Predicting insecticide resistance: mutagenesis, selection and response.
Strategies to manage resistance to a particular insecticide have usually been devised after resistance has evolved. If it were possible to predict likely resistance mechanisms to novel insecticides before they evolved in the field, it might be feasible to have programmes that manage susceptibility. With this approach in mind, single-gene variants of the Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina, resistant to dieldrin, diazinon and malathion, were selected in the laboratory after mutagenesis of susceptible strains. The genetic and molecular bases of resistance in these variants were identical to those that had previously evolved in natural populations. Given this predictive capacity for known resistances, the approach was extended to anticipate possible mechanisms of resistance to cyromazine, an insecticide to which L. cuprina populations remain susceptible after almost 20 years of exposure. Analysis of the laboratory-generated resistant variants provides an explanation for this observation. The variants show low levels of resistance and a selective advantage over susceptibles for only a limited concentration range. These results are discussed in the context of the choice of insecticides for control purposes and of delivery strategies to minimize the evolution of resistance. (+info)
An allosteric synthetic DNA.
Allosteric DNA oligonucleotides are potentially useful diagnostic reagents. Here we develop a model system for the study of allosteric interactions in DNAs. A DNA that binds either Cibacron blue or cholic acid was isolated and partially characterized. Isolation was performed using a multi-stage SELEX. First, short oligos that bind either Cibacron blue or cholic acid were enriched from random oligonucleotide pools. Then, members of the two pools were fused to form longer oligos, which were then selected for theability to bind Cibacron blue columns and elute with cholic acid. One resulting isolate (A22) was studied. Dye- and cholate-binding functions can be separated on sequences from the 5'- and 3'-regions, respectively. Ligand-column affinity assays indicate that each domain binds only its respective ligand. However, the full-length A22 will bind either dye or cholate columns and elute with the other ligand, as if binding by the ligands is mutually exclusive. Furthermore, S1 nuclease protection assays show that Cibacron blue causes a structural change in A22 and that cholic acid inhibits this change. This system will be useful for elucidating mechanisms of allosteric interactions in synthetic DNAs. (+info)
Intrinsic efficacy of proguanil against falciparum and vivax malaria independent of the metabolite cycloguanil.
Mutations in human CYP2C19 and parasite dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) genes, related to poor metabolism of proguanil and resistance to cycloguanil, respectively, have both been assumed to be associated with poor antimalarial effect by proguanil. To study this, 95 subjects with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax infections in Vanuatu received proguanil treatment for 3 days (adult relative dose of 300-500 mg/day) and were followed up for 28 days. A similarly high antimalarial efficacy against both infections was observed in 62 patients with CYP2C19-related poor metabolizer genotype and in 33 with extensive metabolizer genotype, even though blood cycloguanil was significantly more often detected in those with extensive metabolizer genotype than in those with poor metabolizer genotype. All 28 P. falciparum isolates had two dhfr mutations (residues 59 and 108), suggesting moderate resistance to cycloguanil. The results suggest that the parent compound proguanil has significant intrinsic efficacy against falciparum and vivax malaria independent of the metabolite cycloguanil. (+info)
Synthesis, anti-HIV and anticancer activities of new 4-(2-mercaptobenzenesulfonyl)perhydro-1,2,4-triazin-3-ones.
Syntheses of N-(6-chloro-1,1-dioxo-7-R1-1,4,2-benzodithiazyn-3-yl)-N'-(2- hydroxyethyl)hydrazines (IIa-d], N-(6-chloro-1,1-dioxo-7-methyl-1,4,2-benzodithiazyn-3-yl)-N'-(2- chloroethyl)hydrazine [IV], 4-(4-chloro-5-R1-2-mercaptobenzenesulfonyl)perhydro-1,2,4-triaz in-3-ones [IIIa-d] and 5-chloro-4-methyl-2-(3-oxoperhydro-1,2,4-triazin-4- ylsulfonyl)phenylthioacetic acid [V] have been described. Preliminary screening data have indicated that compounds [IIIa-d] exhibit either a moderate or a high anti-HIV activity and a moderate anticancer activity in some human tumor cell lines. (+info)
Lamotrigine attenuates cortical glutamate release during global cerebral ischemia in pigs on cardiopulmonary bypass.
BACKGROUND: The dose-response effects of pretreatment with lamotrigine (a phenyltriazine derivative that inhibits neuronal glutamate release) in a porcine cerebral ischemia model during cardiopulmonary bypass were studied. METHODS: Sagittal sinus catheters and cortical microdialysis catheters were inserted into anesthetized pigs. Animals undergoing normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass were pretreated with lamotrigine 0, 10, 25, or 50 mg/kg (n = 10 per group). Fifteen minutes of global cerebral ischemia was produced, followed by 40 min of reperfusion and discontinuation of cardiopulmonary bypass. Cerebral oxygen metabolism was calculated using cerebral blood flow (radioactive microspheres) and arterial-venous oxygen content gradients. Concentrations of microdialysate glutamate and aspartate were quantified; electroencephalographic signals were recorded. After cardiopulmonary bypass, blood and cerebrospinal fluid were sampled for S-100B protein, and a biopsy was performed on the cerebral cortex for metabolic profile. RESULTS: Lamotrigine caused dose-dependent reductions in systemic vascular resistance so that additional fluid was required to maintain venous return. Concentrations of glutamate and aspartate did not change during reperfusion after 50 mg/kg lamotrigine in contrast to fivefold and twofold increases, respectively, with lower doses. There were no intergroup differences in cerebral metabolism, electroencephalographic scores, cortical metabolites, brain lactate, or S-100B protein concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood. CONCLUSIONS: Lamotrigine 50 mg/kg significantly attenuated excitatory neurotransmitter release during normothermic cerebral ischemia during cardiopulmonary bypass without improving other neurologic parameters. Lamotrigine caused arterial and venous dilation, which limits its clinical usefulness. (+info)
Adjunctive therapy in epilepsy: a cost-effectiveness comparison of two AEDs.
