Characterization of DNA binding, transcriptional activation, and regulated nuclear association of recombinant human NFATp.
BACKGROUND: NFATp is one member of a family of transcriptional activators whose nuclear accumulation and hence transcriptional activity is regulated in mammalian cells. Human NFATp exists as a phosphoprotein in the cytoplasm of naive T cells. Upon antigen stimulation, NFATp is dephosphorylated, accumulates in nuclei, and functions to regulate transcription of genes including those encoding cytokines. While the properties of the DNA binding domain of NFATp have been investigated in detail, biochemical studies of the transcriptional activation and regulated association with nuclei have remained unexplored because of a lack of full length, purified recombinant NFATp. RESULTS: We developed methods for expressing and purifying full length recombinant human NFATp that has all of the properties known to be associated with native NFATp. The recombinant NFATp binds DNA on its own and cooperatively with AP-1 proteins, activates transcription in vitro, is phosphorylated, can be dephosphorylated by calcineurin, and exhibits regulated association with nuclei in vitro. Importantly, activation by recombinant NFATp in a reconstituted transcription system required regions of the protein outside of the central DNA binding domain. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that NFATp is a bona fide transcriptional activator. Moreover, the reagents and methods that we developed will facilitate future studies on the mechanisms of transcriptional activation and nuclear accumulation by NFATp, a member of an important family of transcriptional regulatory proteins. (+info)
Differential expression of aquaporin 8 in human colonic epithelial cells and colorectal tumors.
BACKGROUND: The gene expression pattern in tumor cells differs from that in corresponding normal cells. In order to identify differentially expressed genes in colorectal tumors and normal colorectal epithelium, a differential display experiment was used to compare RNA expression in normal and tumor tissue samples. RESULTS: One gene fragment was expressed only in normal tissue and not, or to a much lesser extent, in the adenomas, carcinomas and cancer cell lines. The isolated gene fragment was identical to Aquaporin 8 (AQP8), a water channel protein. In situ hybridization demonstrated that AQP8 was expressed in the cells facing the lumen in the normal colonic epithelium. CONCLUSION: Our result suggests that the expression of AQP8 is a marker of normal proliferating colonic epithelial cells and suggest these cells to be involved in fluid transport in the colon. (+info)
Developmental expression of survivin during embryonic submandibular salivary gland development.
BACKGROUND: The regulation of programmed cell death is critical to developmental homeostasis and normal morphogenesis of embryonic tissues. Survivin, a member of the inhibitors of apoptosis protein (IAP) family primarily expressed in embryonic cells, is both an anti-apoptosis and a pro-survival factor. Since our previous studies have demonstrated the importance of apoptosis during embryonic submandibular salivary gland (SMG) development, we postulated that survivin is a likely mediator of SMG epithelial cell survival. RESULTS: We investigated the developmental expression of survivin in Pseudoglandular (approximately E14), Canalicular (approximately E15) and Terminal Bud (approximately E17) Stage SMGs. We report a significant 26% increase in transcript levels between the Canalicular and Terminal Bud Stages. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrate nuclear-localized survivin protein in epithelial cells bounding forming lumina in Canalicular and Terminal Bud Stage SMGs. CONCLUSIONS: Survivin is known to be a pro-survival and anti-apoptotic factor. Given that survivin translocation into the nucleus is required for the induction of entry into the cell cycle and the inhibition of apoptosis, our demonstration of nuclear-localized survivin protein in presumptive ductal and proacinar lumen-bounding cells suggests that survivin may be a key mediator of embryonic SMG epithelial cell survival. (+info)
p53-dependent apoptosis induced by proteasome inhibition in mammary epithelial cells.
We have examined the effects of inhibition of the 26S proteasome in a murine mammary cell line, KIM-2 cells using the peptide aldehyde inhibitor MG132. These studies have demonstrated a clear requirement for proteasome function in cell viability. Induction of apoptosis was observed following MG132 treatment in KIM-2 cells and this death was shown to be dependent on the cell actively traversing the cell cycle. KIM-2 cells were generated using a temperature sensitive T-antigen (Tag) and studies at the permissive temperature (33 degrees C) have shown that a Tag binding protein was essential for this apoptotic response. Studies in two additional cell lines, HC11, which is a mammary epithelial cell line carrying mutant p53 alleles and p53 null ES cells suggest that p53 is actively required for the apoptosis induced as a consequence of proteasome inhibition. These results suggest a pivotal role for the 26S proteasome degradation pathway in progression through the cell cycle in proliferating cells. (+info)
Staurosporine-induced apoptosis of HPV positive and negative human cervical cancer cells from different points in the cell cycle.
