Katz's quantitative modification of Angle's occlusion classification has been found to have a high intra- and inter-examiner agreement among orthodontists. In the present study an attempt was made to introduce a 'combined' system comprising Katz's modification and overjet/overbite millimetric measurements in order to attain a more meaningful and complete classification of malocclusion than is presently available. A group of 32 raters (16 orthodontists and 16 senior-year students) examined 14 study models twice, with an interval of at least 1 month between examinations. In total, 448 x 2 determinations were performed. The percentage agreement of the Angle, the modified and the 'combined' systems, as well as the performance of the orthodontists versus the students were compared using the paired t-test. The percentage agreement obtained by both orthodontists and students was highest for Katz's modification and lowest for Angle's method. The overjet/overbite measurements affected the agreement in Katz's modified technique. The orthodontists surpassed the students with respect to Angle's method (P = 0.025), whereas no statistically significant difference existed between orthodontists and students regarding Katz's modification or the 'combined' system. It is concluded that in view of the relatively low agreement in the 'combined' method, it cannot be recommended for clinical application. The Katz's modified method, on the other hand, may be a helpful supplement to Angle's classification. (+info)
The changing face of dental education: the impact of PBL.
The past decade has seen increasing demands for reform of dental education that would produce a graduate better equipped to work in the rapidly changing world of the twenty-first century. Among the most notable curriculum changes implemented in dental schools is a move toward Problem-Based Learning (PBL). PBL, in some form, has been a feature of medical education for several decades, but has only recently been introduced into dental schools. This paper discusses the rationale for the introduction of a PBL pedagogy into dental education, the modalities of PBL being introduced, and the implications of the introduction of PBL into dental schools. Matters related to implementation, faculty development, admissions, and assessment are addressed. Observations derived from a parallel-track dental PBL curriculum at the University of Southern California (USC) are presented and discussed. This program conforms to the Barrows (1998) concept of "authentic PBL" in that the program has no scheduled lectures and maintains a PBL pedagogy for all four years of the curriculum. The USC dental students working in the PBL curriculum have attained a high level of achievement on U.S. National Dental Boards (Part I) examinations, significantly superior to their peers working in a traditional lecture-based curriculum. (+info)
The EXCEL Program: strengthening diversity.
The Boston University Henry M. Goldman School of Dental Medicine (BUSDM) initiated a program in the summer of 1993 to strengthen diversity in the entering class of first-year students. The Experiential Center for Excellence in Learning (EXCEL) Program is a voluntary, one-month-long prematriculation experience that combines didactic, laboratory, study skills, and social activities to prepare participants to transition into the rigorous first-year curriculum. From 1996 to 2000, ninety students participated in EXCEL. The two primary reasons cited for participating were to become familiar with the school, faculty, and classmates and to strengthen basic science background. Participants' ages ranged from twenty to over forty. Fifty-nine percent of participants had been out of college for more than one year; 10 percent had been out of school for three years or more. Thirty percent listed nontraditional predental school majors. Fifty-six percent listed a country other than the United States as country of birth. Of those completing an exit survey, 96 percent reported that EXCEL strengthened their decision to study dentistry, and 97 percent would recommend that future entering BUSDM students participate in EXCEL. The EXCEL Program may serve as a model for increasing diversity in U.S. dental school enrollment. (+info)
Occupational exposures to blood in a dental teaching environment: results of a ten-year surveillance study.
