on an 8% SDS polyacrylamide gel, blotted ...
  http://www.pnas.org/content/94/10/5395?ijkey=c87cf21a0e3d96351c9dfb75fa495a01b7639cbf&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
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2G). Application of CNQX and d-APV also resulted in a decrease in the input resistance of the nic-cells (ACSF: RN = 39.2 ± 4.4 ... 6A), making it no longer depressed compared with sal-slices (Fig. 6B) (p , 0.05). Second, E-S curves from the two treatment ... B, C, Mean intracellular E-S curves from 1 d withdrawn (B) (sal-cells, n = 7; nic-cells, n = 5) and long-term (4-week + 3-month ... 2B,C) (p , 0.05). Following long-term potentiation induction, changes in E-S coupling have been found to be partly due to ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/31/7/2584
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3B, top) with nine such trials in the same bouton, the plot of alkaline pool size versus Δt resembled an α function (see ... 3B, top). The fit parameters for each bouton studied were averaged and used to arrive at a "mean" α function (i.e., one with ... 2B1,B2). To facilitate comparison with previous work (Gandhi and Stevens, 2003), we used a low Na+ Tyrode's solution for these ... 3B, bottom). The choice of the α function for curve fitting was somewhat arbitrary, but convenient. We do not imply that there ...
  http://www.jneurosci.org/content/26/8/2313