Bridging the gap between managed care and academic medicine: an innovative fellowship.
Numerous challenges face academic medicine in the era of managed care. This environment is stimulating the development of innovative educational programs that can adapt to changes in the healthcare system. The U.S. Quality Algorithms Managed Care Fellowship at Jefferson Medical College is one response to these challenges. Two postresidency physicians are chosen as fellows each year. The 1-year curriculum is organized into four 3-month modules covering such subjects as biostatistics and epidemiology, medical informatics, the theory and practice of managed care, managed care finance, integrated healthcare systems, quality assessment and improvement, clinical parameters and guidelines, utilization management, and risk management. The fellowship may serve as a possible prototype for future post-graduate education. (+info)
Theoretical framework for implementing a managed care curriculum for continuing medical education--Part I.
Healthcare reform has created a new working environment for practicing physicians, as economic issues have become inseparably intertwined with clinical practice. Although physicians have recognized this change, and some are returning to school for formal education in business and healthcare administration, formal education may not be practical or desirable for the majority of practicing physicians. Other curriculum models to meet the needs of these professionals should be considered, particularly given the growing interest in continuing education for physicians in the areas of managed care and related aspects of practice management. Currently, no theory-based models for implementing a managed care curriculum specifically for working physicians have been developed. This paper will integrate diffusion theory, instructional systems design theory, and learning theory as they apply to the implementation of a managed care curriculum for continuing medical education. Through integration of theory with practical application, a CME curriculum for practicing physicians can be both innovative as well as effective. This integration offers the benefit of educational programs within the context of realistic situations that physicians can apply to their own work settings. (+info)
Application of the problem-based learning model for continuing professional education: a continuing medical education program on managed care issues--Part II.
Physicians must incorporate concepts of practice management and knowledge of managed care into their practices. Managed care presents an immediate and challenging opportunity to providers of continuing medical education to offer effective educational programs for physicians on managed care issues. In this exploratory research, the problem-based learning model was used to develop a continuing medical education program that would offer an interactive and effective method for teaching physicians about managed care. Problem-based learning is a departure from the traditional lecture format of continuing medical education programs because it is designed for small groups of self-directed learners who are guided by a faculty facilitator. Although only a small number of participants participated in this program, the findings offer important considerations for providers of continuing medical education. For example, participants reported increased confidence in their knowledge about managed care issues. Participants also clearly indicated a preference for the small group, interactive format of the problem-based learning model. (+info)
Towards a psycho-social theoretical framework for sexual health promotion.
Numerous interventions have been designed to promote safer sexual behaviour amongst young people. However, relatively few have proved effective, which is, at least partially, due to the lack of development of theoretically based programmes. An understanding of the origins and control of sexual behaviour can be derived from basic social science research. Unless this is applied to the design of behaviour-change programmes they are unlikely to target the most important determinants of young people's sexual behaviour and are, therefore, unlikely to be effective. This paper outlines some of the key theoretical insights which have been drawn upon in the development of a new sex education programme currently being tested in Scottish schools. The theoretical basis is intentionally eclectic, combining social psychological cognitive models with sociological interpretations, since we are not concerned to advance any particular theory but to find which are most useful in promoting sexual health. First, the social influences on sexual behaviour are considered, and then the way in which these translate into individual perceptions and beliefs. Finally, the paper attempts to develop a theoretical understanding of sexual interaction and the social contexts of sexual behaviour. (+info)
The Pathways study: a model for lowering the fat in school meals.
We describe the development and implementation of the Pathways school food service intervention during the feasibility phase of the Pathways study. The purpose of the intervention was to lower the amount of fat in school meals to 30% of energy to promote obesity prevention in third- through fifth-grade students. The Pathways nutrition staff and the food service intervention staff worked together to develop 5 interrelated components to implement the intervention. These components were nutrient guidelines, 8 skill-building behavioral guidelines, hands-on materials, twice yearly trainings, and monthly visits to the kitchens by the Pathways nutrition staff. The components were developed and implemented over 18 mo in a pilot intervention in 4 schools. The results of an initial process evaluation showed that 3 of the 4 schools had implemented 6 of the 8 behavioral guidelines. In an analysis of 5 d of school menus from 3 control schools, the lunch menus averaged from 34% to 40% of energy from fat; when the menus were analyzed by using the food preparation and serving methods in the behavioral guidelines, they averaged 31% of energy from total fat. This unique approach of 5 interrelated food service intervention components was accepted in the schools and is now being implemented in the full-scale phase of the Pathways study in 40 schools for 5 y. (+info)
Process evaluation in a multisite, primary obesity-prevention trial in American Indian schoolchildren.
