Mutant p53 can provoke apoptosis in p53-deficient Hep3B cells with delayed kinetics relative to wild-type p53.
Wild-type (wt) p53 frequently induces apoptosis when expressed in tumor cells whereas mutant p53 acts as an oncoprotein and consequently, stimulates cell proliferation. We report here exceptions to that rule. p53 conformational mutant 175H and DNA contact mutant 273H provoke apoptosis in human p53-deficient Hep3B hepatoma cells with delayed kinetics relative to wt p53. Similarly, c-Myc strongly stimulates apoptosis in these cells. In contrast, viral oncoproteins E1A and E7, and the cellular oncoprotein MDM-2, fail to elicit cytocidal responses. Efficient apoptotic cell death by mutant p53 requires oligomerization as 175H and 273H with deletions between amino acid residues 326 and 347 of the oligomerization domain are nontoxic. Apoptosis by mutant or wt p53 was significantly inhibited by the serine protease inhibitor AEBSF but not by the inactive analog AEBSA. Together, these results suggest that a wt p53-independent control mechanism is operational in Hep3B cells that eliminates cells upon sensing illegitimate proliferation signals originating from certain oncoproteins, including mutant p53 and Myc. We suggest that some tumor cell types lack p53 altogether because they tolerate neither wild-type nor mutant forms of the protein. (+info)
Adenosine inhibits the transfected Na+-H+ exchanger NHE3 in Xenopus laevis renal epithelial cells (A6/C1).
1. Adenosine influences the vectorial transport of Na+ and HCO3- across kidney epithelial cells. However, its action on effector proteins, such as the Na+-H+ exchanger NHE3, an epithelial brush border isoform of the Na+-H+ exchanger (NHE) gene family, is not yet defined. 2. The present study was conducted in Xenopus laevis distal nephron A6 epithelia which express both an apical adenosine receptor of the A1 type (coupled to protein kinase C (PKC)) and a basolateral receptor of the A2 type (coupled to protein kinase A (PKA)). The untransfected A6 cell line expresses a single NHE type (XNHE) which is restricted to the basolateral membrane and which is activated by PKA. 3. A6 cell lines were generated which express exogenous rat NHE3. Measurements of side-specific pHi recovery from acid loads in the presence of HOE694 (an inhibitor with differential potency towards individual NHE isoforms) detected an apical resistant Na+-H+ exchange only in transfected cell lines. The sensitivity of the basolateral NHE to HOE694 was unchanged, suggesting that exogenous NHE3 was restricted to the apical membrane. 4. Stimulation of the apical A1 receptor with N 6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) inhibited both apical NHE3 and basolateral XNHE. These effects were mimicked by the addition of the protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and partially prevented by the PKC inhibitor calphostin C which also blocked the effect of PMA. 5. Stimulation of the basolateral A2 receptor with CPA inhibited apical NHE3 and stimulated basolateral XNHE. These effects were mimicked by 8-bromo-cAMP and partially prevented by the PKA inhibitor H89 which entirely blocked the effect of 8-bromo-cAMP. 6. In conclusion, CPA inhibits rat NHE3 expressed apically in A6 epithelia via both the apical PKC-coupled A1 and the basolateral PKA-coupled A2 adenosine receptors. (+info)
Effects of prostaglandin F2 alpha on intracellular pH, intracellular calcium, cell shortening and L-type calcium currents in rat myocytes.
OBJECTIVE: We have studied the mechanisms underlying the positive inotropic action of prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) by monitoring intracellular calcium transients, intracellular pH, L-type calcium currents and cell shortening in isolated ventricular myocytes. METHODS: Rat myocytes were loaded with fura-2AM for intracellular calcium measurements, or BCECF-AM for pH measurements. Cell shortening was recorded using an edge detection system, and L-type calcium currents measured using whole cell patch clamping. RESULTS: PGF2 alpha (3 nmol l-1-3 mumol l-1 increased single myocyte shortening and reduced resting cell length in a concentration-dependent manner. While myocyte shortening was increased by PGF2 alpha, this was not associated with any change in the amplitude of intracellular calcium transients, diastolic calcium, or L-type calcium currents. However, the same myocytes were capable of responding to catecholamines with increases in calcium transient amplitude and L-type calcium currents. PGF2 alpha (3 mumol l-1 caused a reversible rise in intracellular pH of 0.08 +/- 0.01 pH units (n = 5, p < 0.05). The Na(+)-H+ exchanger inhibitor, HOE 694 (10 mumol l-1, abolished the PGF2 alpha-induced rise in pH and the increase in cell shortening. PGF2 alpha-induced increases in cell shortening and intracellular pH were also attenuated by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, chelerythrine (2 mumol l-1. CONCLUSION: The positive inotropic action of PGF2 alpha appears to be mediated via activation of the Na(+)-H+ exchanger with the possible involvement of PKC. This suggests that PGF2 alpha-produces intracellular alkalosis, which then sensitizes cardiac myofilaments to calcium. (+info)
Implication of endogenous nitric oxide in gastric mucosal protective effect of T-593, a novel anti-ulcer agent, in rats.
