The epizootiology and pathogenesis of thyroid hyperplasia in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in Lake Ontario.
The thyroid glands of coho salmon collected at different stages of their anadromous migration exhibited progressive and extensive hyperplasia and hypertrophy. The incidence of overt nodule formation rose from 5% in fish collected in August to 24% in fish collected in October. The histological picture of the goiters was similar to that found in thiourea-treated teleosts and thiouracil-treated mammals. There was a concomitant, significant decrease in serum thyroxine and triiodothyronine values between September and October (thyroxine, 1.0+/-0.3 mug/100 ml and 0.4 mug/100 ml in September and October, respectively; triiodothyronine, 400.3+/-51.6 ng/100 ml and 80.2 ng/100 ml in September and October, respectively) and marked hypertrophy and hyperplasia of thyrotrophs. These data indicate a progressive hypothyroid condition which, although it may be linked to iodide deficiency, may well be enhanced by other environmental factors. The evidence for involvement of other factors is discussed. (+info)
Thyroid hormone effects on Krox-24 transcription in the post-natal mouse brain are developmentally regulated but are not correlated with mitosis.
Krox-24 (NGFI-A, Egr-1) is an immediate-early gene encoding a zinc finger transcription factor. As Krox-24 is expressed in brain areas showing post-natal neurogenesis during a thyroid hormone (T3)-sensitive period, we followed T3 effects on Krox-24 expression in newborn mice. We analysed whether regulation was associated with changes in mitotic activity in the subventricular zone and the cerebellum. In vivo T3-dependent Krox-24 transcription was studied by polyethylenimine-based gene transfer. T3 increased transcription from the Krox-24 promoter in both areas studied at post-natal day 2, but was without effect at day 6. An intact thyroid hormone response element (TRE) in the Krox-24 promoter was necessary for these inductions. These stage-dependent effects were also seen in endogenous Krox-24 mRNA levels: activation at day 2 and no effect at day 6. Moreover, similar results were obtained by examining beta-galactosidase expression in heterozygous mice in which one allele of the Krox-24 gene was disrupted with an inframe Lac-Z insertion. However, bromodeoxyuridine incorporation showed mitosis to continue through to day 6. We conclude first, that T3 activates Krox-24 transcription during early post-natal mitosis but that this effect is extinguished as development proceeds and second, loss of T3-dependent Krox-24 expression is not correlated with loss of mitotic activity. (+info)
Molecular mechanisms of thyroid hormone-stimulated steroidogenesis in mouse leydig tumor cells. Involvement of the steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein.
Using a mouse Leydig tumor cell line, we explored the mechanisms involved in thyroid hormone-induced steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein gene expression, and steroidogenesis. Triiodothyronine (T3) induced a approximately 3.6-fold increase in the steady-state level of StAR mRNA which paralleled with those of the acute steroid response ( approximately 4.0-fold), as monitored by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay and progesterone production, respectively. The T3-stimulated progesterone production was effectively inhibited by actinomycin-D or cycloheximide, indicating the requirement of on-going mRNA and protein synthesis. T3 displayed the highest affinity of [125I]iodo-T3 binding and was most potent in stimulating StAR mRNA expression. In accordance, T3 significantly increased testosterone production in primary cultures of adult mouse Leydig cells. The T3 and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) effects on StAR expression were similar in magnitude and additive. Cells expressing steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) showed marginal elevation of StAR expression, but coordinately increased T3-induced StAR mRNA expression and progesterone levels. In contrast, overexpression of DAX-1 markedly diminished the SF-1 mRNA expression, and concomitantly abolished T3-mediated responses. Noteworthy, T3 augmented the SF-1 mRNA expression while inhibition of the latter by DAX-1 strongly impaired T3 action. Northern hybridization analysis revealed four StAR transcripts which increased 3-6-fold following T3 stimulation. These observations clearly identified a regulatory cascade of thyroid hormone-stimulated StAR expression and steroidogenesis that provides novel insight into the importance of a thyroid-gonadal connection in the hormonal control of Leydig cell steroidogenesis. (+info)
Enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis is associated with increased expression of the mitochondrial ATP-dependent Lon protease.
Rats bearing the Zajdela hepatoma tumor and T3-treated hypothyroid rats were used to study the role of protein degradation in the process of mitochondrial biogenesis. It was shown that the activity, protein and mRNA levels of the ATP-dependent Lon protease increased in rapidly growing Zajdela hepatoma cells. The increase in the rate of mitochondrial biogenesis by thyroid hormone was similarly accompanied by enhanced expression of the Lon protease. The results imply that mitochondrial biogenesis in mammalian cells is, at least partially, regulated by the matrix Lon protease. (+info)
Expression of uncoupling protein-3 and mitochondrial activity in the transition from hypothyroid to hyperthyroid state in rat skeletal muscle.
