Effects of novel ethacrynic acid derivatives on human trabecular meshwork cell shape, actin cytoskeletal organization, and transcellular fluid flow.
To determine efficacy and therapeutic index in the context of ocular hypotensive activity of the new ethacrynic acid (ECA) derivatives of the series (SA8,248 and SA8,389), 9,000 series (SA9,000, SA9,622 and SA9,995) and ticrynafen, we undertook a comparative evaluation of the dose-dependent effects of these compounds on human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cell shape, actin cytoskeletal organization, focal adhesions and transcellular fluid flow. Responses were either scored using an arbitrary scale of 1-5 or quantified. Compounds of the 9000 series (SA9,995>SA9,000>SA9,622) were found to be 14- to 20-fold more potent than ECA, ticrynafen or analogs from the 8,000 series (SA8,389>SA8,248) in terms of ability to induce cell shape alterations in HTM cells. Similarly, compounds of the 9,000 series (SA9,995>SA9,622>SA9,000) were found to be much stronger (2 to 20 fold) than ECA, ticrynafen or analogs of the 8000 series in terms of affecting decreases in actin stress fiber content in HTM cells. Analogs of the 9000 series (SA9,622>SA9,995>SA9,000) were also observed to be 8 to 10 fold more potent than ECA (SA8,389>ECA>SA8,248>ticrynafen) at eliciting decreases in cellular focal adhesions. Interestingly, analogs of the 9000 series (SA9,000>SA9,622>SA9,995) and SA8,248 demonstrated a huge increase (by many folds) in transcellular fluid flow of HTM cell monolayers as compared to ECA and ticrynafen. Collectively, these analyses revealed that the structural modification of ECA improves its ocular hypotensive efficacy, indicating that the SA9,000 series compounds might be promising novel ocular hypotensive drugs. (+info)
Tienilic acid enhances hyperbilirubinemia in Eisai hyperbilirubinuria rats through hepatic multidrug resistance-associated protein 3 and heme oxygenase-1 induction.
We demonstrated that tienilic acid, a diuretic drug withdrawn from the market because of hepatic failure, enhanced hyperbilirubinemia in Eisai hyperbilirubinuria rats (EHBR) with a defect of canalicular multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2). In contrast, no remarkable changes were noted in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, the parent strain for EHBR. To investigate a mechanism underlying this enhanced hyperbilirubinemia, we focused on comprehensive effects of tienilic acid on clinicopathological aspects and expression of hepatic transporters. Other than eventual hyperbilirubinemia with slightly increased biliary bilirubin, a single oral treatment of EHBR with tienilic acid at 300 mg/kg caused no changes in serum alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase, bile flow rate and biliary bile acid secretion, or hepatic morphology. In analyses of mRNA expression of the hepatic transporters, elevated Mrp3 expression in EHBR correlated with an increase in serum total bilirubin, suggesting increased bilirubin transport from the liver into the peripheral blood flow. Hepatic heme oxygenase-1 (Ho-1) mRNA, a stress-induced isoform of the rate-limiting enzyme in the catabolism of heme to bilirubin, was markedly upregulated in EHBR at the same dose at which increased serum bilirubin was seen. A time-course study revealed that marked induction of Ho-1 occurred earlier than that of Mrp3, followed by an increase in serum bilirubin. These results suggest that hepatic Mrp3 and Ho-1 may contribute to tienilic acid-enhanced hyperbilirubinemia in EHBR by inducing increased bilirubin transport from the liver into the blood stream, preceded by potentiation of bilirubin formation in the liver. (+info)
Evaluation of time-dependent cytochrome P450 inhibition using cultured human hepatocytes.
Primary human hepatocytes in culture are commonly used to evaluate cytochrome P450 (P450) induction via an enzyme activity endpoint. However, other processes can confound data interpretation. To this end, the impact of time-dependent P450 inhibition in this system was evaluated. Using a substrate-cassette approach, P450 activities were determined after incubation with the prototypic inhibitors tienilic acid (CYP2C9), erythromycin, troleandomycin, and fluoxetine (CYP3A4). Kinetic analysis of enzyme inactivation in hepatocytes was used to describe the effect of these time-dependent inhibitors and derive the inhibition parameters kinact and KI) which generally were in good agreement with the values derived using recombinant P450s and human liver microsomes (HLMs). Tienilic acid selectively inhibited CYP2C9-dependent diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation activity, and erythromycin, troleandomycin, and fluoxetine inhibited CYP3A4-dependent midazolam 1'-hydroxylation in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Fluoxetine also inhibited CYP2C19-dependent S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in hepatocytes, HLMs, and recombinant CYP2C19 (KI 0.4 microM and kinact 0.5 min(-1)). As expected, the effect of fluoxetine on CYP2D6 in hepatocytes was consistent with potent yet reversible inhibition. A very weak time-dependent CYP2C9 inhibitor (AZ1, a proprietary AstraZeneca compound; KI 30 microM and kinact 0.02 min(-1)) effectively abolished CYP2C9 activity over 24 h at low (micromolar) concentrations in primary cultured human hepatocytes. This work demonstrates that caution is warranted in the interpretation of enzyme induction studies with metabolically stable, weak time-dependent inhibitors, which may have dramatic inhibitory effects on P450 activity in this system. Therefore, in addition to enzyme activity, mRNA and/or protein levels should be measured to fully evaluate the P450 induction potential of a drug candidate. (+info)
Markers of electrophilic stress caused by chemically reactive metabolites in human hepatocytes.