The relationship of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) to the gastric mucosal protective effect of the novel anti-ulcer agent T-593, (+/-)-(E)-1-[2-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]-3-[2-[[[5-(methylamino) methyl-2-furyl]methyl]thio]ethyl]-2-(methylsulfonyl) guanidine, was investigated in rats. T-593 (3-30 mg/kg, p.o.) dose dependently prevented the formation of gastric mucosal lesions induced by oral administration of aspirin (200 mg/kg) in 0.15 N HCl (HCl-aspirin). Pretreatment with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME), a selective inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS), attenuated the mucosal protective effect of T-593. This effect of L-NAME was antagonized by pretreatment with L-arginine, a substrate of NOS, but not with D-arginine. Activity of total NOS composed of inducible and constitutive NOS in the gastric mucosa was decreased by HCl-aspirin, and T-593 inhibited this decrease. On the other hand, HCl-aspirin and T-593 did not affect inducible NOS activity in the gastric mucosa. Furthermore, we confirmed that T-593 inhibits the decrease in gastric mucosal blood flow (GMBF) induced by HCl-aspirin, and this effect is completely inhibited by pretreatment with L-NAME. These results suggest that the mucosal protective effect of T-593 is partly mediated by endogenous NO via improvement of GMBF and that a possible mechanism for the effect of T-593 is the maintenance of constitutive NOS activity in gastric mucosa. (+info)
Cytochrome P-450-dependent bioactivation of 1,1-dichloroethylene to a reactive epoxide in human lung and liver microsomes.
We investigated the cytochrome P-450-dependent metabolism of 1, 1-dichloroethylene (DCE) by human lung and liver microsomes and compared the results from analogous experiments in mice. Metabolites were identified by HPLC analysis of their glutathione conjugates and/or hydrolyzed products and were detected by using [14C]DCE. The role of human CYP2E1 in the metabolic reactions was examined by comparing p-nitrophenol hydroxylase activities with levels of metabolites formed and by using the CYP2E1-selective inhibitor diallyl sulfone. The major products formed in microsomal incubations containing NADPH were the DCE-epoxide-derived glutathione conjugates 2-(S-glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione and 2-S-glutathionyl acetate. Lower levels of the acetal of 2,2-dichloroacetaldehyde were also detected. In lung samples from eight patients, the amounts of epoxide-derived conjugates formed ranged from 15.6 +/- 4.23 to 34.9 +/- 12.75 pmol/mg protein/min. The levels in murine lung were higher at 40.0 +/- 3.8 pmol/mg protein/min. In liver samples from five patients, conjugate levels ranged from 46.5 +/- 8.3 to 240.0 +/- 10. 5 pmol/mg protein/min, whereas levels in murine liver were 83.0 +/- 6.2 pmol/mg protein/min. Conjugate levels formed in human liver correlated with the relative levels of p-nitrophenol hydroxylase activity present, but this relationship was equivocal in human lung. Diallyl sulfone inhibited the formation of the glutathione conjugates (20-65%) in liver samples from all four patients, whereas only one of five human lung samples exhibited this inhibition (27%). These results demonstrated that the DCE-epoxide is a major metabolite formed by human microsomes and is mediated by CYP2E1 in liver and in some individuals in lung. (+info)
Effects of specific inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 on sodium balance, hemodynamics, and vasoactive eicosanoids.
Conventional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs inhibit both cyclooxygenase (Cox) isoforms (Cox-1 and Cox-2) and may be associated with nephrotoxicity. The present study was undertaken to assess the renal effects of the specific Cox-2 inhibitor, MK-966. Healthy older adults (n = 36) were admitted to a clinical research unit, placed on a fixed sodium intake, and randomized under double-blind conditions to receive the specific Cox-2 inhibitor, MK-966 (50 mg every day), a nonspecific Cox-1/Cox-2 inhibitor, indomethacin (50 mg t.i.d.), or placebo for 2 weeks. All treatments were well tolerated. Both active regimens were associated with a transient but significant decline in urinary sodium excretion during the first 72 h of treatment. Blood pressure and body weight did not change significantly in any group. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was decreased by indomethacin but was not changed significantly by MK-966 treatment. Thromboxane biosynthesis by platelets was inhibited by indomethacin only. The urinary excretion of the prostacyclin metabolite 2,3-dinor-6-keto prostaglandin F1alpha was decreased by both MK-966 and indomethacin and was unchanged by placebo. Cox-2 may play a role in the systemic biosynthesis of prostacyclin in healthy humans. Selective inhibition of Cox-2 by MK-966 caused a clinically insignificant and transient retention of sodium, but no depression of GFR. Inhibition of both Cox isoforms by indomethacin caused transient sodium retention and a decline in GFR. Our data suggest that acute sodium retention by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in healthy elderly subjects is mediated by the inhibition of Cox-2, whereas depression of GFR is due to inhibition of Cox-1. (+info)
Expression and alteration of the S2 subsite of the Leishmania major cathepsin B-like cysteine protease.