We describe the development, implementation, and use of the process evaluation component of a multisite, primary obesity prevention trial for American Indian schoolchildren. We describe the development and pilot testing of the instruments, provide some examples of the criteria for instrument selection, and provide examples of how process evaluation results were used to document and refine intervention components. The theoretical and applied framework of the process evaluation was based on diffusion theory, social learning theory, and the desire for triangulation of multiple modes of data collection. The primary objectives of the process evaluation were to systematically document the training process, content, and implementation of 4 components of the intervention. The process evaluation was developed and implemented collaboratively so that it met the needs of both the evaluators and those who would be implementing the intervention components. Process evaluation results revealed that observation and structured interviews provided the most informative data; however, these methods were the most expensive and time consuming and required the highest level of skill to undertake. Although the literature is full of idealism regarding the uses of process evaluation for formative and summative purposes, in reality, many persons are sensitive to having their work evaluated in such an in-depth, context-based manner as is described. For this reason, use of structured, quantitative, highly objective tools may be more effective than qualitative methods, which appear to be more dependent on the skills and biases of the researcher and the context in which they are used. (+info)
Racial differences in testing motivation and psychological distress following pretest education for BRCA1 gene testing.
OBJECTIVES: We conducted a randomized trial to investigate racial differences in response to two alternate pretest education strategies for BRCA1 genetic testing: a standard education model and an education plus counseling (E + C) model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred twenty-eight Caucasian women and 70 African American women with a family history of breast or ovarian cancer were contacted for a baseline telephone interview to assess sociodemographic characteristics, number of relatives affected with cancer, and race before pretest education. Outcome variables included changes from baseline to 1-month follow-up in cancer-related distress and genetic testing intentions, as well as provision of a blood sample after the education session. RESULTS: African American women were found to differ significantly from Caucasian women in the effects of the interventions on testing intentions and provision of a blood sample. Specifically, in African American women, E + C led to greater increases than education only in intentions to be tested and provision of a blood sample. These effects were independent of socioeconomic status and referral mechanisms. In Caucasian women, there were no differential effects of the interventions on these outcomes. Reductions in cancer-specific distress were evidenced in all study groups. However, this decrease, although not significantly different, was smallest among African American women who received E + C. CONCLUSIONS: In low- to moderate-risk African American women, pretest education and counseling may motivate BRCA1 testing. Further research is needed to explore the mechanisms of impact of the alternate pretest education strategies and to increase the cultural sensitivity of education and counseling protocols. (+info)
Ethics instruction at schools of public health in the United States. Association of Schools of Public Health Education Committee.
OBJECTIVES: A survey of US schools of public health was undertaken in 1996 and 1997 to obtain a general picture of public health ethics curricula. METHODS: An explanatory letter with a list of questions for discussion was sent to the deans of the accredited US schools of public health. The deans were asked that at least 1 individual at their school who "is most knowledgeable about ethics curricula" review the list of questions and complete an ethics survey contact form. RESULTS: Ethics instruction was required for all students at only 1 (4%) of the 24 schools surveyed, while 7 schools required ethics instruction for some students. Two of the schools had no ethics courses. Ethics instruction was required for all MPH students at 9 (38%) of the schools and for all doctoral students at 4 (17%) of the schools. Most of the schools (19 of 24, or 79%) offered short courses, seminar series, or invited lectures on ethical topics, and 23 (96%) included lectures on ethics topics in other courses such as health law. CONCLUSIONS: Training programs at US schools of public health vary greatly in how much attention is given to ethics instruction. Model curricula in public health ethics should be developed to help fill this gap. (+info)