The objective of this study was to compare the relative cost-effectiveness of two AEDs by a prospective clinical audit. Patients starting on the adjunctive therapies lamotrigine and topiramate were recruited from the out-patient epilepsy clinics at Queen Square. Three interview were scheduled: baseline; three months follow-up and six months from baseline. Of the 81 patients recruited, a total of 73 patients completed all three interviews. An intention to treat analysis was performed on the data. Seizure severity and frequency were assessed using the National Hospital Seizure Severity Scale. Side-effects, adverse events and reasons for stopping medication were also recorded. At the third interview, a total of 47/73 (64%) were still on the prescribed adjunctive drug. Outcome was assessed by two methods: the > 50% seizure reduction cited in the literature and a more stringent assessment of patient 'satisfaction' which we defined operationally on clinical criteria. Using this definition, a total of 10/73 (14%) patients were 'satisfied'. The relative costs of starting patients on each of the two AEDs were calculated, both drug costs and the costs of adverse events (the latter were defined as events requiring urgent medical attention). The costs of the two drugs were compared. A number of methodological issues relating to cost comparison are discussed. Outcome and pharmaco-economic studies need to assess more than reduction in number of seizures. They should take into account variables important for quality of life including side-effects and adverse events. (+info)
An in vitro electrophysiological study on the effects of phenytoin, lamotrigine and gabapentin on striatal neurons.
We performed intracellular recordings from a rat corticostriatal slice preparation in order to compare the electrophysiological effects of the classical antiepileptic drug (AED) phenytoin (PHT) and the new AEDs lamotrigine (LTG) and gabapentin (GBP) on striatal neurons. PHT, LTG and GBP affected neither the resting membrane potential nor the input resistance/membrane conductance of the recorded cells. In contrast, these agents depressed in a dose-dependent and reversible manner the current-evoked repetitive firing discharge. These AEDs also reduced the amplitude of glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) evoked by cortical stimulation. However, substantial pharmacological differences between these drugs were found. PHT was the most effective and potent agent in reducing sustained repetitive firing of action potentials, whereas LTG and GBP preferentially inhibited corticostriatal excitatory transmission. Concentrations of LTG and GBP effective in reducing EPSPs, in fact, produced only a slight inhibition of the firing activity of these cells. LTG, but not PHT and GBP, depressed cortically-evoked EPSPs increasing paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) of synaptic transmission, suggesting that a presynaptic site of action was implicated in the effect of this drug. Accordingly, PHT and GBP, but not LTG reduced the membrane depolarizations induced by exogenously-applied glutamate, suggesting that these drugs preferentially reduce postsynaptic sensitivity to glutamate released from corticostriatal terminals. These data indicate that in the striatum PHT, LTG and GBP decrease neuronal excitability by modulating multiple sites of action. The preferential modulation of excitatory synaptic transmission may represent the cellular substrate for the therapeutic effects of new AEDs whose use may be potentially extended to the therapy of neurodegenerative diseases involving the basal ganglia. (+info)
Comparative 99mTc-sestamibi and 3H-daunomycin uptake in human carcinoma cells: relation to the MDR phenotype and effects of reversing agents.
Because 99mTc-sestamibi (MIBI) appears to be a potent candidate for multidrug resistance (MDR) evaluation in tumors, its cellular uptake should be similar to that of 3H-daunomycin in a variety of conditions of expression and inhibition of MDR activity. METHODS: We used a human rhinopharyngeal carcinoma cell line (KB-3-1) and its MDR variant (KB-A1). Cells were incubated 2 h with 99mTc-MIBI and 3H-daunomycin under control conditions or in the presence of a reversing agent such as verapamil (10 pmol/L), PSC833 (1 micromol/L) or S9788 (5 micromol/L). RESULTS: Relative to the KB-3-1-sensitive cells, accumulations of 99mTc-MIBI and 3H-daunomycin were reduced to 31% +/- 5% and 36% +/- 11% (P < 0.001 for both) in KB-A1-resistant cells. In sensitive cells, accumulation of both agents was increased by verapamil and PSC833 (range 115%-140%; P < 0.05) but not by S9788. In KB-A1 cells, only S9788 significantly increased the cellular uptake of 99mTc-MIBI (138% +/- 25%; P < 0.01), whereas the intracellular uptake of 3H-daunomycin was markedly increased with the three reversing agents (up to 311% +/- 37% with S9788; P < 0.001). With this last treatment, uptake of 3H-daunomycin in KB-A1 cells nearly returned to its basal level in sensitive cells. CONCLUSION: 99mTc-MIBI monitors the MDR phenotype of tumor cells effectively but responds to reversing agents differently than 3H-daunomycin. (+info)