We sought a correlation between rat skeletal muscle triiodothyronine (T3)-mediated regulation of uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) expression and mitochondrial activity. UCP3 mRNA expression increased strongly during the hypothyroid-hyperthyroid transition. The rank order of mitochondrial State 3 and State 4 respiration rates was hypothyroid < euthyroid < hyperthyroid. The State 4 increase may have been due to the increased UCP3 expression, as the proton leak kinetic was stimulated in the hypothyroid-hyperthyroid transition and a good correlation exists between the State 4 and UCP3 mRNA level. As a significant proportion of an organism's resting oxygen consumption is dedicated to opposing the proton leak, skeletal muscle mitochondrial UCP3 may mediate part of T3's effect on energy metabolism. (+info)
Thyroid hormone receptor-associated proteins and general positive cofactors mediate thyroid hormone receptor function in the absence of the TATA box-binding protein-associated factors of TFIID.
Coactivators previously implicated in ligand-dependent activation functions by thyroid hormone receptor (TR) include p300 and CREB-binding protein (CBP), the steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1)-related family of proteins, and the multicomponent TR-associated protein (TRAP) complex. Here we show that two positive cofactors (PC2 and PC4) derived from the upstream stimulatory activity (USA) cofactor fraction act synergistically to mediate thyroid hormone (T3)-dependent activation either by TR or by a TR-TRAP complex in an in vitro system reconstituted with purified factors and DNA templates. Significantly, the TRAP-mediated enhancement of activation by TR does not require the TATA box-binding protein-associated factors of TFIID. Furthermore, neither the pleiotropic coactivators CBP and p300 nor members of the SRC-1 family were detected in either the TR-TRAP complex or the other components of the in vitro assay system. These results show that activation by TR at the level of naked DNA templates is enhanced by cooperative functions of the TRAP coactivators and the general coactivators PC2 and PC4, and they further indicate a potential functional redundancy between TRAPs and TATA box-binding protein-associated factors in TFIID. In conjunction with earlier studies on other nuclear receptor-interacting cofactors, the present study also suggests a multistep pathway, involving distinct sets of cofactors, for activation of hormone responsive genes. (+info)
Stimulation of Na,K-ATPase by hypothyroidism in the thyroid gland.
Although studies have documented the regulatory effects of thyroid hormones on the Na,K-ATPase in peripheral tissues, there is little information on the regulation of this transporter in the thyroid gland itself. Accordingly, we investigated the effects of thyroid status on Na,K-ATPase specific activity and the abundance of its constituent subunits in rat thyroid. Exogenous tri-iodothyronine (T3) was administered daily to produce hyperthyroidism. 6n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU), an inhibitor of thyroid hormone synthesis, was used to induce hypothyroidism. There was a four-fold increase in Na,K-ATPase specific activity in the follicular membranes from PTU-treated animals after 7 days. Enzymatic activities were not changed in the T3-treated glands. Immunoblotting of membranes from T3-treated rats revealed a 75% reduction in alpha1 subunit abundance and a slight, but nonsignificant reduction in beta1 abundance. On the other hand, the membranes from PTU-treated rats displayed 136 and 567% increases in the abundance of the alpha1 and beta1 subunits respectively. These data demonstrate that thyroid hormone status regulates Na,K-ATPase in the gland, but the effects are in direct contrast to those seen in the periphery. (+info)
Xenopus cytosolic thyroid hormone-binding protein (xCTBP) is aldehyde dehydrogenase catalyzing the formation of retinoic acid.
Amino acid sequencing of an internal peptide fragment derived from purified Xenopus cytosolic thyroid hormone-binding protein (xCTBP) demonstrates high similarity to the corresponding sequence of mammalian aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) (Yamauchi, K., and Tata, J. R. (1994) Eur. J. Biochem. 225, 1105-1112). Here we show that xCTBP was co-purified with ALDH and 3,3',5-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) binding activities. By photoaffinity labeling with [125I]T3, a T3-binding site in the xCTBP was estimated to reside in amino acid residues 93-114, which is distinct from the active site of the enzyme but present in the NAD+ binding domain. The amino acid sequences deduced from the two isolated xALDH1 cDNAs (xALDH1-I and xALDH1-II) were 94.6% identical to each other and very similar to those of mammalian ALDH1 enzymes. The two recombinant xALDH1 proteins exhibit both T3 binding activity and ALDH activity converting retinal to retinoic acid (RA), which are similar to those of xCTBP. The mRNAs were present abundantly in kidney and intestine of adult female Xenopus. Interestingly, their T3 binding activities were inhibited by NAD+ and NADH but not by NADP+ and NADPH, whereas NAD+ was required for their ALDH activities. Our results demonstrate that xCTBP is identical to ALDH1 and suggest that this protein might modulate RA synthesis and intracellular level of free T3. (+info)