In the present study, we compare the sensitivity of CaSki and HeLa cells (HPV positive, wild-type p53) and C33A cells (HPV negative, mutated p53) to a protein kinase inhibitor, the staurosporine (ST). We show that ST can reversibly arrest the three cervical-derived cell lines, either in G1 or in G2/M. Beyond certain ST concentrations or/and over 24 h exposure, the cells underwent apoptosis. This process took place in G1 and G2/M for C33A and CaSki plus HeLa cell lines, respectively. By using an in vitro cell-free system, we demonstrated that cytoplasmic extracts from apoptotic cells were sufficient to induce hallmarks of programmed cell death on isolated nuclei. Moreover, we found that only G2/M cytoplasmic extracts from viable CaSki and HeLa cells supplemented with ST, triggered apoptosis while exclusively G1 cytoplasmic fractions from C33A cells were efficient. Our study describes a possible involvement of the HPV infection or/and p53 status in this different ST-induced apoptosis susceptibility. (+info)
Pro-caspase-3 overexpression sensitises ovarian cancer cells to proteasome inhibitors.
The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway plays a critical role in the degradation of several proteins involved in the cell cycle. Dysregulation of this pathway leads to inhibition of cellular proliferation and the induction of apoptosis. Ubiquitination and its downstream consequences have been investigated intensively as targets for the development of drugs for tumour therapy. Here we have investigated the mechanism of apoptosis induced by the proteasome inhibitors MG-132, lactacystin and calpain inhibitor I (ALLN), in the HEK 293 cell line and the ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV3 and OVCAR3. We have found strong caspase-3-like and caspase-6-like activation upon treatment of HEK 293 cells with MG-132. Using a tricistronic expression vector based on a tetracycline-responsive system we generated stable SKOV3 nd OVCAR3 cell lines with inducible expression of pro-caspase-3. Induction of pro-caspase-3 expression in normally growing cells does not induce apoptosis. However, in the presence of the proteasome inhibitors MG-132, lactacystin or ALLN we found that cells overexpressing pro-caspase-3 are rapidly targeted for apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that pro-caspase-3 can sensitise ovarian cancer cells to proteasome inhibitor-induced apoptosis, and a combination of these approaches might be exploited for therapy of ovarian and other cancers. (+info)
A20 zinc finger protein inhibits TNF-induced apoptosis and stress response early in the signaling cascades and independently of binding to TRAF2 or 14-3-3 proteins.
A20 zinc finger protein is a negative regulator of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced signaling pathways leading to apoptosis, stress response and inflammation. A20 has been shown to bind to TNF-receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) and 14-3-3 chaperone proteins. Our data indicate that the zinc finger domain of A20 is sufficient and that neither TRAF2 nor 14-3-3 binding is necessary for the inhibitory effects of A20. Mutations in the 14-3-3 binding site of A20 did, however, result in a partial cleavage of A20 protein suggesting that 14-3-3 chaperone proteins may stabilize A20. Furthermore, we show that A20 acts early in TNF-induced signaling cascades blocking both TNF-induced rapid activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and processing of the receptor-associated caspase-8. Taken together our data indicate that the zinc finger domain of A20 contains all necessary functional domains required for the inhibition of TNF signaling and that A20 may function at the level of the receptor signaling complex. (+info)
Apoptosis-inducing protein, AIP, from parasite-infected fish induces apoptosis in mammalian cells by two different molecular mechanisms.
AIP (apoptosis-inducing protein) is a protein purified and cloned from Chub mackerel infected with the larval nematode, Anisakis simplex, which induces apoptosis in various mammalian cells including human tumor cell lines. AIP has shown structural and functional homology to L-amino acid oxidase (LAO) which oxidizes several L-amino acids including L-lysine and AIP-induced apoptosis has been suggested to be mediated by H2O2 generated by LAO activity of AIP. In this study, we confirmed that recombinant AIP generated enough H2O2 in culture medium to induce rapid apoptosis in cells and this apoptosis was clearly inhibited by co-cultivation with antioxidants such as catalase and N-acetyl-cysteine. Surprisingly, however, we found that AIP still could induce H2O2-independent apoptosis more slowly than H2O2-dependent one in HL-60 cells even in the presence of antioxidants. In addition, the HL-60-derived cell line HP100-1, which is a H2O2-resistant variant, underwent apoptosis on treatment with AIP with a similar delayed time course. The latter apoptosis was completely blocked by addition of L-lysine to the culture medium, which is the best substrate of AIP as LAO, indicating that decreased concentration of L-lysine in the culture medium by AIP-treatment induced apoptosis. We also showed that the both apoptosis by AIP were associated with the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and activation of caspase-9, and overexpressed Bcl-2 could inhibit both of the AIP-induced apoptosis. These results indicate that AIP induces apoptosis in cells by two distinct mechanisms; one rapid and mediated by H2O2, the other delayed and mediated by deprivation of L-lysine, both of which utilize caspase-9/cytochrome c system. (+info)