Evaluation of occupational exposures can assist with practice modifications, redesign of equipment, and targeted educational efforts. The data presented in this report has been collected as part of a ten-year surveillance program of occupational exposures to blood or other potentially infectious materials in a large dental teaching institution. From 1987 to 1997, a total of 504 percutaneous/non-intact skin and mucous membrane exposures were documented. Of these, 494 (98 percent) were percutaneous, and 10 (2 percent) were mucosal, each involving a splash to the eye of the dental care worker (DCW). Among the 504 exposures, 414 (82.1 percent) occurred among dental students, 60 (11.9 percent) among staff, and 30 (6 percent) among faculty. One hundred ninety-one (37.9 percent) exposures were superficial (no bleeding), 260 (51.6 percent) were moderate (some bleeding), and 53 (10.5 percent) were deep (heavy bleeding). Regarding the circumstances of exposure, 279 (54.5 percent) of the injuries occurred post-operatively (after the use of the device), and most were related to instrument clean-up; 210 (41.0 percent) occurred intra-operatively (during the use of the device); and 23 (4.5 percent) occurred when a DCW collided with a sharp object in the dental operatory (eight cases involved more than one circumstance). The overall exposure rate for the college was 2.46+/-0.11 SD per 10,000 patient visits. The average rate for the student population was 4.02+/-0.20 SD per 100 person-years, with the highest rates being observed among junior year students. The observed rates of occupational exposures to blood and body fluids in this report are consistent with published reports from several other educational settings. Dental teaching institutions are faced with the unique challenge of protecting the student and patient populations against bloodborne infections. Educational efforts must go beyond mere teaching of universal precautions and should include the introduction of safer products and clinical procedures that can minimize the risks associated with the hands-on aspects of the students' learning process. (+info)
Student operator-assistant pairs: an update.
OBJECTIVE: To seek the opinions of undergraduates using the operator-assistant pairs system. DESIGN: A five-year evaluation of third-, fourth- and fifth-year students using a short, anonymous questionnaire OUTCOME MEASURES: This study set out to evaluate, but does not attempt to formally assess, the system. RESULT: Most students enjoyed working in pairs, citing mutual support and collaborative learning as being the main advantages. However, 67% of responding third- year students, 79% of fourth-year students and 54% of fifth-year students indicated that they did not know why paired working had been introduced. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of students found the pairs system advantageous over teacher-led situations. It encouraged greater efficiency, mutual support and help and collaborative learning. (+info)
Teaching ethics in dental schools: trends, techniques, and targets.
The importance of promoting ethical behavior in dental students is reflected in the emphasis on formal ethics teaching within the curricula of most dental schools. Over the last three decades, dental educators have addressed the need for ethics training and examined varied teaching approaches. Today, state-of-the-art ethics education has moved from purely didactic instruction to more interactional teaching methods that promote student introspection and group problem-solving. This paper provides an overview of trends in ethics teaching in dental schools and the current teaching approaches advocated in health science schools. In addition, future needs in dental ethics education are explored including the importance of addressing the unique aspects of the dental education environment. (+info)
Perceptions of the importance and control of professional problems in the clinical setting.
The objective of this study was to identify the relative importance of culturally relevant professional problems and the degree of control over them, as perceived by dentists and dental students in Mexico City, Mexico. The dentists and students ranked 13 problems according to importance and then according to the perceived degree of control over each one. Novice clinicians were less secure about their ability to cope with the legal, financial, and clinical performance problems, whereas experienced clinicians were more concerned about occupational hazards and the dental market and culture. Both reported similar perceptions of their control of the problems. This preliminary information should support introducing into dental schools relevant practice-management courses, targeting continuing education efforts, and instituting professional counseling measures to meet the challenges posed by these problems. (+info)
Validation of an instrument to measure dental students' use of, knowledge about, and attitudes towards computers.
Currently, no validated survey instrument exists to measure dental students' use of, knowledge about, and attitudes towards computers. Several studies have surveyed students about their knowledge and opinions regarding computers, but none of them has established the reliability and validity of the instrument(s) used. A measurement study to validate a preliminary survey for dental students was conducted. The preliminary instrument contained five scales: computer use, information resource use, computer knowledge, capabilities of computer systems, and effects of computers on dental practice. Selected variables were summarized descriptively, and a factor analysis for each scale was performed. In addition, construct validity was assessed through correlational analyses among several variables. Three hundred seventy surveys distributed to students at nine dental schools generated 156 responses (42 percent response rate). Sixty-four percent of respondents were male, 36 percent female. Respondents used computers an average approximately four hours per week, and most had begun using computers in 1991. All survey scales except computer use were unidimensional. Computer use required a two-factor solution that distinguished between clinical and nonclinical uses of computers. The instrument can be used for a demonstration study, but should be continuously refined and validated. (+info)