Medicinal foodstuffs. XXVIII. Inhibitors of nitric oxide production and new sesquiterpenes, zedoarofuran, 4-epicurcumenol, neocurcumenol, gajutsulactones A and B, and zedoarolides A and B, from Zedoariae Rhizoma.
A new eudesmane-type sesquiterpene, zedoarofuran, and six new guaiane- or seco-guaiane-type sesquiterpenes, 4-epicurcumenol, neocurcumenol, gajutsulactones A and B, and zedoarolides A and B, were isolated from aqueous acetone extract of Zedoariae Rhizoma together with 36 known sesquiterpenes and two diarylheptanoids. Their stereostructures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. The effects of isolated components on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages were examined and 16 sesquiterpenes including gajutsulactones A and B, and bis(4-hydroxycinnamoyl)methane were found to show inhibitory activity. (+info)
Molecular analysis of medicinally-used Chinese and Japanese Curcuma based on 18S rRNA gene and trnK gene sequences.
Curcuma drugs have been used discriminatingly for invigorating blood circulation, promoting digestion, and as a cholagogic in China. However, there is confusion about the drug's botanical origins and clinical uses because of morphological similarity of Curcuma plants and drugs. In order to develop an ultimate identification, molecular analysis based on 18S rRNA gene and trnK gene sequences were performed on 6 Curcuma species used medicinally in China and Japan. The 18S rRNA gene sequences were found to be of 1810 bps in length. In comparison with the common sequence of C. longa, C. phaeocaulis, C. wenyujin and C. aromatica, that of C. kwangsiensis had one base substitution, and the same base difference was observed between the Chinese and the Japanese populations of C. zedoaria. The trnK gene sequences were found to span 2698-2705 bps. There were base substitutions, small deletions or insertions at some sites between the trnK coding region and matK region among each species. Based on the base substitutions, C. zedoaria and C. kwangsiensis specimens were divided into two groups, respectively. An identical sequence was detected in C. phaeocaulis and in the Chinese population of C. zedoaria, as well as in the Japanese population of C. zedoaria and in one group of C. kwangsiensis with a purple-colored band in leaves. New taxonomic information to be used for authenticating Curcuma drugs was obtained. (+info)
A systematic screening of total antioxidants in dietary plants.
A predominantly plant-based diet reduces the risk for development of several chronic diseases. It is often assumed that antioxidants contribute to this protection, but results from intervention trials with single antioxidants administered as supplements quite consistently do not support any benefit. Because dietary plants contain several hundred different antioxidants, it would be useful to know the total concentration of electron-donating antioxidants (i.e., reductants) in individual items. Such data might be useful in the identification of the most beneficial dietary plants. We have assessed systematically total antioxidants in a variety of dietary plants used worldwide, including various fruits, berries, vegetables, cereals, nuts and pulses. When possible, we analyzed three or more samples of dietary plants from three different geographic regions in the world. Total antioxidants was assessed by the reduction of Fe(3+) to Fe(2+) (i.e., the FRAP assay), which occurred rapidly with all reductants with half-reaction reduction potentials above that of Fe(3+)/Fe(2+). The values, therefore, expressed the corresponding concentration of electron-donating antioxidants. Our results demonstrated that there is more than a 1000-fold difference among total antioxidants in various dietary plants. Plants that contain most antioxidants included members of several families, such as Rosaceae (dog rose, sour cherry, blackberry, strawberry, raspberry), Empetraceae (crowberry), Ericaceae (blueberry), Grossulariaceae (black currant), Juglandaceae (walnut), Asteraceae (sunflower seed), Punicaceae (pomegranate) and Zingiberaceae (ginger). In a Norwegian diet, fruits, berries and cereals contributed 43.6%, 27.1% and 11.7%, respectively, of the total intake of plant antioxidants. Vegetables contributed only 8.9%. The systematic analysis presented here will facilitate research into the nutritional role of the combined effect of antioxidants in dietary plants. (+info)
Medicinal foodstuffs. XXIX. Potent protective effects of sesquiterpenes and curcumin from Zedoariae Rhizoma on liver injury induced by D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide or tumor necrosis factor-alpha.