The mature form of the cathepsin B-like protease of Leishmania major (LmajcatB) is a 243 amino acid protein belonging to the papain family of cysteine proteases and is 54% identical to human-liver cathepsin B. Despite the high identity and structural similarity with cathepsin B, LmajcatB does not readily hydrolyse benzyloxycarbonyl-Arg-Arg-7-amino-4-methyl coumarin (Z-Arg-Arg-AMC), which is cleaved by cathepsin B enzymes. It does, however, hydrolyse Z-Phe-Arg-AMC, a substrate typically cleaved by cathepsin L and B enzymes. Based upon computer generated protein models of LmajcatB and mammalian cathepsin B, it was predicted that this variation in substrate specificity was attributed to Gly234 at the S2 subsite of LmajcatB, which forms a larger, more hydrophobic pocket compared with mammalian cathepsin B. To test this hypothesis, recombinant LmajcatB was expressed in the Pichia pastoris yeast expression system. The quality of the recombinant enzyme was confirmed by kinetic characterization, N-terminal sequencing, and Western blot analysis. Alteration of Gly234 to Glu, which is found at the corresponding site in mammalian cathepsin B, increased recombinant LmajcatB (rLmajcatB) activity toward Z-Arg-Arg-AMC 8-fold over the wild-type recombinant enzyme (kcat/Km=3740+/-413 M-1.s-1 versus 472+/-72.4 M-1.s-1). The results of inhibition assays of rLmajcatB with an inhibitor of cathepsin L enzymes, K11002 (morpholine urea-Phe-homoPhe-vinylsulphonylphenyl, kinact/Ki=208200+/-36000 M-1. s-1), and a cathepsin B specific inhibitor, CA074 [N-(L-3-trans-propylcarbamoyloxirane-2-carbonyl)-l-isoleucyl-l- prolin e, kinact/Ki=199200+/-32900 M-1.s-1], support the findings that this protozoan protease has the P2 specificity of cathepsin L-like enzymes while retaining structural homology to mammalian cathepsin B. (+info)
Reduction of thyroid hormone levels by methylsulfonyl metabolites of tetra- and pentachlorinated biphenyls in male Sprague-Dawley rats.
Male Sprague-Dawley rats received four consecutive intraperitoneal (i.p.) doses of five kinds of methylsulfonyl (MeSO2) metabolites of tetra- and pentachlorinated biphenyls (tetra- and pentaCBs) to determine their effects on thyroid hormone levels. The five MeSO2 metabolites, which were the major MeSO2-PCBs detected in human milk, liver and adipose tissue were 3-MeSO2-2,2',4',5-tetraCB (3-MeSO2-CB49),3-MeSO2-2,3',4',5-tetraCB (3-MeSO2-CB70), 3-MeSO2-2,2',3',4',5-pentaCB (3-MeSO2-CB87), 3-MeSO2-2,2',4',5,5'-pentaCB (3-MeSO2-CB101), and 4-MeSO2-2,2',4',5,5'-pentaCB (4-MeSO2-CB101). All five tested MeSO2 metabolites (20 mumol/kg once daily for 4 days) reduced serum total thyroxine levels 16-40% on days 2, 3, 4, and 7 (after the last dosage). The total triiodothyronine level was reduced 37% by treatment with 3-MeSO2-CB49 at day 7, but was increased 35% and 38% by 3-MeSO2-CB70 and 4-MeSO2-CB101 at days 3 and 4, respectively. The reductions in thyroid hormone levels led to an increase in thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels by 3-MeSO2-CB49, 3-MeSO2-CB87 and 3-MeSO2-CB101. A 30% increase in thyroid weight was produced by 3-MeSO2-CB101 treatment. Thus, it is likely that all five tested MeSO2 metabolites could influence thyroid hormone metabolism. The results show that the tested 3- and 4-MeSO2 metabolites of tetra- and pentaCBs reduce thyroid hormone levels in rats, suggesting that the metabolites may act as endocrine-disrupters. (+info)