The 80% aqueous acetone extract of Zedoariae Rhizoma was found to show a protective effect against D-galactosamine (D-GalN)/lipopolysaccharide-induced acute liver injury in mice. To clarify the active compounds, the principal constituents were examined and 11 sesquiterpenes (furanodiene, curdione, neocurdrione, dehydrocurdione, germacrone, 13-hydroxygermacrone, curcumenol, isocurcumenol, aerugidiol, zedoarondiol, and curcumenone) and a diarylheptanoid (curcumin) were found to inhibit the increase in serum aspartate aminotransaminase and alanine aminotransaminase at a dose of 50 mg/kg p.o. in agreement with the previous in vitro studies, except for dehydrocurdione, aerugidiol, and zedoarondiol. In particular, curdione, neocurdione, curcumenol, and isocurcumenol potently inhibited the increase at a dose of 12.5 mg/kg p.o. Furthermore, the eight sesquiterpenes, furanodiene, curdione, neocurdione, dehydrocurdione, germacrone, 13-hydroxygermacrone, curcumenol, and curcumenone, also showed a protective effect against D-GalN/tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced liver injury in mice at a dose of 50 mg/kg p.o. (+info)
New farnesane-type sesquiterpenes, hedychiols A and B 8,9-diacetate, and inhibitors of degranulation in RBL-2H3 cells from the rhizome of Hedychium coronarium.
Two new farnesane-type sesquiterpenes, hedychiols A and B 8,9-diacetate, were isolated from the methanolic extract of the fresh rhizome of Hedychium coronarium KOEN. cultivated in Japan. Their stereostructures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. The inhibitory effects of isolated constituents on the release of beta-hexosaminidase from RBL-2H3 cells were examined, and hedychilactone A and coronarin D were found to show the inhibitory activity. (+info)
Pharmacological evaluation of Shokyo and Kankyo (1).
Zingiberis Rhizoma (Shokyo, [Japanese characters: see text]) showed significant ameliorative effect on the BaCl2-induced delay of gastric emptying in rat. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the aqueous extract of Shokyo resulted in isolation of 6-gingesulfonic acid (1) and shogasulfonic acid A (3). These compounds significantly improved the delay of gastric emptying on both BaCl2-induced and N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA)-induced model in rat. Zingiberis Siccatum Rhizoma (Kankyo, [Japanese characters: see text]) had significant efficacy against castor oil-induced diarrhea. In addition, Kankyo showed the activity increasing intestinal blood flow in normal rat. (+info)
The pungent principle of myoga (Zingiber mioga Roscoe) was identified as (E)-8beta(17)-epoxylabd-12-ene-15,16-dial (miogadial) on the basis of its physical and spectroscopic properties (MS, NMR, IR, and UV). Galanal A and B, isolated as well as miogadial, had no hot taste. Reduced miogadial also was tasteless. The pungency of miogadial depended on the presence of alphabeta-unsaturated-1,4-dialdehyde group. (+info)
Antimicrobial activities of diterpene dialdehydes, constituents from myoga (Zingiber mioga Roscoe), and their quantitative analysis.
The antimicrobial activities of the three diterpene dialdehydes, miogadial, galanal A and galanal B, isolated from flower buds of the myoga (Zingiber mioga Roscoe) plant were investigated with some strains of bacteria, yeasts and molds. Among the three compounds, miogadial exhibited relatively greater antimicrobial activity than the others against Gram-positive bacteria and yeasts. Galanals A and B also behaved as antimicrobial agents against Gram-positive bacteria and yeasts. The content of miogadial in the flower buds was much higher than that in the leaves, whereas galanals A and B were contained at high levels in the leaves and rhizomes. (+info)